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" The stony rocks are not primeval, but the daughters of Time." 

LiNNiEus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 5. Stockholm, 1748, p. 219 














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Tertiary formations of Campania — Comparison of the recorded 
changes in this region with those commemorated by geological 
monuments — Dikes of Somma — Parallelism of their opposite 
sides (p. 6.)— Age of the volcanic and associated rocks of 
Campania — Organic remains — No signs of diluvial waves 
Marine Newer Pliocene strata chiefly seen in countries of earth- 
quakes (p. 16.) — Illustrations from Chili — Peru — Paralle 
roads of Coquimbo — West Indies (p. 21.) — East Indian 
archipelago — Red Sea. 


Tertiary Formations of Campania. 

C omparison of recorded changes with those commemo- 
rated by geological monuments. — In the second volume 
I traced the various changes which the volcanic region 
of Naples is known to have undergone during the last 
two thousand years ; and, imperfect as are our histori- 
cal records, the aggregate effect of igneous and aqueous 
agency, during that period, was shown to be far from 
insignificant. The rise of the modern cone of Vesu- 
vius, since the year 79, was the most memorable event 





[Book IV. 

during those twenty centuries ; but, in addition to this 
remarkable phenomenon, I enumerated the production 
of several new minor cones in Ischia, and of the Monte 
Nuovo, in the year 1538. The flowing also of lava 
currents upon the land and along the bottom of the 
sea was described, — the showering down of volcanic 
sand, pumice, and scoriae, in such abundance that whole 
cities were buried, — the filling up or shoaling of 
certain tracts of the sea, and the transportation of 
tufaceous sediment by rivers and land floods. I also 
explained the evidence in proof of a permanent alter- 
ation of the relative levels of the land and sea in 
several places, and of the same tract having, near 
Puzzuoli, been alternately upheaved and depressed to 
the amount of more than twenty feet. In connection 
with these convulsions, I pointed oat that, on the 
shores of the Bay of Baiae, there are recent tufaceous 
strata filled with fabricated articles, mingled with 
marine shells. It was also shown that the sea has 
been making gradual advances upon the coast, not only 
sweeping away the soft tuffs of the Bay of Baiae, but 
excavating precipitous cliffs, where the hard Ischian 
and Vesuvian lavas have flowed down into the deep. 
These events, it maybe objected, although interest- 
are the results of operations on a very inferior 
scale to those indicated by geological monuments. 
When we examine this same region, it will be said we 
find that the ancient cone of Vesuvius, called Somma, 
is larger than the modern cone, and is intersected by 
a greater number of dikes, — the hills of unknown 
antiquity, such as Astroni, the Solfatara, and Monte 
Barbaro, formed by separate eruptions, in different 
parts of the Phlegraean fields, far outnumber those of 






Ch. X.] 



similar origin, which are recorded to have been thrown 
up within the historical era. In place of modern tuffs 
of slight thickness, and single flows of lava, we find, 
amongst the older formations, hills from 500 to more 
than 2000 feet in height, composed of an immense 
series of tufaceous strata, alternating with distinct lava 
currents. We have evidence that, in the lapse of past 
ages, districts, not merely a few miles square, were up- 
raised to the height of twenty or thirty feet above their 
former level, but that extensive and mountainous coun- 
tries were uplifted to an elevation of more than 1000 
feet, and at some points more than 2000 feet, above 
the level of the sea. 

These and similar objections are made by those who 
compare the modern effects of igneous and aqueous 
causes, not with a part but with the whole results of 
the same agency in antecedent ages. Thus viewed in 
the aggregate, the leading geological features of each 
district must always appear to be on a colossal scale, 
just as a large edifice may seem an effort of super- 
human power, until we reflect on the innumerable 
minute parts of which it is composed, the number of 
the builders, and the time required to raise it. A 
mountain mass, so long as the imagination is occupied 
in contemplating the gigantic whole, must appear the 
work of extraordinary causes ; but when the separate 
portions of which it is made up are carefully studied, 
they are seen to have been formed successively ; and 
the dimensions of each part, considered singly, are 
soon recognized to be comparatively insignificant, so 
that it appears no longer extravagant to liken them to 
the recorded effects of ordinary causes. 



B 2 



[Book IV 

Difference in the composition of Somma and Vesuvius. 


As no traditional accounts have been handed down 
to us of the eruptions of the ancient Vesuvius, from 
the times of the earliest Greek colonists, the volcano 
must have been dormant for many centuries, perhaps 
for thousands of years, previous to the great eruption 
in the reign of Titus. But it will be shown hereafter 
that there are sufficient grounds for presuming this 
mountain, and the other igneous products of Cam- 
pania, to have been produced during the Newer Plio- 
cene period. 

We have seen that the ancient and modern cones 

of Vesuvius were each a counterpart of the other in 

structure * ; and I may now remark that the principal 

point of difference consists in the greater abundance 

in the older cone of fragments of altered sedimentary 

rocks ejected during eruptions. 

ceive that the first explosions would act with the 

greatest violence, rending and shattering whatever 

solid masses obstructed the escape of lava and the 

accompanying gases, so that great heaps of ejected 

pieces of rock would naturally occur in the tufaceous 

breccias formed by the earliest eruptions. But when 

a passage had once been opened and an habitual vent 

established, the materials thrown out would consist of 

liquid lava, which would take the form of sand and 

or of angular fragments of such solid lavas as 

may have choked up the vent. 

Among the fragments which abound in the tuface- 
ous breccias of Somma, none are more common than 
a saccharoid dolomite, supposed to have been derived 



* Vol. II, p. 87 

fcfc. X.] 



from an ordinary limestone altered by heat and vol- 
canic vapours. 

Carbonate of lime enters into the composition o* 
so many of the simple minerals found in Somma, that 
M. Mitscherlich, with much probability, ascribes their 
great variety to the action of the volcanic heat on 
subjacent masses of limestone. 

Dikes of 

The dikes seen in the great es- 

carpment which Somma presents towards the modern 
cone of Vesuvius are very numerous. They are for 
the most part vertical, and traverse at right angles the 
beds of lava, scoriae, volcanic breccia, and sand, o. 
which the ancient cone is composed. They project in 
relief several inches, or sometimes feet, from the face 
of the cliff, like the dikes of Etna already described 
(see Fig. 102.), being, like them, extremely compact, 
and less destructible than the intersected tuffs and 
porous lavas. In vertical extent they vary from a few 
yards to 500 feet, and in breadth from one to twelve 
feet. Many of them cut all the inclined beds in the 
escarpment of Somma from top to bottom, others stop 
short before they ascend above half way, and a few 
terminate at both ends, either in a point or abruptly. 
In mineral composition they scarcely differ from the 
lavas of Somma, the rock consisting of a base of leucite 
and augite, through which large crystals of augite and 
some of leucite are scattered.* Examples are not 
rare of one dike cutting through another, and in one 
instance a shift or fault is seen at the point of intersec- 
tion. I observed before, when speaking of the dikes 
of the modern cone of Vesuvius, that they must have 

* Consult the valuable memoir of M. L. A. Necker, M£m. de 
la Soc. de Phys. et d'Hist. Nat. de Geneve, tome ii. parti., Nov. 


B 3 



[Book IV. 

been produced by the filling up of open fissures by 
liquid lava.* In some examples, however, the rents 
seem to have been filled laterally. 

The reader will remember the description before 
given of the manner in which the plain of Jerocarne, 
in Calabria, was fissured by the earthquake of 1783, 
so that the academicians compared it to the cracks in 
a broken pane of glass, f If we suppose the side 
walls of the ancient crater of Vesuvius to have been 

Fig. 109. 

Bikes or veins at the Punto del Nasone on Somma. 

cracked in like manner, and the lava to have entered 
the rents and become consolidated, we can explain the 
singular form of the veins figured in the accompanying 


of their 

Nothing is more 

remarkable than the parallelism of the opposite sides 
of the dikes, which usually correspond with as much 


Vol. II. p. 86. 

f See Vol. II. p. 223. Fig. 47. 

| From a drawing of M. Necker, in Mem. before cited 






€h. X.] 



regularity as the two opposite faces of a wall of ma- 


sonry. This character appears at first the more inex- 
plicable, when we consider how jagged and uneven 
are the rents caused by earthquakes in masses of 
heterogeneous composition like those composing the 
cone of Somma ; but M. Necker has offered an in- 
genious and, I think, satisfactory explanation of the 
phenomenon. He refers us to Sir W. Hamilton's 
account of an eruption of Vesuvius in the year 1 779, 
who records the following facts : — * The lavas, when 
they either boiled over the crater, or broke out from 
the conical parts of the volcano, constantly formed 
channels as regular as if they had been cut by art, 
down the steep part of the mountain ; and, whilst in 
a state of perfect fusion, continued their course in 
those channels, which were sometimes full to the brim, 
and at other times more or less so, according to the 
quantity of matter in motion. 

" These channels, upon examination after an erup- 
tion, I have found to be in general from two to five or 
six feet wide, and seven or eight feet deep. They 
were often hid from the sight by a quantity of scoriae 
that had formed a crust over them ; and the lava, 
having been conveyed in a covered way for some 

yards, came out fresh again into an open channel. 

After an eruption I have walked in some of those sub- 
terraneous or covered galleries, which were exceed- 
ingly curious, the sides, top, and bottom being worn 
"perfectly smooth and even in most parts, by the violence 
of the currents of the red-hot lavas, which they had 
^conveyed for many weeks successively." 

In another place, in the same memoir, he describes 
the liquid and red-hot matter as being received " into 
& regular channel, raised upon a sort of wall of scoriae 

b 4 



[Book IV. 

and cinders, almost perpendicularly, of about the 
height of eight or ten feet, resembling much an ancient 

Now, if the lava in these instances had not run out 
from the covered channel, in consequence of the de- 
clivity whereon it was placed —if, instead of the space 
being left empty, the lava had been retained within 
until it cooled and consolidated, it would then have 
constituted a small dike with parallel sides. But the 
walls of a vertical fissure through which lava has as- 
cended in its way to a volcanic vent, must have been 
exposed to the same erosion as the four sides of the 
channels before adverted to. The prolonged and uni- 
form friction of the heavy fluid, as it is forced and 
made to flow upwards, cannot fail to wear and smooth 
down the surfaces on which it rubs, and the intense 
heat must melt all such masses as project and obstruct 
the passage of the incandescent fluid. 

I do not mean to assert that the sides of fissures 
caused by earthquakes are never smooth and parallel, 
but they are usually uneven, and are often seen to 
have been so where volcanic or trap dikes are as regu- 
lar in shape as those of Somma. The solution, there- 
fore, of this problem, in reference to the modern dikes, 
is most interesting, as being of very general applica- 
tion in geology. 

Varieties in their texture. 

Having explained the 

origin of the parallelism of the sides of a dike, we have 
next to consider the difference of its texture at the 
edges and in the middle. Towards the centre, observes 
M. Necker, the rock is larger grained, the component 
elements being in a far more crystalline state ; while at 

* Phil. Trans., vol. lxx. 1780, 


ft +^^m 

Ch. X.] 





the edge the lava is sometimes vitreous, and always 
finer grained. A thin parting band, approaching in its 
character to pitchstone, occasionally intervenes on the 
contact of the vertical dike and intersected beds. M. 
Necker mentions one of these at the place called 
Primo Monte, in the Atrio del Cavallo ; I saw three 
or four others in different parts of the great escarp- 
ment. These phenomena are in perfect harmony with 
the results of the experiments of Sir James Hall and 
Mr. Gregory Watt, which have shown that a glassy 
texture is the effect of sudden cooling, and that, on 
the contrary, a crystalline grain is produced where 
fused minerals are allowed to consolidate slowly and 
tranquilly under high pressure. 

It is evident that the central portion of the lava in 
a fissure would, during consolidation, part with its heat 
more slowly than the sides, although the contrast of 
circumstances would not be so great as when we com- 
pare the lava at the bottom and at the surface of a 
current flowing in the open air. In this case the up- 
permost part, where it has been in contact with the 
atmosphere, and where refrigeration has been most 
rapid, is always found to consist of scoriform, vitreous, 
and porous lava, while at a greater depth the mass 
assumes a more lithoidal structure, and then becomes 
more and more stony as we descend, until at length 
we are able to recognize with a magnifying glass the 
simple minerals of which the rock is composed. On 
penetrating still deeper, we can detect the constituent 
parts by the naked eye, and in the Vesuvian currents 
distinct crystals of augite and leucite become ap- 

The same phenomenon, observes M. Necker, may 
readily be exhibited on a smaller scale, if we detach 

b 5 


r 1 



[Book IV 

a piece of liquid lava from a moving current. The 
fragment cools instantly, and we find the surface 
covered with a vitreous coat, while the interior, al- 
though extremely fine grained, has a more stony 

It must, however, be observed, that although the 
lateral portions of the dikes are finer grained than the 
central, yet the vitreous parting layer before alluded to 
is extremely rare. This may, perhaps, be accounted 
for, as the above-mentioned author suggests, by the 
great heat which the walls of a fissure may acquire 
before the fluid mass begins to consolidate, in which 
case the lava, even at the sides, would cool very 
slowly. Some fissures, also, may be filled from above ; 
and in this case the refrigeration at the sides would 
be more rapid than when the melted matter flowed 
upwards from the volcanic foci, in an intensely heated 


The rock composing the dikes of Somma is far more 

compact than that of ordinary lava, for the pressure of 

a column of melted matter in a fissure greatly exceeds 

that in an ordinary stream of lava ; and pressure checks 

the expansion of those gases which give rise to vesicles 

in lava. 

There is a tendency in almost all the Vesuvian dikes 
to divide into horizontal prisms*, a phenomenon in 
accordance with the formation of vertical columns in 
horizontal beds of lava ; for in both cases the divisions 
which give rise to the prismatic structure are at right 

angles to the cooling surfaces. 
Minor cones of 

In the vol- 


* See Fig. 109. p. 6 


Ch. X.] 





conical hills with craters on their summits, which have 
evidently been produced by one or more explosions, 
like that which threw up the Monte Nuovo in 1538. 
They are composed of trachytic tuff, which is loose 
and incoherent, both in the hills and, to a certain 
depth, in the plains around their base, but which is in- 
durated below. It is suggested by Mr. Scrope, that 
this difference may be owing to the circumstance of 
the volcanic vents having burst out in a shallow sea, 
as was the case with Monte Nuovo, where there is a 
similar foundation of hard tuff, under a covering of 
loose lapilli. The subaqueous part may have become 
solid by an aggregative process like that which takes 
place in the setting of mortar, while the rest of the 
ejections, having accumulated on dry land when the 
cone was raised above the water, may have remained 
in a loose state.* 

Age of the volcanic and associated rocks of Campania. 

If we inquire into the evidence derivable from or- 
ganic remains, respecting the age of the volcanic rocks 
of Campania, we find reason to conclude that such 
parts as do not belong to the Recent are referable to 
the Newer Pliocene period. In the solid tuff quarried 
out of the hills immediately behind Naples, are found 
recent shells of the genera Ostrea, Cardium, Buccinum, 
and Patella, all referable to species now living in the 
Mediterranean. f In the centre of Ischia the lofty 
hill called Epomeo, or San Nicola, is composed of 
greenish indurated tuff of a prodigious thickness, inter- 
stratified in some parts with argillaceous marl, and 
here and there with great streams of indurated lava. 
Visconti ascertained by trigonometrical measurement 

Geo]. Trans., vol. ii. partiii. p. 351. Second Series, 
t Scrope, ibid. 

B 6 

¥ , 



[Book IV. 

that this mountain was 2605 feet above the level of 
the sea. In mineral composition and in form, as seen 
from many points of view, it resembles the hill to the 
north of Naples on the summit of which stands the 
convent of Camaldoli, which is 1643 feet in height. I 
collected in 1828 many recent marine shells from beds 


of clay and tuff, not far from the summit of Epomeo, 
about 2000 feet above the level of the sea, as also at 
another place, about 100 feet below the first, on the 
southern declivity of the mountain, and others still 
lower, not far above the town of Moropano. At Casa- 
micciol, and several places near the sea-shore, shells 
have long been observed in stratified tuff and clay. 
From these various points I obtained, during a short 
excursion in Ischia, twenty-eight species of shells, all 

of which, with one exception, were identified by M. 
Deshayes with recent species** 


It is clear, therefore, that the great mass of Epo- 
meo was not only raised to its present height above 
the level of the sea, but was also formed, since the 
Mediterranean was inhabited by the existing species 
of testacea. 

In the Ischian tuffs we find pumice, lapilli, angular 
fragments of trachytic lava, and other products of 
igneous ejections, interstratified with some deposits of 
clay free from any intermixture of volcanic matter. 
These clays might have resulted from the decompo- 
sition of felspathic lava like that so abundant in Ischia, 
the materials having been transported by rivers and 
marine currents, and spread over the bottom of the 


sea where testacea were living. All these submarine 
tuffs, lavas, and clays of Campania, very 

* See the list of these shells, Appendix II. first ed. 


Ch. X.] 






semble those around the base of Etna, and in parts of 
the Val di Noto before described. 

External configuration of the country, how caused. 
When once we have satisfied ourselves by inspection of 
the marine shells imbedded in tuffs at high elevations, 
that a mass of land like the island of Ischia has been 
raised from beneath the waters of the sea to its present 
height, we are prepared to find signs of the denuding 
action of the waves impressed upon the outward form 
of the island, especially if we conceive the upheaving 
force to have acted by successive movements. Let us 
suppose the low contiguous island of Procida to be 
raised by degrees until it attains the height of Ischia ; 
we should in that case expect the steep cliffs which 
now face Misenum to be carried upwards, and to be- 
come precipices near the summit of the central moun- 

Such, perhaps, may have been the origin of those 
precipices which appear on the north and south sides 
of the ridge which forms the summit of Epomeo in 
Ischia. The northern escarpment is about 1 000 feet 
in height, rising from the hollow called the Cavo delle 
Neve, above the village of Panella. The abrupt man- 
ner in which the horizontal tuffs are there cut off, in 
the face of the cliff, is such as the action of the sea, 
working on soft materials, might easily have produced,' 
undermining and removing a great portion of the mass! 
A heap of shingle which lies at the base of a steep 
declivity on the flanks of Epomeo, between the Cavo 
delle Neve and Panella, may once, perhaps, have been 
a sea-beach, for it certainly could not have been brought 
to the spot by any existing torrents. 

There is no difficulty in conceiving that if a large 
tract of the bed of the sea near Ischia should now be 
gradually upheaved during the continuance of volcanic 




[Book IV. 



agency, this newly raised land might present a coun- 
terpart to the Phlegraean Fields before described. 
Masses of alternating lava and tuff, the products of 
submarine eruptions, might on their emergence be- 
come hills and islands ; the level intervening plains 
might afterwards appear, covered partly by the ashes 
drifted and deposited by water, and partly by those 
which would fall after the laying dry of the tract. 
The last features imparted to the physical geography 
would be derived from such eruptions in the open 
air as those of Monte Nuovo and the minor cones of 

No signs of 

Such a conversion of a 

large tract of sea into land might possibly take place 
while the surface of the contiguous country underwent 
but slight modification. No great wave was caused by 
the permanent rise of the coast near Puzzuoli in the 
year 1538, because the upheaving operation appears to 
have been effected by a succession of minor shocks. * 
A series of such movements, therefore, might produce 
an island like Ischia without throwing a diluvial rush 
of waters upon low parts of the neighbouring continent. 
The advocates of paroxysmal elevations may, perhaps, 
contend that the rise of Ischia must have been anterior 
to the birth of all the cones of loose scoriae scattered 
over the Phlegraean Fields ; for, according to them, the 
sudden rise of marine strata causes inundations which 
devastate adjoining continents. But the absence of 
any signs of such floods in the volcanic region of 
Campania does not appear to me to warrant the con- 
clusion, either that Ischia was raised previously to the 
production of the volcanic cones, or that it may not 



* See Vol. II. p. 267. 


Ch. X.] 




have been rising during the whole period of their 

We learn from the study of the mutations now in 
progress, that one part of the earth's surface may, for 
an indefinite period, be the scene of continued change, 
while another, in the immediate vicinity, remains sta- 
tionary. We need go no farther than our own country 
to illustrate this principle ; for, reasoning from what 
has taken place in the last ten centuries, we must an- 
ticipate that, in the course of the next four thousand 
or five thousand years, a long strip of land, skirting the 
line of our eastern coast, will be devoured by the 
ocean, while part of the interior, immediately adjacent, 
will remain at rest and entirely undisturbed. The' 
analogy holds true in regions where the volcanic fires 
are at work ; for part of the Philosopher's Tower on 
Etna has stood for the last two thousand years, at the 
height of more than nine thousand feet above the sea, 
between the foot of the highest cone and the edge of 
the precipice which overhangs the Val del Bove, whilst 
large tracts of the surrounding district have been the 
scenes of tremendous convulsions. The great 
above has more than once been destroyed, and again 
renewed ; the earth has sunk down in the neighbour- 
ing Cisterna*; the cones of 1811 and 1819 have been 
thrown up, on the ledge of rock below, pouring out of 
their craters two copious streams of lava ; the watery 
deluge of 1755, descending from the desert region 
into the Val del Bove, has rolled vast heaps of rocky 
fragments towards the sea ; fissures, several miles in 
length, have opened on the flanks of Etna ; towns and 
villages have been laid in ruins by earthquakes, or 

See Vol. III. p. 425. 





[Book IV. 

buried under lava and ashes ; — yet the tower has 
stood, as if placed there to commemorate the stability 
of one part of the earth's surface, while others in im- 
mediate proximity have been subject to most wonder- 
ful vicissitudes. 

In concluding what I have to say of the marine and 
volcanic formations of the Newer Pliocene period, I 
may notice the highly interesting fact, that the marine 
strata of this era have been found at great elevations, 
chiefly in those countries where earthquakes have 


occurred during the historical ages. On the other 
\ hand, it is a still more striking fact, that there is no 
j example of any extensive maritime district, now ha- 
i bitually agitated by violent earthquakes, which has not, 
i when carefully investigated, yielded traces of marine 
strata, either of Recent or Newer Pliocene eras, at a 
considerable height above the sea. 

Chili — Conception Bay. — In illustration of the above 
remarks, I may mention that on the western coast of 
South America marine deposits occur, containing pre- 
cisely the same shells as are now living in the Pacific. 
In Chili, for example, as before stated, micaceous 
sand, containing the fossil remains of such species as 
now inhabit the Bay of Conception, are found at the 
height of from- 1000 to 1500 feet above the level of the 
ocean.* It is impossible to say how much of this rise 
may have taken place during the Recent period. One 
earthquake appears to have raised this part of the 
Chilian coast, in 1750, to the height of at least twenty- 
five feet above its former level. If we could suppose 
a series of such shocks to occur, one in every century, 
only 6000 years would be required to uplift the coast 




* Vol. II. p. 256. 

Ch. X.] 



1500 feet. But we have no data for inferring that so 
great a quantity of elevation has taken place in that 
space of time ; and although there is no evidence that 
the micaceous sand may not belong to the Recent 
period, I think it more probable that it was deposited 
during the Newer Pliocene period. 



shanks, a naturalist who resided for several years in 
South America, that in the valley of Lima, or Rimao, 
where the subterranean movements have been so vio- 
lent in recent times, there are indications not only 
of a considerable rise of the land, but of that rise 
having resulted from successive movements. Distinct 
lines of ancient sea-cliffs have been observed at various 
heights, at the base of which the hard rocks of green- 
stone are hollowed out into precisely those forms 
which they now assume between high and low water 
mark on the shores of the Pacific. Immediately below 
these water-worn lines are ancient beaches strewed 
with rounded blocks. One of these cliffs appears in 
the hill behind Banos del Pujio, about seven hundred 
feet above the level of the sea, and two hundred above 
the contiguous valley. Another occurs at Amancaes, 
at the height of perhaps two hundred feet above the 
sea ; and others at intermediate elevations. 

Mr. Freyer also states that the Isle of San Lorenzo, 
jn the Bay of Callao, appears to have been raised up 
by volcanic action, and partially so at a comparatively 
recent period ; for he found at considerable heights 
above the sea the shells of Concholepas, Pecten pur- 
pureus, Sigaretus concavus, and others, in great abund- 
ance, retaining their colours almost as fresh as those 
now living in the Pacific* 

* Proceedings of Geol. Soc. No. 40. p. 179. 





[Book IV 




that the parallel roads of Coquimbo, in Chili, described 
by Captain Hall, owe their origin to similar causes. 
These roads, or shelves, occur in a valley six or seven 
miles wide, which descends from the Andes to the 
Pacific. Their general width is from twenty to fifty 
yards, but they are, at some places, half a mile broad. 
They are so disposed as to present exact counterparts 
of one another, at the same level, on opposite sides of 
the valley. There are three distinctly characterized 
sets ; the upper one lies about three or four hundred 
feet above the level of the sea ; the next twenty yards 
lower ; and the lowest about ten yards still lower. Each 
resembles a shingle beach, being formed entirely of 
loose materials, principally water-worn rounded stones, 
from the size of a nut to that of a man's head. The 
stones are principally granite and gneiss, with masses 
of schistus, whinstone, and quartz, mixed indiscrimin- 
ately, and all bearing marks of having been worn by 
attrition under water.* 

The theory proposed by Captain Hall to explain 
these appearances is the same as that which had been 
adopted to account for the analogous parallel roads of 
Glen Roy in Scotland. -J- The valley is supposed to 
have been a lake, the waters of which stood, originally, 
at the level of the highest road, until a flat beach was 
produced. A portion of the barrier was then broken 
down, which allowed the lake to discharge part of its 
waters into the sea, and, consequently, to fall to the 
second level ; and so on successively till the whole 


* Captain Hall's South America, toI. ii. p. 9. 
f See Sir T. D. Lauder, Ed. Roy. Soc. Trans., vol. ix. ; and 
Dr. MacCulloch, Geol. Trans., 1st Series, vol. iv. p. 314. 

Ch. X.] 




embankment was washed away, and the valley left as 

we now see it. 


As I did not feel satisfied with this explanation, 
applied to my friend Captain Hall for additional details, 
and he immediately sent me his original manuscript 
notes, requesting me to make free use of them. In 
them I find the following interesting passages, omitted 

m his printed account: 

" The valley is completely 

open towards the sea ; if the roads, therefore, are the 
beaches of an ancient lake, it is difficult to imagine a 
catastrophe sufficiently violent to carry away the bar- 
rier, which should not at the same time obliterate all 
traces of the beaches. I find it difficult also to ac- 
count for the water-worn character of all the stones, 
for they have the appearance of having travelled over 
a great distance, being well rounded and dressed. They 
are in immense quantity too, and much more than one 
could expect to find on the beach of any lake, and 
seem more properly to belong to the ocean." 

I had entertained a strong suspicion, before reading 
these notes, that the beaches were formed by the 
waves of the Pacific, and not by the waters of a lake ; 
m other words, that they bear testimony to the suc- 
cessive rise of the land, not to the repeated fall of the 
waters of a lake. M. Boblaye has discovered four or 
nve distinct ranges of ancient sea-cliffs, one above the 



that that country has been upheaved at as many suc- 
cessive periods. He found inland terraces or beaches, 
covered with shells, at the base of precipices worn like 
the modern sea-cliffs by the waves, and having, like 
nem, many caverns and lithodomous perforations in 
tne hard limestone. * 

* Jour n . de G^ol., No. x. Feb, 1831 ; Bull, de la Soc. G<5ol. 
ae * ran ce, torn. ii. p. 236, 





[Book IV* 

Near the northern gate of the town of St- Mihiel, 
south of Verdun, in France, I have examined a series 
of markings on the face of the limestone cliffs, much 



There are three and sometimes four distinct horizontal 
grooves, which have been scooped out of a white semi- 
crystalline rock, or marble, of the oolitic period. This 
ancient cliff, which is near the right bank of the Meuse, 
is in part broken into a number of detached rocks, the 
upper parts of which present in some cases precipitous 
sides towards all points of the compass, round which 
the grooves pass in a circular course, just as if the 
summit of a rocky islet had been worn by the waves,* 
Captain Bayfield, in his survey of the coast of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, traced in several places, espe- 
cially in the Mingan Islands, a succession of shingle 
beaches, the most distant from the shore being sixty 
feet above the level of the highest tides. He also ob- 
served water-worn pillars of limestone accompanying 
these beaches, which bear evidence of having been 
worn and scooped out at different periods ; the marks 
of the successive action of the water agreeing in level 
with the successive ridges of limestone shingle. The 


* I have no data for speculating on the period at which these 
cliffs may have emerged from the sea. I was directed to the spot, 
which I visited in June, 1833, by M. Deshayes ; and 1 stated in 
the second edition, on his authority, that the worn rocks were eaten 
into by marine lithodomous shells, but I was unable to discover 
any of these ; and I believe that the fossils of the genus Saxicava, 
which M. Deshayes procured from this place, were of the age of 
the corals of the limestone, not of the date of the excavation of 
the grooves. The fossil corals of this formation (coral rag) fre- 
quently contain lithodomous shells, which seem to have pierced 
the zoophytes while they were still growing in the sea. 


Ch. X.] 



drawings of the pillars, made to illustrate his memoir, 
convince me that they are counterparts of the worn 
rocks which I have seen at St. Mihiel.* I have also 
been favoured with other views of rocks on the same 

Fig. 1 1 o. 

(see Fig. 110.) 

Limestone columns in Niapisca Island, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Height 

of the second column on the left, 60 feet. 

If there exist lines of parallel upraised cliffs, we 

ought to find parallel lines of elevated beaches on 

tnose coasts where the rocks are of a nature to retain 

or a length of time the marks imprinted on their sur- 

ace. We may expect such indications to be pecu- 

foT , mamfest in c °untries where the subterranean 

ce has been in activity within comparatively modern 

es a nd it is there that the hypothesis of paroxys- 

tain e ; e ! atl0ns> and the instantaneous rise of moun- 

bef " . S ' Sh ° uld first have be en put to the test, 
ore lt was too hastily embraced and extended. 

According to the sketch 

Proceedings of Geol. Soc, No, 33. p. 5. 





[Book IV. 



given by Maclure of the geology of the Leeward 
Islands, the western range consists in great part of 
formations of the most modern period.* It will be 
remembered, that many parts of this region have been 
subject to violent earthquakes ; that in St. Vincent's 
and Guadaloupe there are active volcanos, and in some 
of the other islands boiling springs and solfataras. In 
St. Eustatia there is a marine deposit, estimated at 
1500 feet in thickness, consisting of coral limestone 
alternating with beds of shells, of which the species 

according to Maclure, the same as those now 
found in the sea. These strata dip to the south-west, 
at an angle of about 45°, and both rest upon, and are 
covered by, cinders, pumice, and volcanic substances. 
Part of the madreporic rock has been converted into 
silex and calcedony, and is, in some parts, associated 
with crystalline gypsum. Alternations of coralline 
formations with prismatic lava and different volcanic 
substances also occur in Dominica and St. Christo- 
pher's; and the American naturalist remarks, that as 
every lava-current which runs into the sea in this 
archipelago is liable to be covered with corals and 
shells, and these again with lava, we may suppose an 
indefinite repetition of such alternations to constitute 

the foundation of each island. 

I do not question the accuracy of the opinion, that 
the fossil shells and corals of these formations are of 
recent species ; for there are specimens of limestone 
in the Museum of the Jardin du Roi at Paris, from 
the West Indies, in which the imbedded shells are all 
or nearly all identical with those now living. Part of 
this limestone is soft, but some of the specimens are 
very compact and crystalline, and contain only the 

* Quart. Journ. of Sci., vol. v. p. 311. 




Ch. X.] 



casts of shells. 

«b» or sneus. Of thirty species examined by M. 
Deshayes from this rock, twenty-eight were decidedly 

Honduras. - Shells sent from some of the recent 
strata of Jamaica, and many from the nearest adjoining 
continent of the Honduras, may be seen in the British 
Museum, and are indented with species now living 
in the West Indian seas. 

East Indian Archipelago. - We have seen that the 
Indian Ocean is one of the principal theatres of vol- 
camc disturbance ; it is to be expected, therefore, that 
future researches in this quarter of the globe will 
bring to light some of the most striking examples of 
marine strata upraised to great heights during com- 
paratively modern periods. 

From the observations of Dr. Jack, it appears that 
in the island of Pulo Nias, off the west coast of 
Sumatra, masses of corals of recent species can be 
traced from the level of the sea far into the interior, 
where they form considerable hills. Large shells of 
«ie Chama gigas ( Tridacna, Lamk.) are scattered 
over the face of the country, just as they occur on the 
present reefs. These fossils are in such a state of 
preservation as to be collected by the inhabitants for 
^purpose of being cut into rings for the arms and 



™een the Azores and Canaries, in both of which 


M violently shaken by earthquakes during the last 
n ury. I t consists in great part of volcanic tuffs 
a porous lava, intersected in some places, as at the 

Geol. Trans., Second Series, vol. i. partii. p. 397. 




[Book IV 

Brazen Head, by vertical dikes of compact lava.* 
Some of the marine fossil shells, procured by Mr. 
Bowdich from this island, are referable to recent 


These examples may suffice for the present, and 

lead us to anticipate with confidence, that in almost all 
countries where changes of level have taken place in 
our own times, the geologist will find monuments of a 
prolonged series of convulsions during the Recent and 
Newer Pliocene periods. Exceptions may no doubt 
occur where a particular line of coast is sinking down ; 
yet even here we may presume, from what we know 
of the irregular action of the subterranean forces, that 
some cases of partial elevation will have been caused 
by occasional oscillations of level, so that modern sub- 
aqueous formations will, here and there, have been 
brought up to view. 

I shall conclude by enumerating some exceptions to 
the rule above illustrated, — instances of elevation 
where no great earthquakes have been recently ex- 

Scandinavia. — The first and most important is that 
of Sweden, before described.f This country, although 
free from convulsions, was shown to be the theatre 
of unceasing changes in the relative level of land and 



marl, and clay, several hundred feet in thickness, and 
containing recent species of marine shells raised to the 
height of 200 feet, and even in Norway 400 feet 
above the sea, and extending at some points far into 

the interior. 

Grosceil, near Nice.— At a spot called Grosceil, near 



* MS. of Captain B. Hall. 

f Book ii. chap. xvii. 


Ch. X.] 




o c*. Hospice, a remarkable bed of fine sand occurs 
at an elevation of about fifty feet above the sea.* 
lhis sand rests on inclined secondary rocks, and is 

Z-^Z rCmainS ° f marine s P ecies > ^11 identical 

with those now inhabiting the neighbouring sea. No 

less than two hundred species of shells, and several 
Crustacea and echini, have been obtained by M. Risso, 
in a high state of preservation, although mingled with 
broken shells. The winds have blown up large heaps 
of similar sand to considerable heights, upon ledges of 
he steep coast farther westward; but the position of 
the deposit at Grosceil cannot be referred to such 
agency, for among the shells maybe seen the lar*e 
Murex Triton, Linn., and a species of Cassis, weighing 
a pound and a half. B 

West of England. - The proofs lately brought to 
ngftt ot analogous elevations of deposits containing 
recent shells on our western shores, and between Lan- 
cashire and the Bristol channel, have been already 
pointed out.f J 

Western borders of the Bed Sea. - Another excep- 
tion may be alluded to, for which we are indebted to 
f resear ches of Mr. James Burton. On the western 

snores of the Arabian Gulf, about half way between 
ue Z and Kosir6) in the 2gth degree of north latitU(Jej 

tormation of white limestone and calcareous sand is 
seen, reaching the height of 200 feet above the sea. 
« is replete with fossil shells, all of recent species, 

tth are m a beautiful state of preservation, many of 

1 * examined this spot, with Mr. Murchison, in 

ee des <*iption of the Map, Vol. I. p. 2 1 5. 
v °t" IV, 









[Book IV. 

them retaining their colour,* The volcano of Gabel 
Tor, situate at the entrance of the Arabian Gulf, is 
the nearest volcanic region known to me at present. 

But the reader must not infer, from the facts above 
detailed, that marine strata of the Newer Pliocene pe- 
riod have been produced almost exclusively in countries 
of earthquakes, or where changes of level are known 
to be taking place, as in Sweden. If our illustrations 
have been drawn chiefly from modern volcanic regions, 
it is simply because these formations have been made 
visible in those districts only where the conversion of 
sea into land has occurred in times comparatively 
modern. Other continents have, during the Newer 


Pliocene period, suffered degradation, and rivers and 
currents have deposited sediment in other seas ; but 
the new strata remain concealed wherever no subse- 
quent alterations of level have taken place. 

Yet, to a certain limited extent, the growth of new 
subaqueous deposits may have been greatest where 
aqueous causes have co-operated with earthquakes- 
It is there that the degradation of land is most rapid," 
and it is there only that materials ejected from below, 
by volcanic explosions, are added to the sediment 
transported by running water.f 

* These fossils are now in Mr. Greenough's museum in Lon- 
don, and duplicates, presented by him, in the cabinets of the 
Geological Society. A list was given in App. IL> first edition. 

f See Bookii. chap. xv. ; and Bookiii. chap, xviii. 


i • 










Valley of the Elsa 

tw-a. of B „ rae _ LMSS of th ; ;~ 7 t L°Lt_ u 


Osseous breccias of the Newer Pliocene era (p. 38.)- Fossil 
, bones of Marsupial animals in Australian caves -Newer P lo 
cenealluvmms ( P . 44.)- European alluviums chieflv tertiary" 
- Erratxc blocks of the Alps - Theory of their transportation 

-PmW Formations. - I N this chapter I shall treat 
ot the freshwater formations, and of the cave breccias 
and alluviums of the Newer Pliocene period. 
In regard to the first,of these, they must have been 

ormed, m greater or less quantity, in nearly all the 
existing lakes of the world; in those, at least, of which 
tne basins were formed before the earth was tenanted 

y man If the great lakes of North America origin- 
ated before that era, the sedimentary strata deposited 
rem, m the ages immediately antecedent, would, 

ccording to the terms of our definition, belong to the 
^ewer Pliocene period. 

of this 

of the Elsa 

As an example of the strata 
sen ag6 ' Which haVe been ex P 0Sed to view in con- 
thor H f e ° f the draina S e of a lak e, I may mention 

Flore the Vall6y ° f the Elsa ' in Tuscan y> betw een 
en ce and Sienna, where we meet with freshwater 

c 2 


[Book IV. 





marls and travertins full of shells, belonging to species 
which now live in the lakes and rivers of Italy. Val- 
leys several hundred feet deep have been excavated 
through the lacustrine beds, and the ancient town of 
Colle stands on a hill composed of them. The subja- 
cent formation consists of marine Subapennine beds, 
in which more than half the shells are of recent spe- 

The freshwater shells which I collected near 
Colle are in a very perfect state, and the colour^ of 
the Neritinae are peculiarly brilliant.* 

Travertins of Rome. — Many of the travertins and 
calcareous tufas which cap the hills of Rome may also 
belong to the same period. The terrestrial shells in- 
closed in these masses are of the same species as 
those now abounding in the gardens of Rome, and the 
accompanying aquatic shells are such as are found in 
the streams and lakes of the Campagna. On 
Aventine, the Vatican, and the Capitol, we find abund- 
ance of vegetable matter, principally reeds, incrusted 
with calcareous tufa, and intermixed with volcanic 
sand and pumice. The tusk of a mammoth has been 
procured from this formation, filled in the interior with 
solid travertin, wherein sparkling crystals of augite are 
interspersed, so that the bone has all the appearance 
of having been extracted from a hard crystalline 


These Roman tufas and travertins repose partly on 

marine tertiary strata, belonging, perhaps, to the Older 
Pliocene era, and partly on volcanic tuff of a still later 


* The following six pieces, all of which now inhabit Italy, 
were identified by M. Deshayes ; — Paludina impura, Neritina 
fiuviatilis, Succinea amphibia, Limnea auricularis, L. peregra, and 
Planorbis carinatus, 

f This fossil was shown me by Signer Biccioli at Rome. 







date. They must have been formed in small lakes and 
marshes, which existed before the excavation of the 
valleys, which divide the seven hills of Rome, and they 
must orginally have occupied the lowest hollows of the 
country as it then existed ; whereas now we find them 
placed upon the summit of hills about 200 feet above 
the alluvial plain of the Tiber. We know that this 
nver has flowed nearly in its present channel ever 
since the building of Rome, and that scarcely any 
changes in the geographical features of the country 
have taken place since that era. 


formed, those of Monte Mario for example, the Medi- 
terranean was already inhabited by a large proportion 
of the existing species of testacea. At a subsequent 
period, volcanic erruptions occurred, and tuffs were 
superimposed. The marine formation then emerged 
from the deep, and supported lakes wherein the fresh- 
water groups above described slowly accumulated, at 
a time when the mammoth inhabited the country, 
lne valley of the Tiber was afterwards excavated, and 
the adjoining hills assumed their present shape ; and 
then a long interval may, perhaps, have elapsed before 
the first human settlers arrived. Thus we have evi- 
dence of a chain of events, all regarded by the geolo- 
gist as among the most recent, but which, nevertheless, 
may have preceded, for a long series of ages, a very 
remote era in the history of nations. 

of the valley of 

A remarkable 

Having re-examined a much greater extent of the country 
covered by the loess in the years 1833 and 1835, I have modified 
and retracted some opinions which I expressed in regard to it in 
former editions. For a full account of my observations see 
Jameson's Ed. New Phil. Journ., No. 33, July 1834.; Pro- 

c 3 


r ' 



[Book IV. 

deposit of ancient silt, containing land and freshwater 
shells of living European species, occurs, here and 
there, throughout the valley of the Rhine, from the 
plains below Cologne up to the borders of Switzerland, 
near SchafFhausen, and in the valleys of the principal 
tributaries of the Rhine. This deposit of yellow cal- 
careous loam is provincially termed " loess " by the 
Germans, and in Alsace "lehm," and it partakes 
partly of an alluvial and partly of a lacustrine cha- 
racter. It exhibits almost every where the same mi- 
neralogical characters and fossil shells, and is usually 
found in detached patches, but sometimes forming 
lines of low hills which rest on the gravel of the allu- 
vial plain of the Rhine. Occasionally it reposes on 
the flanks of the mountains bounding the great valley, 
where it rises to various elevations above the 
sometimes to 300 or 400 feet, as near Basle, where it 
is more than 1 200 feet above the sea. 

e Duchy of 

Darmstadt by Mayence, Oppenheim, Alzey, Flonheim, 
Eppelsheim, and Worms, I found the loess spread al- 
most every where over the country. On the opposite 
side of the Rhine, in the elevated table land above the 
Bergstrasse between Wiesloch and Bruchsal, I ob- 
served it attaining a thickness of 200 feet. It extends 
also far into Wurtemberg, up the valley of the Neckar, 
and from Frankfort, up the valley of the Mayne, to 
above Dettelbach. Near Strasburg large masses of it 
are seen at the foot of the Vosges mountains, on the 
left of the great plain of the Rhine, and at the base of 
the mountains of the Black Forest on the other side- 


In an excursion 

through part of th 

eeedings of Geol. Soc, No. 36. p. 83., and No. 43. p, 221, ; and 
Anniv. Address to Geol. Soc. 1 836. 




It occurs not only at Basle, as above stated, but still 
higher up the Rhine at Waldshut, and it is said to 
terminate between that place and Schaffhausen. It 
is important to remark that all the above-mentioned 
places, however distant from each other, have a direct 

hydrographical communication with the main valley 
of the Rhine. 

When the loess is first observed lying on the gravel 
of the great plain near Bonn, Heidelberg, Strasburg, 
and other places, we naturally suppose it to be of very 
modern origin, especially as it contains recent land 
and freshwater shells of species which are, for the 
most part, very abundant in the adjacent country. 
Even the colour of some of these shells, as that of the 

moralis, is occasionally preserved. But, when 
we have extended our investigations, we find that al- 
though the present system of hills and valleys must 
have existed previously to the formation of the loess, 
yet the whole country has undergone many great geo- 
raphical changes during the accumulation of the de- 

so great, indeed, that there has probably been 
a sinking down to the amount of many hundred feet, 
and afterwards a re-elevation of all the land between 
Switzerland and Holland since this silt began to accu- 
mulate. No changes of less magnitude seem adequate 
to explain the phenomena about to be described. 

The loess at Heidelberg, according to M. Leon- 
hard, consists chiefly of argillaceous matter, combined 
with a sixth part of carbonate of lime, and a sixth of 
quartzose and micaceous sand. It is a pulverulent 
loam, of a dirty yellowish-grey colour, often containing 
calcareous sandy concretions or nodules, rarely ex- 
ceeding the size of a man's head. Its entire thickness, 
in some places, amounts to between 200 and 300 feet; 




[Book IV. 

yet there are often no signs of stratification in the 
mass, except here and there at the bottom, where there 
is occasionally a slight intermixture of drifted materials 
derived from subjacent rocks. 

As the pure loess exhibits no division into strata, 
I at first imagined, in common with other observers, 
that this deposit was thrown down suddenly from the 
muddy waters of a transient flood, in the same manner 


as the moya of the Andes, or as the trass of the Rhine 
volcanos is generally believed to have been formed. 
But on re-examining the places where loess and allu- 
vium, or loess and layers of volcanic matter, alternate, 
I am compelled to renounce this view. In the deep 
gravel pits without the Manheim gate of Heidelberg, 
loess is seen interstratified with gravel ; and here more 
than one bed containing entire land and freshwater 
shells rests upon, and is covered by, a stratum of 

gravel, showing the effects of successive accumulation. 
I observed the same fact in the valley of the Lahn 
north of Limburg, near the village of Elz ; and Pro- 
fessor Bronn informs me, that the calcareous concre- 
tions of the loess are sometimes arranged in horizontal 
layers, marking a difference in the carbonate of lime 
with which the sediment must have been charged at 
different periods. 

It should also be observed that many of the ter- 
restrial and aquatic shells preserved in this silt are of 
the most fragile and delicate structure, and must, for 
the most part, have been broken to-pieces if they had 
been swept along by a violent inundation of force suf- 
ficient to transport pebbles; whereas the shells are 
almost invariably perfect and uninjured, even in those 
places where the loamy beds of loess alternate with 




Ch. XI.] 



The most widely spread and abundant fossils in this 

Fig. Ill 

Helix plebeium 

(see Figs. 

Fig. 112. 

Fig. 113 

Succinea elongata. Pupa muscorum. 

Helix plebeium. 

tioned shell is amphibious, and such as may have been 

washed away from the banks of streams during floods. 
The proportion of land shells of the genera Helix, Pupa, 
and Bulimus, is very large ; but in many places aquatic 
species of the genera Limnea, Paludina, and Planorbis 
are also found. I have never detected the Unio or 
Neritina among the rest, but, with these exceptions, 
there is a great generic resemblance between the as- 
semblage of fossils in the loess and the shells which 
the Rhine carries down in our own time to the sea. 
With a view of ascertaining this point I collected, in 
the summer of 1833, several hundred shells, which 
were exposed on the margin of the Rhine on the fall 
of the waters, or had been cast ashore by large waves 
raised by the steam boats ; and they proved to be, for 



Manorbis, which may have been washed away during 
floods from pools and marshes bordering the river. 

Bones of vertebrated animals are rare in the loess, 
but those of the mammoth, horse, and some other 
quadrupeds have been met with. At the village of 
tfmningen, and the hills called Bruder Holz, _ 
as le,' I found the vertebrae of fish together with the 


usual shells. 



c 5 





[Book IV. 

belong decidedly to the Shark family, perhaps to the 
genus Lamna ; and although it seemed, at first, extra- 
ordinary that they should occur among land and fresh- 
water shells, I am informed, in explanation of the fact, 
that certain fish of this family ascend the Senegal, 
Amazon, and other great rivers, to the distance of 
several hundred miles from the ocean.* 

The reader is probably aware that on both sides of 
the Rhine, between Bonn and Coblentz, there is a 
region of extinct volcanos. Now, on visiting part of 
this country, near Andernach, and examining the 
sections which have been well described by MM. 
Steininger, Hibbert, and others, I perceived clear evi- 
dence that some of the last volcanic eruptions of the 
Lower Eifel took place both during and since the de- 
position of the loess. The loamy sediment may be 
seen in the Kirchweg, above Andernach, alternating 
with volcanic matter, over which is a mass of pure 
and unmixed loess, thirty feet and upwards in thick- 
ness, containing the usual shells ; and over the whole 
are strewed layers of pumice, lapilli, and volcanic sand, 
from ten to fifteen feet thick, very much resembling 
the ejections under which Pompeii lies buried. There 
is no passage at this upper junction from the loess into 
the pumiceous superstratum ; and this last follows the 
slope of the hill, just as it would have done had it 
fallen in showers from the air on a declivity partly 
formed of loess. 

In general, however, the loess overlies almost all the 
volcanic products, even those between Neuwied and 
Bonn, which have the most modern aspect ; and it has 
filled up in part the crater of the Roderberg, a volcanic 

* Proceedings of Geo!. Soc. No. 43. p. 222. 






hill near Bonn. It was in 1833 that a well was sunk at 
the bottom of this crater through seventy feet of loess, 
in part of which were the usual calcareous concre- 


It has been ascertained that the waters of the Rhine, 
when evaporated, leave a residuum of calcareous loam, 
not distinguishable from loess * ; so that if these waters 
should now overflow the low lands adjoining the river, 
they might give rise to a deposit having the same 
mineral characters as the loess, and which would con- 
tain, as I have already shown (p. 33.), fossil shells for 
the most part of the same genera. 

The first idea which has probably occurred to every 
one, after examining the loess between Mayence and 
Basle, is, to imagine that a great lake once extended 
throughout the valley of the Rhine between those two 
places. Such a lake may have sent off large branches 
up the course of the Mayne, Neckar, and other tri- 
butary valleys, in all of which large patches of loess 
are now seen. The barrier of the lake might be placed 
somewhere in the narrow and picturesque gorge of the 
Rhine between Bingen and Bonn. But this theory is 
insufficient to explain the phenomena ; for that gorge 
itself has once been filled with loess, which must have 
been tranquilly deposited in it, as also in the lateral 
valley of the Lahn, communicating with the gorge. 
The loess has also overspread the high adjoining plat- 
form near the village of Plaidt, above Andernach. 
Nay, on proceeding farther down to the north, we 
discover that the hills which skirt the valley between 
Bonn and Cologne have loess on their flanks, which 

fc>ee Mr. Horner, on the Sediment of the Rhine : Proceed- 
ings of Geol. Soc. 1 834. 

c 6 



CBook IV . 


also covers here and there the gravel of the plain as 
far as Cologne. 

Besides these objections to the lake theory it will be 
remembered, that the loess is met with near Basle, 
capping hills more than 1200 feet above the sea, so 
that a barrier of land capable of separating the sup- 
posed lake from the ocean would require to be at least 
as high as the mountains called the Siebengebirge, 
near Bonn, the loftiest summit of which, the Oehlberg, 
is only 1209 feet above the Rhine and 1369 feet above 
the sea. It would be necessary, moreover, to place 
this lofty terrier somewhere below Cologne, that is to 
say, precisely where the level of the land is now lowest 

Instead, therefore, of supposing one continuous lake 
of sufficient extent and depth to allow of the simul- 
taneous accumulation of the loess, at various heights, 
throughout the whole area where it now occurs, I 
conceive that, subsequently to the period when the 
countries now drained by the Rhine and its tributaries 
acquired nearly their actual form and geographical 
features, they were again depressed gradually by a 
movement like that now in progress on the west coast 
of Greenland. In proportion as the whole district was 
lowered, the general fall of the waters between the 
Alps and the ocean was lessened; and both the main 
and lateral valleys, becoming more subject to river 
inundations, were partially filled up with fluviatile 
silt, containing land and freshwater shells. When a 


thickness of many hundred feet of loess had been 
thrown down slowly by this operation, the whole region 
was once more upheaved gradually, but perhaps not 
equally in all parts. During this upward movement most 
of the fine loam would be carried off by the denuding 
power of rains and rivers ; and thus the original valley* 





may have been re-excavated, and the country almost 
restored to its pristine state, with the exception of 
some masses and patches of loess still remaining, 
which, from their frequency and remarkable homoge- 
neousness of composition and fossils, attest the ancient 
continuity and common origin of the whole. By in- 
troducing such general fluctuations of relative level, 
we dispense with the necessity of erecting, and after- 
wards removing, a mountain barrier sufficiently high 
to exclude the ocean from the valley of the Rhine 
during the period of the accumulation of the loess. 

The hypothesis above suggested may, perhaps, be 
better understood if we consider what would happen 
if similar alterations of level should occur in another 

part of the world. 

(Vol. I. p. 290.) 

that several large lakes have recently been formed in 
the basin of the Red River, in Louisiana, and that trees 
are still standing there under water. One of these 
lakes is no less than thirty miles long, into which, as 
into others, the waters of the Red River flow up dur- 
ing floods, the main stream at such seasons invading 
some of the valleys of its tributaries. Whatever 
may be the causes of this singular state of things 
in Louisiana, it is clear that analogous effects might 
arise from partial depressions of land. It is also evi- 
dent that if a general subsidence should take place in 
the hydrographical basin alluded to, the fall of the 
waters between the Rocky Mountains and the ocean 
would be lessened, and, consequently, there would be 
an increased liability to river inundations in all the 
plains and valleys of the same basin. Under these cir- 
cumstances, the red ochreous sediment from which the 
Red River derives its name would be deposited in the 
main an <* partially in the lateral valleys ; and as the 



■ ■ 



[Book IV. 


course of the Red River is double in length that of 
the Rhine, the area covered by red fluviatile silt might 
be vast in proportion. It may also be observed that 
the number of temporary lakes and marshes, occa- 
sioned by frequent overflowings and partial subsidences 
of land, would favour greatly the growth of amphibious 
mollusks of the genus Succinea; while, at the same 
time, land and freshwater shells would annually be 
swept away and imbedded in mud, which, like that of 
the Nile in Egypt, would be thrown down periodically 
on the plains. The thickness of the muddy deposits 
would depend on the quantity of time during which 


the country continued to sink, provided the rate of 
sinking be sufficiently slow to allow of the water being 
charged again and again with fresh sediment. The re- 
elevation of the district at a subsequent period would 
be attended with extensive denudation, or removal of 

fine sediment. The colour of the loam might, in this in- 
stance, be as uniformly red as it is yfellow in the valley 
of the Rhine ; while, in other respects, the phenomena 
would be analogous, and such as might appear, at first 
sight, to indicate the former existence of an enormous 
lake more than 1000 feet deep and several hundred 
miles in length.* ^^M 

Osseous breccias 


The breccias latel 

found in several caves in Sicily belong evidently to 
the period under consideration. I have shown, in the 
sixth chapter, that the cavernous limestone of the 
Val di Noto is of very modern date, as it contains a 
great abundance of fossil shells of recent species ; and 



* For particulars concerning the loess of the Rhine, consult 
the works of MM. Bronn, Leonhard, Boue, Voltz, Noeggerath, 
Steininger, Merian, Rozet, Von Meyer, Hibbert, and Horner. 


• ; 



Ch. XI.] 




if any breccias are found in the caverns of this rock, 
they must be of still later origin. * 

We are informed by M. Hoffmann, that the bones 
of the mammoth, and of an extinct species of hippo- 
potamus, have been discovered in the stalactite of 
caves near Sortino, of which the situation is repre- 
sented in the annexed diagram at b. The same au~ 

e. 114 

a. Alluvium, 1 

b, b. Deposits in caves, J contalllin g remains of extinct quadrupeds. 

C. Limestone containing remains of recent shells. 

thor also describes a breccia, containing the bones of 
an extinct rhinoceros and hippopotamus, in a cave in 
the neighbourhood of Syracuse, where the country 
is composed entirely of the Val di Noto limestone. 
Some of the fragments in the breccia are perforated 
by lithodomi, and the whole mass is covered by a 
deposit of marine clay filled with recent shells. * 
These phenomena may, I think, be explained by sup- 
posing such oscillations of level as are known to occur 

on maritime coasts where earthquakes prevail , 

m fact, as have been witnessed on the shores of the 
Bay of Baiae within the last three centuries, f For 
*t is evident that the temporary submergence of a 
cave filled with osseous breccia might afford time for 

Hoffmann, Archiv fiir Mineralogie, p. 393. Berlin, 1831. 



Christie, Proceedings of Geol. Soc, No. xxiii. p. 333 
t Vol, II. p. 267, 






[Book IV. 

the perforation of the rock by boring testacea, and 
for the deposition upon it of mud, sand, and shells. 

The association in these and other localities of 
shells of living species with the remains of extinct 
mammalia is very distinct, and corroborates the in- 
ference adverted to in a former chapter, that the lon- 
gevity of species in the mammalia is, upon the whole, 
inferior to that of the testacea. I am by no means 
inclined to refer this circumstance to the intervention 
of man, and his power of extirpating the larger qua- 
drupeds ; for the succession of mammiferous species 
appears to have been in like manner comparatively 

a. Monte Grifone. 


b. Cave of San Ciro. * 

c. Plain of Palermo, in which are Newer Pliocene strata of 

limestone and sand. 

d. Bay of Palermo. 

rapid throughout the older tertiary periods. Their 
more limited duration depends, in all probability, on 
physiological laws, which render warm-blooded qua- 
drupeds less capable, in general, of accommodating 
themselves to a great variety of circumstances, and, 
consequently, of surviving the vicissitudes to which the 
earth's surface is exposed in a great lapse of ages, f 

* Section given by Dr. Christie, Edin. New Phil. Journ., 
No. xxiii., called by mistake the Cave of Mardolce, by the late 
M. Hoffmann. See account by Mr. S. P. Pratt, F.G.S., Pro- 
ceedings of Geol. Soc. No. 32. 1833. 

t See Vol. III. p. 100., and book i. chap. vi. 






Ch. XL] 



Caves near Palermo. — The caves near Palermo 
exhibit appearances very analogous to those above 


information has been 


lately published respecting them. According to Hoff- 
mann, the grotto of San Giro is distant about two 
Wiles from Palermo, and is twenty feet high and ten 
wide. It Occurs in a secondary limestone, in the 
Monte Grifone, at the base of a rocky precipice about 
180 feet above the sea. From the foot of this preci- 
pice an inclined plane, consisting of horizontal tertiary 
strata, of the Newer Pliocene period, extends to the 
sea, a distance of about a mile. 

The limestone escarpment was evidently once a 
sea-cliff, and the ancient beach still remains formed of 
pebbles of various rocks, many of which must have 
been brought from places far remote. Broken pieces 
of coral and shell, especially of oysters and pectens, 
are seen intermingled with the pebbles. Immediately 
above the level of this beach, serpulse are still found 
adhering to the face of the rock, and the limestone is 
perforated by lithodomi. Within the grotto, also, at 
tne same level, similar perforations occur; and so 
numerous are the holes, that the rock is compared by 
Hoffmann to a target pierced by musket balls, 
in order to expose to view these marks of boring-shells 
J n the interior of the cave, it was necessary first to re- 
move a mass of breccia, which consisted of numerous 


ragments of rock and an immense quantity of bones 
imbedded in a dark brown calcareous marl. Many of 
the bones were rolled as if partially subjected to the 


action of the 

waves. Below this breccia, which is 

about twenty feet thick, was found a bed of sand filled 
Wl th sea-shells of recent species ; and underneath the 
and, again, is the secondary limestone of Monte Gri- 
fone. The state of the surface of the limestone in the 





[Book IV. 

cave above the level of the marine sand is very differ- 
ent from that below it. Above, the rock is jagged and 
uneven, as is usual in the roofs and sides of limestone 
caverns ; below, the surface is smooth and polished, as 
if by the attrition of the waves. 

So enormous was the quantity of bones, that many 
ship-loads were exported in the years 1829 and 1830, 
in the hope of their retaining a sufficient quantity of 
gelatine to serve for refining sugar : for which, how- 
ever, they proved useless. The bones belong chiefly 
to the mammoth (E. primigenius), and with them are 
those of an hippopotamus, distinct from the recent 
species, and smaller than that usually found fossil. 
Several species of deer, also, and, according to some 
accounts, the remains of a bear, were discovered. 

It is easy to explain in what manner the cavern of 
San Ciro was in part filled with sea-sand, and how the 

surface of the limestone became perforated by litho- 
domi; but in what manner, when the elevation of the 
rocks and the ancient beach had taken place, was the 
superimposed osseous breccia formed ? For want of 
more exact local details, it would be rash to speculate 
on this subject ; but by referring to what was previ- 
ously said of caverns near the sea-shore of the Morea, 
from which rivers escape, the reader may conceive 
that caves, after having been submerged and filled 
with sea-sand, may afterwards be upraised and flooded 
by the waters of engulphed rivers 
animal remains from the land. # 

Two other caverns are described by Dr. Christie as 
occurring in Mount Beliemi, about four miles west of 
Palermo, at a higher elevation than that of San Ciro, 
being more than three hundred feet above the level of 

* See Vol. III. p. 206. 

washing down 






Ch. XL] 





the sea. In one of these places the bones are found 
only in a talus at the outside of the cavern ; in the 
other, they occur both within the cave and in the talus 
which slopes from it to the plain below. These caves 
appear to be situated much above the highest point 
attained by the tertiary deposits in this neighbourhood ; 
nor is there the slightest appearance in the caves 
themselves of the sea having been there.* 

Australian cave-breccias. — Ossiferous breccias have 
lately been discovered in fissured and cavernous lime- 
stone in Australia, and the remains of the fossil mam- 
malia are found to be referable to species now living in 
that country, mingled with some relics of extinct animals. 

Some of these caves have been examined by Major 
Mitchell, in the Wellington Valley, about 210 miles 
west of Sydney, on the river Bell, one of the principal 
sources of the Macquarie, and on theMacquarie itself. 

The fissures and caverns appear to correspond 
closely with those which contain similar osseous brec- 
cias in Europe ; they often branch off in different 
directions through the rock, widening and contracting 
their dimensions^ the roofs and floors being covered 
with stalactite. The bones are often broken, but do 
not seem to be water-worn. In some caves and fissures 
they lie imbedded in loose earth, but usually they are in- 
cluded in a breccia, having aredochreous cement as hard 
as limestone, and like that of the Mediterranean caves. 

The remains found most abundantly are those of 
the kangaroo. Amongst others, those of the Wombat, 
Dasyurus, Kaola, and Phalangista, have been recog- 
nized. The greater part of them belong to existing^ 
but some to extinct, species. One of the latter bones, 

Dr. T. Christie, Jameson, Edin. New Phil. Jour., No. xxiii. 

p. 1. 

** •*-!** 



[Book IV 

of much greater size than the rest, is supposed, by 
Mr. Clift, to belong to an hippopotamus- * 

In a collection of these bones sent to Paris, Mr. Pent- 
land thought he could recognize a species of Halma- 


turus, exceeding in size the largest living kangaroo, f 

These facts are full of interest, for they prove that 
the peculiar type of organization which now character- 
izes the marsupial tribes has prevailed from a remote 
period in Australia ; and that in that continent, as in 
Europe, North and South America, and India, some 
species of mammalia have become extinct. It also 
appears, although the eyidence on this point is still 
incomplete, that among the extinct were land qua- 
drupeds far exceeding in magnitude any of the wild 
animals now inhabiting New Holland. J 

Newer Pliocene Alluviums. 

Some writers have 

attempted to introduce into their classification of 

geological periods an alluvial epochs as if the trans- 
portation of loose matter from one part of the surface 
of the land to another had been the work of one par- 
ticular period. 

With equal propriety might they have endeavoured 
to institute a volcanic period, or a period of marine 
or freshwater deposition ; for alluvial formations must 
have originated in every age, since the surface of the 
earth was first divided into land and sea, but most 
rapidly in any given district at those periods when 

* Mr. Clift, Edin. New Phil. Journ., No. xx. p. 394. Major 
Mitchell, Proceedings of Geol. Soc, 1831, p. 321. 

f Journ. de Geologie, tome iii. p. 291. The bone mentioned 
as that of an 'elephant by Mr. Pentland, was the same large bone 
alluded to by Mr. Clift. 

f For remarks on the mode in which these caverns may have 
been filled with osseous breccias, see Vol. III. p. 203. 


Ch. XL] 



land has been upheaved above, or depressed below, 
its former level.* 

If those geologists who speak of an "alluvial epoch" 
intend merely to say that a great part of the Euro- 
pean alluviums are tertiary, there may undoubtedly 
be much truth in the opinion ; for the larger part of 
the existing continent of Europe has emerged from 
beneath the waters during some one or other of the 
tertiary periods + ; and it is probable, that even those 
districts which were land before the commencement 
of the tertiary epoch, may have shared in the subter- 
ranean convulsions by which the levels of adjoining 
countries have since been altered. During such sub- 
terranean movements new alluviums might be formed 
in great abundance, and those of more ancient date so 
modified as to retain scarcely any of their original 
distinguishing characters. 

During the gradual rise of a large area, first from 
beneath the waters, and then to a great height above 
them, several kinds of superficial gravel must be 
formed and transported from one place to another. 
When the first islets begin to appear, and the breakers 
are foaming upon the new raised reefs, many rocky frag- 
ments are torn ofF and rolled along the bottom of the sea. 

Let the reader recall to mind the action of the tides 
and currents off the coast of Shetland, where blocks 
of granite, gneiss, porphyry, and serpentine, of enor- 
mous dimensions, are continually detached from wast- 
mg cliffs during storms, and carried in a few hours to 
a distance of many hundred yards from the parent 
rocks. % Suppose the floor of the ocean, after being 

See definition of alluvium, Vol. III. p. 196. 
f See map, Vol. I. p. 214. 
i See Vol. I. p. 391. 




[Book IV. 

thus strewed over with detached blocks and pebbles, 
to be converted partially into land, the geologist might 
then, perhaps, search in vain for the masses from 
which the fragments were originally derived, since part 
of these may have been consumed by the waves, and 
the rest may remain submerged beneath them. 

If this new land be then uplifted to a considerable 
height, the marine alluvium before alluded to would 
be raised up on the summits of the hills and on the 
surface of elevated platforms. It might still constitute 
the general covering of the country, being wanting 
only in such valleys and ravines as may have been 
caused by earthquakes, or excavated by the power of 
running water during the rise of the land : for the 
alluvium in those more modern valleys would consist 
partly of pebbles washed out of the older gravel be- 
fore mentioned, but chiefly of fragments derived from 
the rocks which were removed during the erosion of 

the valleys themselves. 

.Erratic blocks. — Blocks of extraordinary magnitude 
have been observed at the foot of the Alps, and at 
a considerable height in some of the valleys of the 
Jura, exactly opposite the principal openings by which 
great rivers descend from the Alps. These fragments 
have been called « erratic," and many imaginary causes 
have been invented to account for their transport- 
ation. Some have talked of chasms opening in the 
ground immediately below, and of huge fragments 
having been cast out of them from the bowels of the 


earth. Others have referred to the deluge, an agent 
in which a simple solution is so often found of every 
difficult problem exhibited by alluvial phenomena; 
and more recently, the sudden rise of mountain-chains 
has been introduced as a cause which may have given 
rise to diluvial waves, capable of devastating whole 





Ch. XI.] 



the^T' and dHftin S hu §e blocks from one part of 
tne^earth s surface to another. 

formptf emS * ecessai 7 t0 suppose that the Jura once 

-ents o? SZf ? ' thC ^ »* ^^ ^~ 
thp Ai • ' atarem ote period, detached from 

nlatfo e T mitS ' and tran ^rted to lower hills or 

\ZT\ ° h WGre destined af terwards to be up- 
aised and to form the independent chain now called 

coltZ\ 1^ * haS b6en ° ften su §g^ted, may have 

some of h ^ "' t0 the ^^ ° f Such blocks * f°r 
flood vl ? MaSSeS me S ° enormo ^ that not even a 
flood hke that in the valley of Bagnes, in 1818*, can 

be supposed to have conveyed them to considerable 
distances by the power of water alone. 

That the Alps must have been moved and shaken 

ZiZl f 9 " t * Peri ° ds com P ara tively modern, is 
evident from the fact that they are skirted on their 

northern, southern, and eastern flanks by marine ter- 

tiary strata. When these were raised into their present 

Position, to the height of many hundred feet above the 
sea the whole of ^ ^ chain ^ ^ 

Pated in the convulsions. 
It is important, therefore, to consider what would 
ow happen if regions like that of Mont Blanc were 

d!tff !i t° earth( l uak es- Large fragments of rock, 
Cached by the action of rain and frost from the 
peaks or "needles," as they are called, of Chamouni, 
11 annually on the surface of the glaciers, and are 
leal? • tranS P° rted b y ^ to the distance of many 
mvtT 8 ! nt ° thG Valle ^ S below -t The shock of an 

simiWh ? rf thr ° W d ° Wn a P rodi S ious load of 
lanch (■ heavier masses, accompanied by ava- 

es of snow and ice, by which the moraine of the 

Se e Vol. I. p . 295. 

+ Vol. I. p. 269 




[Book IV. 


glacier would be greatly enlarged. If the shocks took 
place on the eve of a thaw in spring, when the accu- 
mulated snows of winter were beginning to melt, they 
would cause almost every where immense avalanches, 
by which many narrow gorges might be choked up, so 
that the valleys above such barriers of snow, ice, and 
rock would be converted into lakes. Portions of the 
rent glaciers, moreover, would at their lower extre- 
mities be covered with water, and might be floated 
off together with incumbent and included fragments of 
rock. At length, on the bursting of the temporary 
barrier, the whole mass of waters, together with huge 
rocks buoyed up by ice, would descend with tremen- 
dous violence into the lower country. 

The manner in which the ice of rivers and of the 
sea itself contributes, in the Baltic and other northern 
regions, to transport large blocks, as well as sn 
pieces of stone, to vast distances, has been treated of 

in a former chapter.f 

Assuming, then, that almost all the Eu- 
ropean alluviums are tertiary, we have next to inquire 
which of them are of Newer Pliocene origin. It is 
clear that, when a district like the Val di Noto, is 
composed of rocks of this age, all the alluvium upon 
the surface must necessarily belong either to the 
Newer Pliocene or the Recent epoch. If, therefore, 
the elevation of the mountains of the Val di Noto was 
chiefly accomplished antecedently to the Recent epoch, 
we must at once pronounce all alluviums, in the posi- 
tion indicated at a, Fig. 114. (p. 38.), to belong to the 
Newer Pliocene era. I saw gravel so situated at 
Grammichele in Sicily, and was informed that it con- 
tained the bones of the mammoth. 



* See Vol. I. p. 271 




eoiogical monuments of the older Pliocene period — Subapen- 
nine formations — Opinions of Brocchi — Different groups 
er med by him Subapennine are not all of the same age 
Mineral composition of the Subapennine formations — Marls 

Subapennine beds, how formed 

Yellow sand and gravel 

\P» 56.) — Illustration derived from the Upper Val d'Arno 
^ r ganic remains of Subapennine hills — Older Pliocene strata 
a t the base of the Maritime Alps — Genoa (p. 63.) — Sa- 

v ona 

the J 



Conglomerate of Valley of Mag- 

Its origin — Tertiary strata at the eastern extremity of 




a pennine strata. — We must now carry our re- 
spect one step farther, and treat of the monuments 
9 *he era immediately antecedent to that last con- 
ned. The Apennines, it is well known, are com- 
V Se d chiefly of secondary rocks, forming a chain which 
inches off from the Ligurian Alps and passes down 
he middle of the Italian peninsula. At the foot of 
ese mountains, on the side both of the Adriatic and 
® Mediterranean, are f° un d a series of tertiary strata 
*ch form, for the most part, a line of low hills occu- 
rjuig the space between the older chain and the sea. 
0cc hi, the first Italian geologist who described this 


it the name of the 

group in detail, gave *» *™ .«***^ ~~ — 
Apennines ; and he classed all the tertiary strata of 

Italy f ro 

m Piedmont to Calabria, as parts of the same 

•/Stem. Certain mineral characters, he observed, were 

vol. Iv . 




[Book IV. 

common to the whole ; for the strata consist generally 
of light brown or blue marl, covered by yellow calca- 
reous sand and grave]. There are also, he added, some 
species of fossil shells which are found in these de- 
posits throughout the whole of Italy. 

In a catalogue, published by Lamarck, of five hun- 
dred species of fossil-shells of the Paris basin, a small 
number only were enumerated as identical with those 
of Italy, and only twenty as agreeing with living spe- 
cies. This result, said Brocchi, is wonderful, and verv 
different from that derived from a comparison of the 

half of 

species now living in the Mediterranean, or in other 
seas chiefly of hotter climates.* 

He also stated, that it appeared from the observ- 
ations of Parkinson, that the clay of London, like that 
of the Subapennine hills, was covered by sand (alludino- 
to the crag), and that in that upper formation of sand 
in England the species of shells corresponded much 
more closely with those now living in the ocean than 
did the species of the subjacent clay. Hence he in- 
ferred that an interval of time had separated the origin 
of the two groups. But in Italy, he goes on to say, 
the shells found in the marl and superincumbent sand 
belong entirely to the same group, and must have been 
deposited under the same circumstances, f 

Notwithstanding the correctness of these views 
Brocchi conceived that the Italian tertiary strata, as a 
whole, might agree with those of the basins of Paris 
and London ; and he endeavoured to explain the dis- 
eordance of their fossil contents by remarking, that the 


* Conch. Foss. Subap., torn. i. p. 14s. 
t Ibid., p. 147. 






ivmg m the ocean. * In attempting thus to assimilate 

le age of these distinct groups,, he was evidently in- 

uenced by his adherence to the anciently received 

theory of the gradual fall of the level of the ocean, to 

which, and not to the successive rise of the land, he 

attributed the emergence of the tertiary strata ; all of 

nch he consequently imagined to have remained 

under water down to a comparatively recent period. 

Brocchi was perfectly justified in affirming that there 

Wer e some species cf shells common to all the strata 

called by him Subapennine; but I have shown that this 

* ac t is not inconsistent with the conclusion, that the 

Sev eral deposits may have originated at different pe- 

ri °ds, for there are species of shells common to all the 

ertiary eras. He seems to have been aware, however, 

the insufficiency of his data ; for in giving a list of 

s pecies universally distributed throughout Italy, he 

^ndidly admits his inability to determine whether the 

^ells of Piedmont were all identical with those of 

uscany, and whether those of the northern and south- 

n extremities of Italy corresponded, f 

We have already satisfactory evidence that the 

a pennine beds of Brocchi belonged, at least, to 




thr ee periods. 

°J the strata of Piedmont, those of the hill of the 


u perg a? for example; to the Older Pliocene belong the 

greater part of the strata of northern Italy and of 

uscany, and perhaps those of Rome; to the Newer 

] ocene, the tufaceous formations of Naples, the cal- 

Careous strata of Otranto, and probably the greater 

P ar t of the tertiary beds of Calabria. 


Conch. Foss. Subap., torn. i. p. 166. 

t Ibid., p. 143 

D 2 



[Book IV. 

That there is a considerable correspondence in the 
arrangement and mineral composition of these different 


Italian groups, is undeniable ; but not that close re- 
semblance which should lead us to assume an exact 
identity of age, even had the fossil remains been less 

Very erroneous notions have been etertained re- 
specting the contrast between the lithological charac- 
ters of the Italian strata and certain groups of higher 
antiquity. Dr. MacCulloch has treated of the Italian 
tertiary beds under the general title of " elevated 
submarine alluvia;" and the overlying yellow sand 
and gravel may, according to him, be wholly, or in 
part, a terrestrial alluvium. * Had he visited Italy, I 
am persuaded that he would never have considered the 
tertiary strata of London and Paris as belonging to 
formations of a different order from the Subapennine 
groups, or as being more regularly stratified. He 
seems to have been misled by Brocchi's description, 
who contrasts the more crystalline and solid texture of 
the older secondary rocks of the Apennines with the 
loose and incoherent nature of the Subapennine beds, 
which resemble, he says, the mud and sand now de- 
posited by the sea. 

I have endeavpured, in a former chapter, to restrict 
within definite limits the meaning of the term allu- 
vium \ ; but if the Subapennine beds are to be de- 
signated " marine alluvia," the same name might, 
with equal propriety, be applied not only to the argil- 
laceous and sandy groups of the London and Hamp- 
shire basins, but to a very great portion of our se- 


* Syst. of Geol., vol. i. chap. xv. 
f Vol. III. p. 196. 

Ch -xn.] 




condary series, where the marls, clays, and sands are 
as imperfectly consolidated as are the tertiary strata 
ot Italy in general. 

They who have been inclined to associate the idea 
o the more stony texture of stratified deposits with a 
comparatively higher antiquity, should consider how 

issimilar, in this respect, are the tertiary groups of 
•London and Paris, although admitted to be of 
temporaneous date ; or they should visit Sicily, and 
behold a soft brown marl, identical in mineral cha- 
racter with that of the Subapennine beds, underlying 
a mass of solid and regularly stratified limestone, rival- 
ling the chalk of England in thickness. This Sicilian 
ftiarl is older than the superincumbent limestone, but 
aewer than the Subapennine marl of the north of Italy; 
f °r in the latter the extinct shells rather predominate 
°ver the recent, in the Sicilian strata the recent spe- 
cks predominate almost to the exclusion of the extinct. 
Subapennine marls. — I shall now consider more 
Particularly the characters of those Subapennine beds 
.^hich may be referred to the Older Pliocene period. 
ne m ost important member of the Subapennine 
mauon is a marl which varies in colour from grey- 

S 1 br °wn to blue. It is very aluminous, and usually 

contains much calcareous matter and scales of mica. 

often exhibits no lines of division throughout a 

considerable thickness, but in other places it is thinly 

ai *nnated. Near Parma, for example, I have counted 
thirty distinct laminae in the thickness of an inch. In 
some of the hills near that city the marl attains, 
a ccording to Signor Guidotti, a thickness of nearly 

Wo thousand feet, and is charged throughout with 
stle lls, many of which are such as inhabit a deep sea. 

d 3 



[Book IV. 

They often occur in layers in such a manner as to 
indicate their slow and gradual accumulation. They 
are not flattened, but are filled with marl. Beds of 


four leagues from Parma; subordinate beds of gypsum 
also occur in many places, as at Vigolano and Bar- 
gone, in the territory of Parma, where they are inter- 
stratified with shelly marl and sand. At Lezignano, 
in the Monte Cerio, the sulphate of lime is found in 
lenticular crystals, in which unaltered shells are some- 
times included. Signor Guidotti, who showed me 
specimens of this gypsum, remarked, that the sulphu- 
ric acid must have been fully saturated with lime 
when the shells were enveloped, so that it could not 
act upon the shell. According to Brocchi, the marl 
sometimes passes from a soft and pulverulent substance 
into a compact limestone, but it is rarely found in 
this solid form.* It is also occasionally interstratified 
with sandstone. 

The marl constitutes very frequently the surface of 
the country, having no covering of sand. It is some- 
times seen reposing immediately on the Apennine 
limestone ; more rarely gravel intervenes, as in the 
hills of San Quirico. + Volcanic rocks are here and 
there superimposed, as at Radicofani, in Tusca. v , 
where a hill composed of marl, with some few shells 
interspersed, is capped by basalt. Several of the 
volcanic tuffs in the same place are so interstratified 
with the marls as to show that the eruptions took 
place in the sea during the Older Pliocene period. At 
Acquapendente, Viterbo, and other places, hills of the 
same formation are capped with trachytic lava, and 

n y 

* Conch. Foss. Subap., torn. i. p. 82 

f Ibid., p. 78 

Ch. XII.] 



^ith tuffs which appear evidently to have been sub- 


Yellow sand. — The other member of the Sub- 
apennme group, the yellow sand and conglomerate, 
constitutes, in most of the places where I have seen 
it, a border formation near the junction of the tertiary 
and secondary rocks. In some cases, as near the town 
ot sienna, we see sand and calcareous gravel resting 
immediately on the Apennine limestone, without the 
intervention of any blue marl. Alternations are there 
seen of beds containing fluviatile shells, with others 
filled exclusively with marine species ; and I observed 
oysters attached to many of the pebbles of limestone. 
This appears to have been a point where a river, flow- 
ing from the Apennines, entered the sea in which the 
tertiary strata were formed. 

-Between Florence and Poggibonsi, in Tuscany, 
there is a great range of conglomerate of the Sub- 
apennine beds, which is seen for eleven miles continu- 
ously from Casciano to the south of Barberino. The 



re chiefly of whitish limestone, with some 
sandstone. On receding from the older Apennine 
rocKs, the conglomerate passes into yellow sand and 
sandstone, with shells, the whole overlying blue marl. 
-In such cases we may suppose the deltas of rivers and 
torrents to have gained upon the bed of a sea where 
b lue marl had previously been deposited. 

-The upper arenaceous group above described some- 
times passes into a calcareous sandstone, as at San 
] gnone. It contains lapidified shells more frequently 
than the marl, owing probably to the more free per- 
flation of mineral waters, which often dissolve and 
carry away the original component elements of fossil 
bodies, and substitute others in their place. In some 

d 4 


:II, ; 








[Book iy. 

cases the shells imbedded in this group are silicifierf 

as at San Vitale, near Parm* f i dre T S ed? 

• v -a i t ^arma, from whence I saw two 

individuals of recent species nn« f 1 , 

other marine /T Jm &pe " es ' one freshwater and the 
othei marine (Limnea palustris, and Cytherea concen 
tnca, Lamk.), both nprfiwi , c °«cen- 

On the ni7i e f Cty ?™^ *• <**. 

Mon t 


Rome, which are probah.v refe rahl 7 Z Z'ZZ 
at,on, are changed into calcareous spar> t he £ tail 
preserved notw.thstanding ,he crystallization of hf 

carbonate of lime. 

Mafe o// oma ^ 0/ the Subapennine beds. - me 
tertiary strata above described have resulted from the 
waste of the secondary rocks which now form the 
Apennines, and which had become dryland before the 
Older Pliocene beds were deposited. In the territory 
of Placentae have an opportunity of observing the 
kind of sediment which the rivers are now brig Z 
down from the Apennines. The tertiary marl of ^ 
district being too calcareous to be used for bricks Z 
pottery a substitute is obtained by conveyin- into 
tanks the turbid waters of the rivers Braganza, Parm a 
Taro, and Enza In the course of a year a deposit of 
brown clay, much resembling some of the Subapennine 
marl is procured, several feet in thickness, divided 
into thin laminse of different shades of colour. 

In regard to the sand and gravel, we see yellow 
sand thrown down by the Tiber near Rome, and by 
the Arno, at Florence. The northern part of the 

Apennines consists ^ o • 

y consists of a grey micaceous sandstone 

with an argillaceous base, alternating with shale fr om 
the degradation of which brown clay and sand would 
result. If a river flow through such strata, and some 
one of its tributaries drains the ordinary limestone of 
the Apennines, the clay might become marly by the 




intermixture of calcareous matter. The sand is fre- 
quently yellow from being stained by oxide of iron ; 
but this colour is by no means constant. 

The similarity in composition of the tertiary strata 
in the basins of the Po, the Arno, and the Tiber, is 
merely such as might be expected to arise from their 
having been all derived from the disintegration of the 
same continuous chain of secondary rocks. But it 
does not follow that the latter rocks were all upheaved 
and exposed to degradation at the same time. The 
correspondence of the tertiary groups consists in their 
being all alike composed of marl, clay, and sand ; but 
we might say as much of the beds of the London and 
Hampshire basins, although the English and Italian 
groups, thus compared, belong nearly to the two 
opposite extremes of the tertiary series. 

The similarity in mineral character of the lacustrine 
deposit of the Upper Val d'Arno, and the marine 
Subapennine hills of northern Italy, ought to serve as 
a caution to the geologist, not to infer too hastily a 
contemporaneous origin from identity of mineral com- 
position. The deposit of the Upper Val d'Arno oc- 
curs nearly at the bottom of a deep narrow valley, 
which is surrounded by precipitous rocks of secondary 
sandstone and shale (the macigno of the Italians, and 
greywacke of the Germans). Hills of yellow sand, of 
considerable thickness, appear around the margin of 
tll c small basin; while, towards the central parts, 
where there has been considerable denudation, and 
where the Arno flows, blue clay is seen underlying 
the yellow sand. The shells are of freshwater origin, 
but I shall speak more particularly of them when dis- 
cussing the probable age of this formation in the six- 
teenth chapter. I desire at present to call attention 

d 5 





[i>oolw TV 

to the fact, that we have here, in an isolated basin, 
such a formation as would result from the waste of the 
contiguous secondary rocks of the Apennines, frag- 
ments of which rocks are found in the sand and con- 

glomerate. We 

beds were removed, and the barrier of the lake-basin 
closed up again, similar sediment would be again de- 
posited; since the aqueous agents would operate in 
the same manner, at whatever period they might be in 
activity. Now, the only difference in mineral compo- 
sition, between the lacustrine deposit and the ordinary 
marine Subapennine strata, consists in the absence of 
calcareous matter from the clay; and this may be 
ascribed to the circumstance that the torrents flowing 
into the lake had passed over no limestone rocks. 

The lithological character of the Subapennine beds 
varies in different parts of the Peninsula both in colour 
and degree of solidity. The presence, also, or ab- 
sence of lignite and gypsum, and the association or 
non-association of volcanic rocks, are causes of great 
local discrepancy. The superposition of the sand and 
conglomerate to the marl, on the other hand 
general point of agreement, although there ^e ex- 
ceptions to the rule, as at San Quirico before men- 
tioned. The cause of this arrangement may be, as I 
before hinted, that the arenaceous groups were' first 
formed on the coast where rivers entered ; and when 
these pushed their deltas farther out, they threw 
down the sand upon part of the bed of the sea already 
occupied by finer and more transportable mud. 

Captain Bayfield, in his Survey of the Coast of 
St. Lawrence, mentions horizontal strata of sand and 
gravel, and a subjacent deposit of clay, as reposing in 
depressions in the older rocks near the shore. The 

is a 



I ^ 




- • 











t I 











^ *. 













»5 n 

r ^ 

N| ^ 



St * 













r s 











^ -S 






'A £ i S | 

* — 









clay invariably occupies the lowest position, and the 
gravel the highest; and this arrangement, he says, 
may be explained by considering that the rivers where 
they now bring down alluvial matter on several parts 
of this coast, carry gravel over a bottom previously 
occupied by clay, the finer sediment having first been 
drifted farther from the shore.* 

When Captain Bayfield proposed this theory, he had 
*iot seen my work ; and it was satisfactory to observe 

the exact coincidence of his views with my own, 
his havin 

g been suggested by the modern changes 
going on in the St. Lawrence, mine by reasoning on 
appearances in the interior of Italy. 

Organic remains. — Figures of some of the most 
abundant shells of the Subapennine formations are 
given in the accompanying plate. (PI. X.) The greater 
part of them are common both to the Older and Newer 
Pliocene periods of this work. Eight of the species, 
Nos - 1> 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, and 14, are now living, but 
are also common in the older Pliocene formations, 
-rusus crispus has not been found either recent, or in 
the Miocene or Eocene formations,, but occurs both in 
the Older and Newer Pliocene formations. Mitra 
phcatula has been observed only in the Older Pliocene 
deposits. The Turbo rugosus was formerly considered 
^ s exclusively Pliocene; but M. Boue has since found 
1 ln the Miocene strata at Vienna and Moravia. Buc- 
Clnum semistriatum is also a Miocene shell, but has 

been inserted 


as being peculiarly abundant in the 

iocene strata. 

The Subapennine testacea are referable to species 


An abstract of this paper will be found in the Proceedings 

oftheGeol. Soc, No. 33. p. 4. 

D 6 



[Book IV. 

and families of which the habits are extremely diver- 
sified, some living in deep, others in shallow water, 
some in rivers or at their mouths. I have seen a 
specimen of a freshwater univalve (Limnea palustris), 
taken from the blue marl near Parma, full of small 
marine shells. It may have been floated down by the 
same causes which carried wood and leaves into the 
ancient sea. 

I have been informed, by experienced collectors of 
the Subapennine fossils, that they invariably procure 
the greatest number in those winters when the rains 
are most abundant ; an annual crop, as it were, being 
washed out of the soil to replace those which the 
action of moisture, frost, and the rays of the sun soon 
reduce to dust upon the surface. 

The shells, in general, are soft when first taken from 
the marl, but they become hard when dried. The 
superficial enamel is often well preserved, and many 
shells retain their pearly lustre, and part of their ex 
ternal colour, and even the ligament which unites the 
valves. No shells are more usually perfect than the 
microscopic, which abound near Sienna, where more 
than a thouand full-grown individuals are sometimes 
poured out of the interior of a single univalve of mo 
derate dimensions. In some large tracts of yellow 
sand it is impossible to detect a single fossil, while in 
other places they occur in profusion. 

Blocks of Apennine limestone are found in this 
formation drilled by lithodomous shells. The remains 
not only of testacea and corals, but of fishes and crabs, 
are met with, as also those of cetacea, and even of 
terrestrial quadrupeds. 

A considerable list of the mammiferous species has 
been given by Brocchi and some other writers ; and 


although several mistakes have been made, and some 
bones of cetacea have been confounded with those of 
land animals, it is still indubitable that some remains of 
land animals were carried down into the sea when the 
kubapennine sand and marl were accumulated. The 
same causes which drifted skeletons into lakes, such as 
that of the Upper Val d'Arno, may have carried down 
others into firths or bays of the sea. The femur of an 
elephant has been disinterred with oysters attached to 
it, showing that it remained for some time exposed 
after it was drifted into the sea. 

of the Maritime 

If we pass 

from the Italian peninsula, and, following the borders 


the foot bf the Maritime Alps, we find formations 
agreeing in zoological characters with the Subapennine 
beds, and presenting many points of analogy in their 
mineral composition. The Alps, it is well known, ter- 
minate abruptly in the sea, between Genoa and Nice, 
and the steep declivities of that bold coast are con- 
tinued below the waters ; so that a depth of many 
Hundred fathoms is often found within stone's-throw of 
the beach. Exceptions occur only where streams and 
torrents enter the sea ; and at these points there is 
always a low level tract, intervening between the 
mouth of the stream and the precipitous escarpment 
°f the mountains. 

In travelling from France to Genoa, by the new 
coast road, we are conveyed principally along a ledge 
excavated out of a steep slope or precipice, in the 
same manner as on the roads which traverse the great 
interior passes of the Alps, such as the Simplon and 
■Mont Cenis ; the difference being that, in this case, the 
traveller has always the sea below him, instead of a 







[Book IV. 

river. But we are obliged occasionally to descend by 
a zigzag course into those low plains before alluded to, 
which, when viewed from above, have the appearance 
of bays deserted by the sea. They are surrounded on 
three sides by rocky eminences, and the fourth is open 
to the sea. 

These leading features in the physical geography of 
the country are intimately connected with its geological 
structure. The rocks composing the Alpine declivities 
belong partly to the primary formations, but more 
generally to the secondary, and have undergone im- 
mense disturbance ; but when we examine the low 
tracts before mentioned, we find the surface covered 
with great beds of gravel and sand, such as are now 
nnually brought down by torrents and streams in the 

• 1 1 • "1 


winter, and which are spread in such quantity over the 
wide and shifting river-channels as to render the roads 
for a season impassable. The first idea which naturally 
suggests itself, on viewing these plains, is to imagine 
them to be deltas or spaces converted into land by the 
accumulated sand and gravel brought down from the 
Alps by rivers. But, on closer inspection we find that 
the apparent lowness of the plains, which at first glance 
might be supposed to be only just raised above the 
level of the sea, is a deception produced by contrast. 
The Alps rise suddenly to the height of several thou- 
sand feet with a bold and precipitous outline ; while 
the country below is composed of horizontal strata, 
which have either, a flat or gently undulating surface! 
The strata consist of gravel, sand, and marl, filled 
with marine shells, and they are considerably elevated 
attaining sometimes the height of two hundred feet 
or even more, above the level of the sea ; there must 
therefore, have been a rise of the coast since they were 

Ch. XII.] 



deposited, and they are not mere deltas or spaces re- 
claimed from the sea by rivers. Why, then, are such 
strata found only at the points where rivers enter? 

We must imagine that, after the coast had nearly 
acquired its present configuration, the streams which 
flowed down into the Mediterranean produced shoals 
opposite their mouths by the continual drifting in of 
gravel, sand, and mud. " The Alps have since been 
raised to a sufficient height to cause these shoals to 
become land ; while the corresponding elevation of the 
intervening parts of the coast, where the sea was of 
great depth near the shore, has not been perceptible. 

The disturbing force appears to have acted very 
irregularly, and to have produced the least elevation 
towards the eastern extremity of the Maritime Alps, 
and a greater amount as we proceed westward. Thus 
w e find the marine tertiary strata attaining the height 
°f about 100 feet at Genoa, 200 and 300 feet farther 
westward at Albenga, and 800 or 900 feet in the 
nei ghbourhood of Nice. 

At Genoa the tertiary strata consist of 



Fig. 116. 





Position of tertiary strata at Genoa. 

Ancient sea-beach. 

b. Blue marl with shells 

C. Inclined secondary strata of sandstone, shale, &c. 



[Book IV. 

blue marls like those of the northern Subapennines 
and contain the same shells. On the immediate site 
of the town they rise to the height of only twenty feet 
above the sea ; but they reach about eighty feet in 
some parts of the suburbs. At the base of a moun- 
tain not far from the suburbs there is an ancient beach, 
strewed with rounded blocks of Alpine rocks, some of 
which are drilled by the Modiola lithophaga, Lamk., 
the whole cemented into a conglomerate, which 
marks the ancient sea-beach at the height of 100 feet 
above the present sea, * 

Savona. — At Savona, proceeding westwards, we 
find deposits of blue marl like those of Genoa, and 
occupying a corresponding geological position at the 
base of the mountains near the sea. The shells, col- 
lected from these marls by Mr. Murchison and myself, 
in 1828, were examined by Signor Bonelli, of Turin, 
and found to agree with Subapennine fossils. 

Albenga. — At Albenga these formations occupy a 
more extensive tract, forming the plains around that 
town and the low hills of the neighbourhood, which 
reach in some spots an elevation of 300 feet. The 
encircling mountains recalled to my mind those which 
bound the plain and bay of Palermo, and other bays 
of the Mediterranean, which are surrounded by bold 
rocky coasts. 

The general resemblance of the Albenga strata to 
the Subapennine beds is very striking ; the lowest 
division consisting of blue marl which is covered by 
sand and yellow clay, and the highest by a mass of 
stratified shingle, sometimes consolidated into a con- 

* I have here to acknowledge my obligations to Professor 
Viviani, and Dr. Sasso, who called my attention to these phe- 
nomena when I visited Genoa in Jan. 1829. 

Ch. XII.] 



glomerate. Dr. Sasso has collected about 200 species 
of shells from these beds ; and it appears, by his cata- 
logue, that they agree, for the most part, with the 
northern Subapennine fossils, more than half of them 
belonging to recent species. * 

-(.vice. ■ — At Nice the tertiary strata are upraised to 
a much greater height, but they may still be said to 
he at the base of the Alps which tower above them. 
■Were, also, they consist principally of blue marl and 
yellow sand, which appear to have been deposited in 
submarine valleys previously existing in the inclined 
secondary strata. In one district, a few miles to the 
West of Nice, the tertiary beds are almost exclusively 


composed of conglomerate, from the point of their 
junction with the secondary strata to the sea. 

The river Magnan flows in a deep valley, which ter- 
minates at its upper extremity in a narrow ravine, 
early vertical precipices are laid open on each side, 
varying from 200 to 600 feet in height, and composed 
inclined beds of shingle, sometimes separated by 
a yers of sand, and more rarely by blue micaceous 

The pebbles in these stratified shingles agree 

m composition with those now brought down from the 

ps by the Var and other rivers on this coast. 

-•-he dip of these strata is remarkably uniform, being 

always southwards, or towards the Mediterranean, at 

an an g!e of about 25°. I examined this section in 

company with Mr. Murchison in the summer of 1828, 

hen the bed of the river was dried up. The geolo- 

b J st has then a good opportunity of examining a sec- 

1Q n of the strata, as the channel crosses for many 

mi les the line of bearing of the beds, which may be 



* Giornale Ligustico, Genoa, 1827 



[Book IV. 



It is usually impossible to determine the exact age of 
such accumulations of sand and gravel, in consequence 
of the total absence of organic remains- Their non- 
existence may depend chiefly on the disturbed state of 
the waters, where great beds of shingle are formed, 
which are known to prevent testacea and fishes from 
living in Alpine torrents ; partly on the total destruction 
of shells by the same friction which rounded the peb- 
bles ; and partly on the permeability of the matrix to 
water, which may carry away the elements of the de- 
composing fossil body, without substituting any other 
substance in their place which might retain a cast of 

their form. 

But it fortunately happens, in this instance, that in 
some few seams of loamy marl, intervening between 
the pebble-beds, and near the middle of the section, 
shells have been preserved in a very perfect state • 
and these may furnish a zoological date to the whole 
mass. The principal of these interstratified masses of 
loam occurs near the church of St. Madeleine (at c, 
diagram No. 117.)? where the active researches of M. 
Eisso have brought to light a great number of shells 
which agree perfectly with the species found in much 
greater abundance at a spot called La Trinita, and 
some other places nearer Nice. From these fossils it 
clearly appears that the formation belongs to the Older 
Pliocene era. 

with the usual thin 

Such alternations of gravel 

layers of fine sediment may easily be explained, if we 
reflect that the rivers now flowing from the Maritime 
Alps are nearly dried up in summer, and have only 
strength to drift along fine mud to the sea ; whereas 

c h. XII.] 




m winter, or on the melting of the snow, they roll 
along large quantities of pebbles. The thicker masses 
of loam, such as that of St. Madeleine, may have been 
produced during a longer interval, when the river 
shifted for a time the direction of its principal channel 
of discharge ; so that nothing but fine mud was for a 
series of years conveyed to that point in the bed of 
the sea opposite the delta. 

Monte Calvo. 

Fig. 117. 

/ / 

Section from Monte Calvo to the sea by the valley of Magnan, near Nice, 

A » dolomite and sandstone- (Green-sand formation ?) 

a 9 v, d. Beds of gravel and sand. 

c - Fme marl and sand of St. Madeleine. 

lform ar,( * continuous as the strata appear, on a 

. era * V1 ew, in the ravine of the Magnan, we discover, 

e a ttempt to trace any one of them for some dis- 

n ce, that they thin out and are wedge-shaped. We 

ev e that they were thrown down originally upon a 

e p slanting bank or talus, which advanced gradually 


The dis- 

nce between these points is, as before mentioned, 
f out nine miles ; so that the accumulation of super- 
posed strata would be a great many miles in thick- 

ess > if they were placed horizontally upon one another- 



rest to Monte f!aW *hi 

[Book IV. 

pressed by a, are certainly older than those at b, and 
the group b was formed before c. The aggregate thick- 
ness, in any one place, cannot be proved to amount to 
1000 feet, although it may, perhaps, be much greater. 
But it may never exceed 3000 or 4000 feet ; whereas, 
it we did not suppose that the beds were originally 
deposited m an inclined position, we should be forced 
to imagine that a sea, many miles in depth, had been 
filled up by horizontal strata of pebbles thrown down 
one upon another. 

At no great distance on this coast the Var is an- 
nually seen to sweep down into the sea a large quan- 
tity of gravel, which may be spread out by the waves 
and currents over a considerable space. The sea at 
the mouth of this river is now shallow, but it may 
originally have been 3000 feet deep, as it is now close 
to the shore at Nice. Here, therefore, a formation 


be in progress. 

In confirmation of the above reasoning, I may refer 
to the modern delta of the river Kander in the lake 
of Thun in Switzerland. The Kander formerly ran 
Parallel to that lake, until it was artificially turned 
into it about the year 1713, when the government of 
Berne caused two parallel subterranean galleries or 
tunnels to be excavated through the land which separ- 

ated the course. of the river from *h* i~i r <. 

c i ., m rrom «ie-Iake ; a distance 

of nearly a mile The Kander, on being admitted, 
shot with the violence of a Swiss torrent through the 
tunnels, burst the arches of the galleries, and formed 
a ravine, which is now open to the day, about fifty 
feet in depth. A large quantity of mud and rock was 
swept into the lake, and an alluvial tract was formed 





ot a semicircular shape, which now extends for a mile 

a °ng the original shore, and projects about a quarter 

that distance into the lake. Its annual advance is 

said to amount to several yards*, and the delta ter- 

mates in a talus, the slope of which is inclined at 

angles varying between 15° and 25°. Such was 

result of my own observations, in 1836, when I 

funded the lake opposite the mouth of the Kander. 

e greatest inclination which I found gave an angle 

of 2 9 , the least 6°.f It follows, therefore, that the 

ata have successively accumulated on a plane thus 

. x g% inclined ; so that, if the Lake of Thun, which 

s 600 feet deep J, beyond the recently formed shoal, 

er e drained, a vertical section might be laid open, 

u feet in height, in which strata would be seen 



)se of the Magnan, 
they had remained undisturbed from the 

" ri od of their original deposition. 



rtiary Strata at the eastern extremity of 


I shall conclude this chapter with one 


ore example, derived from a region not far distant. 

the borders of the Mediterranean, at the eastern 

*ty of the Pyrenees, in the south of France, a 

S1 derable thickness of tertiary strata is seen in the 

valleys of the rivers Tech, Tet, and Gly. They bear 

. c h resemblance to those already described, consist- 

S partly of a large proportion of conglomerate, and 

^ev. j. Yates, on Alluvium, Edin. New Phil. Journ. 1834. 

18 d C ° le and the Rev * Mr# E 8 erton measured the dip in 

3 > and concluded that it was still more considerable (Pro- 

ng s of Geol .Soc. 1834.) ; but they tell me that they had not 

"* time or implements to insure accuracy in their sound- 

* Mr. Yates, ibid. 

■ I 

: 1 

: U 



[Book IV. 

partly of clay and sand, with subordinate beds of 
lignite. They abut against the primary formation of 
the Pyrenees, which here consists of mica-schist. 
Between Ceret and Boulon these tertiary strata are 
seen inclined at an angle of between 20° and 30 
The shells which I procured from several localities 


Subapennine fossils. 



It appears, from the recent ob- 

servations of Colonel Silvertop, that marine strata of 


and in Granada in Spain. They have also been dis- 
covered by MM. Boblave and Virlet in the Morea. 






an d red cra<r. 


a S of Norfolk and Suffolk — Appears by its fossil contents to 
«*tong to the Older Pliocene period. - Divisible into coralline 

Superincumbent deposits — Forms of stratifi. 

^tion (p. 78.) — Oblique layers— Cause of this arrangement— 

u 'slocations in the strata produced by subterranean movements 

overlaying the shelly crag— P/otruded masses of chalk (p. 85.) 

Similar appearances in the cliffs of Mb'en in Denmark. 

he Older Pliocene strata, described in the last chap- 
ter, are all situated in countries bordering the Medi- 
terranean ; but there is a group in our own island, 
Probably belonging to the same era, which I shall now 
consider. I have already alluded to this deposit under 

e provincial name of crag *, and pointed out its 
s uperposition to the London clay, a tertiary formation 
of much higher antiquity, f The crag is chiefly de- 
veloped in the eastern parts of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
* r om whence it extends into Essex. 

Its relative age. — A collection of the shells of the 


- crag" beds, which I formed in 1829, together with 

jjmuch larger number sent me by my friend Mr. 

fantell, of Brighton, were carefully examined by M. 

eshayes, and compared with the tertiary sDecies in 
hscabi ' - 

met. Moi 

y him to be of extinct species, not agreeing in general 


ne remainder were of recent species, and considered 

* Vol. in. p . 336> 

+ See Fig. 84. Vol. III. p. 338, 






[Book IV. 

to be identical with testacea now living in the German 

Ocean. For these reasons it was inferred that the 
crag was older than the Miocene period, and about as 
far removed in conchological character from the shells 
of our seas, as are the Subapennine strata from the 


Out of 111 

species examined in Paris in 1829, sixty-six were re- 
garded as extinct, and forty-five as recent*; and when 
I lately submitted to the inspection of M. Deshayes 
sixty other species, procured from the lowest or coral- 
line crag, he still retained the same opinion in regard 
to the proportion of recent species. A larger number, 

however, of organic remains has of late years been 
obtained from the crag, principally by Mr. Wood of 
Hasketon, in Suffolk, who states that he has in his col- 
lection, exclusive of Polypi, Radiaria, and Crustacea, 
no less than 450 species of invertebrated animals from 
the crag, among which there are of annulata 13, cirrhi- 
peda 11, conchifera 189, mollusca 257. 

But these fossils have not yet been examined with 
sufficient attention to enable me to say, whether the 
results to which they lead should modify the conclu- 
sions previously deduced from more limited data.f 

* M. Deshayes is now aware that he. was mistaken in supposing 
one of these crag fossils, Valuta Lamberti, to be identical with a 
recent species. 

•f Dr. Beck, of Copenhagen, well known for his profound 
knowledge of recent shells, has lately seen 260 species of cra«* 
shells in Mr. Charles worth's cabinet in London, and informs me, 
that although a large proportion of the species approach very 
near to others which now live in our northern seas, he regards 
them as almost all of distinct species, and not recent. I attribute 
this discordance of opinion between the Danish naturalist and 
M. Deshayes, chiefly to the different estimate which they have 
formed of the amount of variation necessary to constitute a dis- 

Ch. XIII.] 




that the crag may be divided into two distinct masses, 
one of which may be termed the lower or " coralline 
Q ™?\ and the other the " red crag." The lower 
ivision is composed of calcareous sand, chiefly derived 
rom decomposed corals, in which are imbedded shells, 
corals, and sponges, in a good state of preservation, 
a nd which must evidently have lived on the spot. 

This coralline formation is often without distinct 
stratification, and in some places forms a soft stone 
Used in building : it is said to attain a thickness of 
^ore than 50 feet at Orford, and was not pierced 
through even at that depth. The coralline crag rests 
^mediately on the London clay, and may be studied 
at several places in Suffolk, as at Tattingstone, Rams- 
holt, Sudburn Park, Orford, and Aldborough. 

The red crag is distinguished from the coralline, 
upon which it lies in some places unconformably, by 
the deep red ferruginous or ochreous colour of its sands 
an d fossils. It consists in great part of numerous 
la yers of siliceous sand containing shells, which are 
Usually broken and worn. Among these are many of 

Un ct species. It seems natural that those who, like M. Deshayes, 

ay e been long engaged in the study of fossils, should acquire a 

ore enlarged conception of the modifications which time and 

r cumstances may produce in species, even though they reject 

e Lamarckian doctrine of transmutation. This subject, how- 

er y requires a thorough re-examination, as respects the crag 

°ssils. Mr. Milne Edwards tells me that he has seen a small 

rnber of corals or polypifera from the crag, none of which are, 

ln bis opinion, recent. On the other hand, Dr. Fleming, as I 

Mentioned in a former edition, considers the Eschara retiformis, 

and several other zoophytes of this formation, as perfectly identical 

Wlth livin g species. Both M. Deshayes and Dr. Beck agree in. 

pronouncing the crag shells to be those of a northern climate. 

VOL. iv. 






[Book IV. 

the genera Buccinum and Fusus^ which have never 
been met with in the coralline crag. 

Some have imagined the 

red crag 

to consist in 

great measure of transported materials derived from 
the breaking up of the coralline crag ; but I can fully 
confirm the observation of Mr. R. E. Taylor and others, 
that this deposit has been gradually formed, as may be 
inferred from stratification, and from the fact of certain 
shells occurring at intervals in groups and genera, and 
being by no means diffused everywhere, nor scat- 
tered at random, through the beds. 

Another question has also arisen respecting the 
coralline and the red crag, namely, whether both of 
them belong to the same tertiary period. Of the 
fossil shells in Mr. Wood's collection, 235 species are 
said to have been procured from the red crag, and 353 
from the coralline beds, and out of these 150 species 
are common to the two divisions. Mr. Charlesworth 
suggests that, even of these 150 species, many may 
have belonged originally to the lower bed, and have 
been washed into the newer one, in the same manner 
as some fossil shells of the chalk have certainly been 
imbedded in the crag, and as crag shells are now daily 
washed into the sea on our coast, and mixed with re- 
cent shells. But, although such accidental mixtures 
have doubtless occurred, I see no sufficient reason at 
present for believing that the two divisions of the crag 
should be referred to distinct tertiary periods. It is 
not disputed that many fossils are truly common to 
both divisions of the crag, and equally abundant in 
each. The remarkable want of correspondence in 
the genera of shells, and even in some other classes 
and families of organic remains, characteristic of each 
division, affords by no means a strong argument in 

**-*•- *** 



Ch. XIII.] 





our of a wide difference in epoch. It is said that 

here are few indications of fish in the coralline crag ; 

Whereas in the red crag, the teeth and bones of fish of 

the genera Carcharias, Myliobates, Galeus, Lamna, 

^oudanus, an d Pl ata x, are found abundantly. So also 

th 1S / emarked that mammalian remains, as those of 
^ e -Elephant, Horse, and others, are chiefly confined 

the upper or red crag, whereas corallines and other 
*°°phy tes, as also microscopic foraminifera (of which 

«. Wood has obtained fifty species), belong almost 
delusively to the lower or coralline division. * 

Now these distinctions are precisely of a kind which 
^°uld depend on differences of a local rather than a 
chronological nature. Thus in one part of the sea 
may suppose a region, where the water is deep 
an d tranquil, to be favourable to the growth of corals, 
s P°nges, echini and microscopic cephalopods, such as 
characterize the lower crag ; whilst in another and 
0r »ewhat shallower region, where currents prevailed, 
and to which sand and shingle were often drifted, no' 
z °ophytes might exist, although certain kinds of tes- 
a ?ea abounded. According to this hypothesis, a cer- 
a j« space where the coralline crag was first formed 
^ !§ht afterwards have been converted into a shallower 
J ea > or exposed to the action of waves and currents, 

o as to become the receptacle of deposits like the red 

T, • 

is only when we can compare fossils of the same 

wkhVt SheHS Wlth ShellS ' C ° rals With Corals ' and fish 

th ' and When We find that a lai *g e proportion of 

e species thus compared are dissimilar, that we can 

E 6r two § rou Ps of strata to different periods. 


Charlesworth, Phil. Mag., June, 1836, vol. viii. p. 535. 

E 2 









[Book IV, 

There may nevertheless have been a long interval 
of time, and some amount of change in the marine 
fauna, between the times of the deposition of the lower 
and upper crag ; for when we adopt only four tertiary 
periods, as proposed in this work, the number of ages 
probably comprised in any one of them, as for instance 
in the Older Pliocene, may be indefinitely great. 

The shelly beds of Norfolk appear to belong exclu- 
sively to the red crag ; but on the northern limits of 
that county they are said to be occasionally covered 
by a still newer stratum, containing exclusively species 
now living in the adjoining sea. This is doubtless the 
marine formation described by Mr. Phillips as occur- 
ing throughout Holderness, in Yorkshire. # Accord- 
ing to this view, the succession of tertiary formations, 
in following our eastern coast from the estuary of 
the Thames to that of the Humber, will be, first, in 
Essex, the Eocene or London clay ; secondly, in 
Suffolk, the coralline crag, probably belonging to the 
Older Pliocene period ; next, the red crag of Suffolk 
and Norfolk, also of the same era ; and lastly, on the 
extreme northern boundary of Norfolk and in Holder- 
ness, a marine Newer Pliocene deposit. 

Superimposed upon the fossiliferous crag in the 
cliffs of Norfolk and Suffolk, is a formation of much 
greater thickness, and of more uncertain age. It has 
been sometimes classed with the crag and sometimes 
distinguished from it under the name of diluvium. A 
large portion of it is regularly stratified, but other 
parts consist of a confused heap of mud and rubbish 


entirely without stratification, and containing 

ments of various rocks, some derived from the oolitic 

* See Phillips's Geol. of Yorksh. 

Ch. XIII.] 



series with their characteristic fossils, others from the 
chalk and London clay, together with granitic and 
other pebbles transported from a great distance. In 
some places this formation consists of sand and shingle 
ln a *ternate beds destitute of organic remains, and 
of considerable thickness, as in the Suffolk cliffs be- 
tween Dunwich and Yarmouth. Elsewhere it is com- 
posed of blue or brown marl, sand, loam, and clay, con- 
taining bones of terrestrial quadrupeds with drift wood 
ar *d beds of lignite. 

Above this deposit of uncertain age, are occasional 
patches of lacustrine strata, filling up small cavities 
w hich must have once been lakes or ponds on the sur- 
face of the country, and in which strata of loam and peat 


accumulated, including recent freshwater testacea. 
The annexed section may give a general idea of 



a * Chalk, b. Shelly crag and overlying strata of uncertain age. 
c Lacustrine deposit (newer pliocene). 

C Trimmingham beacon. 

E. Interior and higher part of Norfolk.* 

the manner in which the crag and the superimposed 
gravel, sand, and marl rest on the chalk as we pass from 
the Norfolk cliffs, at Trimmingham, into the interior, 
where the country rises gradually. 

The outline of the surface of the subjacent chalk, 
m this section, is imaginary, but is such as might ex- 

This section is compiled principally from one by Mr. Mur- 
chison; the others in this chapter are from sketches which I 
made in 1829. 

E 3 


* 'f* 




[Book IV. 

plain the relations of those protruded masses of chalk, 
three of which appear in the cliffs near Trimmingham, 
and which some geologists have too hastily assumed to 
be unconnected with the great mass of chalk below. 
I shall treat of these presently, when describing the 
disturbances which the tertiary strata of the Norfolk 
cliffs have suffered since their original deposition. 

In the interior, at e, there is a thick covering of 
sand and gravel upon the chalk, having the characters 
of an alluvium, but which seems to pass gradually into 
the regular strata of sand, shingle, and loam before 
described as covering the shelly crag. 

Forms of stratification. — In almost every formation 
the individual strata are rarely persistent for a great 
distance, the superior and inferior planes being seldom 
precisely parallel to each other; and if the materials 
are very coarse, the beds often thin out if we trace 
them for a few hundred yards. There are also many 
cases where all the layers are oblique to the general 
direction of the strata, and the crag affords most in- 
teresting illustrations of this phenomenon. 



* * vj^iwoV/UtCU 111 

the annexed diagram is seen. The vertical height is 
about twenty feet, and the beds of crag consist alter- 
nately of sets of inclined and horizontal layers of sand 

Fig. 1 1 9. 

Section of shelly crag near Walton, Suffolk. 

Ch. XIII.] 



and comminuted shells. The sand is siliceous, and of 
a ferruginous colour ; but the layers are sometimes 
made up of small plates of bivalve shells, arranged with 
their flat sides parallel to the plane of each layer, like 
mica in micaceous sandstones. 

The number of laminae in the thickness of an inch, 
both in the siliceous and shelly sand, varies from 
seven to ten, so that it is impossible to express them 
all in the diagram. The height of the uppermost 

stratum is, in this instance, remarkable, as it extends 
to twelve feet. The inclination of the laminae is about 
30° ; but in the cliffs of Bawdesey, to the eastward, 
they are sometimes inclined at an angle of 45°, and 

e ven more. 


Fig. 120. 

Section at the lighthouse near Happisborough. Height sixteen feet. 

a. Pebbles of chalk flint, and of rolled pieces of white chalk 

6. Loam overlying a. 

c, c. Blue and brown clay. 

This diagonal arrangement of the layers, sometimes 
called "false stratification," is not confined to deposits 
°f fine sand and comminuted shells ; for we find beds 
°f shingle disposed in the same manner, as is seen in 
the annexed section (Fig. 120.). 

The direction of the dip of the inclined layers, 
throughout the Suffolk coast, is so uniformly to the 
south, that I only saw two or three instances of a con- 
trary nature, where the inclination was northerly. One 
of the best examples of this variation is exhibited 
in a cliff between Mismer and Dunwich (Fig. 121.). 

E 4 





1 [Book IV. 

In this case, there are about six layers in the thick- 
ness of an inch, and the part of the cliff represented is 
about six feet high. 

Fig. 121. 

Section of part %^.^ f ^co mp ose d of quartzose sand, shoving the 

inclination of the layers in opposite directions. 

Another example may be seen near Walton, where 
the layers, which are of extreme tenuity, consist of 
ferruginous sand, brown loam, and comminuted shells. 
It is not uncommon to find in this manner sets of per- 
fectly horizontal strata resting upon and covered by 
groups of wavy and transverse layers. 

Fig. 122. 

Lamination of ^SlSCff^ «*» 

The appearances exhibited in the diagrams are not 
peculiar to the crag : they may be found in almost 
every gravel-pit; and I have seen sand and pebble- 
beds of all ages, including the old red sandstone, grey- 
wacke, and clay-slate, exhibit the same arrangement 

If we now inquire into the causes of such a disposi- 
tion of the materials of each bed or group of layers it 
may, in the first place, be remarked, that, however 




Fig. 123. 

numerous may be the succes- 
sive layers a, b> c, the layer a f 
must have been deposited be- 
fore 6, b before c, and so of the 


down on a slope, and that it conformed itself to the 
Sl de of the steep bank, just as we see the materials of 
a talus arrange themselves at the foot of a cliff when 
they have been cast down successively from above. If 
the transverse layers are cut off by a nearly horizontal 
l^e, as in many of the above sections, it may arise 
from the denuding action of a wave which has carried 
away the upper portion of a submarine bank, and 
tr uncated the layers of which it was composed. But I 
do not conceive this hypothesis to be necessary ; for 
*f a bank have a steep side, it may grow by the suc- 
cessive apposition of thin strata thrown down upon its 
slanting side, and the removal of matter from the top 
*flay proceed simultaneously with its lateral extension. 
The same current may borrow from the top what it 
gives to the sides ; a mode of formation which I had 
lately an opportunty of observing on the rippled sur- 
face of the hills of blown sand near Calais. The undu- 
lating ridges and intervening furrows on the dunes of 
blown sand resembled exactly in form those caused by 
the waves on a sea-beach, and were always at right 
a ^gles to the direction of the wind which had produced 
them. Each ridge had one side slightly inclined, and 

Fig. 124. 

the other steep ; the lee side being always steep, as 

e 5 



ij I 




[Book IV. 

be d, e ; the windward side a gentle slope, as «, b, c, d 

WhPTi a crust: nt winrl Kl^«r «.:xi. ™ . _ 7 

- — oumuieiit rorce to drive 

along a cloud of sand, all the ridges were seen to be 
m motion at once each encroaching on the furrow 

thtTla ce" K K ^ T^ ° f * ** «*> ^g 
the place which the furrows had occupied. Many 

fnrt "T drift6d *«* the 4h» « b and 
« * which, when they fell over the scarps * e and d e 

were under shelter from the wind; so that they rl 
mained stationary, resting, according to their shape 
and momentum, on different parts of the descent, in 
this manner each ridge was distinctly seen to move 
shwly on as often as the force of the wind augmented. 
* e shall not strain analogy too far, by supposing that, 
m such cases, the same laws may govern subaqueou 
and subaenal phenomena ; and if so , We may im • 
a submarine bank to be nothing more than „ 

ridges of ripple on a larger scale, which may increase 

in the manner before suggested, by successive addition! 
to the steep scarps. unions 

The set of tides and currents, in opposite directions 

7ir°z r s en variations in the ^ 

he dip of the layers, as represented in Fig. 1 24 . , wh il e 
the general prevalence of a «nn*fc a i • , *''. wmie 
the crag of Suffolk may hl£%*J* mU ' ™ 
brought by a current from £%£* *" ^ ™ 

I may refer ,o a drawing given in fte fet 
to show the analogy of the arrangement rf £™ >>_ 
manne s rata Just considered, ,„ that exhibited by 
deposits formed in the channels of rivers where a con 
siderable transportation of sediment is in progress. 

™™» „ „,_..,.. In the a[)OTe examples I 

Derangement of 

* P 378. Fig, 13. 


Ch. XIIL] 



have explained the want of parallelism or horizon- 
tally in the subordinate layers of different strata, by 
reference to the mode of their original deposition ; 
but there are signs of disturbance which can only be 
accounted for by subsequent movements. The same 
blue and brown clay, or loam, which is often perfectly 
horizontal, and as regularly bedded as any of our older 
formations, is, in other places, curved and even folded 

back upon itself, in the manner represented in the an- 
nexed diagrams. 

Fig. 125. 

Fig. 126. 

Bent strata of loam in the cliffs 
between Cromer and Runton. 

Folding of the strata between East and 

West Runton. 

In the last of these cuts a central nucleus of sand 
is surrounded by argillaceous and sandy layers. This 
phenomenon is very frequent ; and there are instances 
where the materials thus enveloped consist of broken 
flints mingled with pieces of chalk, forming a white 
mass, encircled by dark laminated clay. The diameter 
of these included masses, as seen in sections laid open 
in the sea cliffs, varies from five to fifteen feet. 

East of Sherringham, a heap of partially-rounded 
flints, about five feet in diameter, is nearly enveloped 
by finely laminated strata of sand and loam, and some 
of the loam is entangled in the midst of the flints. 

In this and similar instances, we may imagine the 

e 6 



1 1 




[Book IV. 

Fig. 127 


Section in the Cliffs east of Sherringham. 

a. Sand and loam in thin layers. 

yielding strata, a, to have subsided into a cavity, and 
the flints belonging to a superincumbent bed to have 
pressed down with their weight, so as to cause the 
strata to fold round them. 

That some masses of stratified sand and loam have 
actually sunk down into cavities, or have fallen like 
landslips into ravines, seems indicated by other appear- 
ances. Thus near Sherringham, the argillaceous beds, 

(Fig. 128.) 

. & , , , & iaui v xi g* izo.i, are 

cut off abruptly and succeeded by the vertical and 

contorted series b, c. The face of the cliff here repre- 

Fig. 128. 

Section east of Sherringham, Norfolk. 

a. Sand, loam, and blue clay. 
c. Twisted beds of loam. 

h b. Sand and gravel 


sented is twenty-four feet in height. Some of the lay- 
ersin bb, are composed of pebbles, and these alternate 
with thin beds of loose sand. The whole set must 
once have been horizontal, and must have moved in a 
mass, or the relative position of the several parts would 
not have been preserved. Similar appearances may, 

■ 1 ■ 

Ch. XIII.] 



perhaps, be produced when chasms open during earth- 
quakes, and portions of yielding strata fall in from 
above and are engulphed. 

Protruded masses of chalk. — But whatever opinion 
w e may entertain on this point, we cannot doubt that 
subterranean movements have given rise to some of 
*he local derangements of this formation, particularly 
Where masses of solid chalk pierce, as it were, through 

Fig. 129. 

mde view of a promontory of chalk and tertiary strata, Trzmmingham, Norfolk* 


Gravel and ferruginous sand, rounded and angular pieces of 
chalk flint, with some quartz pebbles, 3 feet. 

6 * Laminated blue clay, 8 feet. 

c * Yellow sand, 1 foot, 6 inches. 

**• Dark blue clay, with fragments of marine shells, 6 feet. 


Yellow loam and flint gravel, 3 feet. 

f m Light blue clay, 1 foot. 

g. Sand and loam, 12 feet. 

"• Yellow and white sand, loam, and gravel, about 100 feet. 

the tertiary strata. Thus, between Mundesley and 
-Inmmingham we see the appearances exhibited in the 
accompanying view (Fig. 129.). The chalk, of which 
the strata are highly inclined, or vertical, projects in a 

i ■ 





[Book IV. 

promontory, because it offers more resistance to the 
action of the waves than the tertiary beds which, on 
both sides, constitute the whole of the cliff The 
height of the soft strata immediately above the chalk 
is, in this place, about 130 feet. Those which are in 
contact (see the wood-cut) are inclined at an angle of 
45 , and appear more disturbed than in other parts of 
the cliffs, as if they had been displaced by the move- 
ment by which the chalk was protruded. 

Very similar appearances are exhibited by the 
northernmost of the three protuberances of chalk, of 
which a front view is given in the annexed diagram. 

Fig. 130 

Northern protuberance of chalk, Trtmmtagkam 

a. Chalk with flints. 

b. Gravel of broken and half-rounded flints. 

c. Laminated blue clav. 

d. Sand and yellow loam. 

It occupies a space of about one hundred yards alone 
the shore, and projects about sixty yards in advance of 
the general line of cliff. One of its edges, at c, rests 
upon the blue clay beds, in such a manner as to imply 
that the mass had been undermined when the clav 
was deposited, unless we suppose, as some have done, 
that this chalk is a great detached mass enveloped by 


Ch. XIII] 



tertiary strata. For, as one of the " Needles," or in- 
sulated rocks of chalk, which stood 120 feet above 
high-water mark, at the western extremity of the Isle 
of Wight, fell into the sea in 1772 *, so a pinnacle of 
chalk may have been precipitated into the tertiary sea, 
a t a point where some beds of clay had previously ac- 
cumulated. The strata of chalk with flint in the above 
diagram appear nearly horizontal ; but they are in fact 
highly inclined inwards towards the cliff, and it is quite 
evident that the chalk and overlying deposit have both 
been subjected to the same movement, and have been 
v iolently disturbed. 

Since I first published my observations on these 
phenomena, I have visited Denmark, and seen similar 
appearances, but on a much grander scale, in the cliffs 
of the island of Moen. The white chalk with flints, 
Which there forms cliffs from 300 to 400 feet high, is 
covered with tertiary sand, clay, and loam, exactly re- 
sembling in form, colour, and mineralogical character, 
the deposit overlying the crag of Norfolk. The chalk 
m Moen exhibits curved, vertical, and shifted strata, 
Upon the whole more deranged than those of Purbeck 
or the Isle of Wight. They have been so fissured and 
dislocated, that large masses of overlying clay and sand 
have subsided bodily into large chasms, intersecting 
the chalk to the depth of several hundred feet. Some 
of these intercalations and intermixtures of tertiary 
clay and sand with chalk can only be explained by 
supposing engulphments of superincumbent matter, 
such as are known to have occurred during modern 

I have stated that the Danish tertiary deposit re- 

* Dodsley's Annual Register, vol. xv. p. HO, 

1 [ 




1 ' 1 

I 1 





[Book IV. 

sembles that of uncertain age, which rests upon the 
crag in Norfolk and Suffolk. The correspondence ex- 
tends not merely to the nature of the clay, sand, gravel, 
and mud, but to many other peculiarities. Thus in 
Denmark, especially in Holstein, as seen in sections on 
the banks of the Elbe, we find in some places a total ab- 
sence of stratification, while masses in immediate con- 
tact are regularly divided into thin layers of sand and 
loam extending to the thickness of several hundred feet. 
In Denmark also, as in Norfolk, we find here and there 
the wreck of many secondary formations included in 
the newer deposit, especially chalk, together with 
some pebbles of granite, porphyry, and other rocks. 
Organic remains are rare in Denmark, except those 
derived from older strata, and hence the age of the 
formation is on the whole very doubtful ; but it has 
been supposed by Dr. Forchhammer and Dr. Beck to 
have been in progress throughout more than one ter- 
tiary period. Be this as it may, it is ascertained that 
one portion of it is extremely modern, and belongs to 
the latest part of the Newer Pliocene period, contain- 
ing shells identical with those now living in the Ger- 
man Ocean. Whether the beds of the Norfolk cliffs 
which, together with the chalk, have been so much dis- 
turbed, are of equally modern date, or belong rather to 
a more remote part of the great Pliocene epoch, is a 
point which we cannot yet determine ; and indeed we 
cannot hope to solve this problem, until we have com- 
pared more attentively the newer tertiary strata of 
Denmark, and the south of Sweden, with those of the 
eastern coast of England. 





gtteous rocks of this period in Italy — Volcanic region of Olot, 
1J i Catalonia — Lava currents — Ravines — Ancient alluvium 

Jets of air called " Bufadors " (p. 98.) 

Age of the Ca- 

talonian volcanos uncertain — Earthquake of Olot in 1421 
Sardinian volcanos — District of the Eifel and Lower Rhine 
Peculiar characteristics of the Eifel volcanos — Lake craters 

(p. 102.) Trass — Age of the Eifel volcanic rocks how far 

• uncertain (p. 109.) — Brown coal formation. 


Italy. — It is part of my proposed plan to consider the 
^neous as well as the aqueous formations of each 
Period ; but I am far from being able as yet to assign 
to each of the numerous groups of volcanic origin scat- 
tered over Europe a precise place in the chronological 
Se ries. It has been already stated, that the volcanic 
r ocks of Tuscany belong, in part at least, to the Older 
Miocene period, — those, for example, of Radicofani, 
viterbo, and Aquapendente, which have been chiefly 
er upted beneath the sea. The same observation 
^ould probably hold true in regard to the igneous 
r ocks of the Campagna di Roma. 

But several other districts, of which the dates are 
stl H uncertain, may be mentioned in this chapter as 
e ^ n g possibly referable to the period now under con- 
sideration. It will at least be useful to explain the 
points which require elucidation before the exact age 
of the groups about to be described can be accurately 






[Book IV. 


I shall first de- 

scribe a district of extinct volcanos in the north of 
Spain, which is little known, and which I visited in 
the summer of 1830. 

The whole extent of country occupied by volcanic 
products in Catalonia is not more than fifteen geogra- 
phical miles from north to south, and about six from 
east to west. The vents of eruption range entirely 
within a narrow band running north and south ; and 
the branches, which are represented as extending 

Fig. 131. 

Volcanic district of Catalonia. 



/, . cheL 

2, Monte 





"| set'. ar 



//////'AV ////'///// 

/// ()///// '/'//y 




"J fo 

Vo I 


Ch. XIV.] 



eastward in the map, are formed simply of two lava- 


those of Castell Follit and Cellent. 

D r. Macl _, p 

^° niade known the existence of these volcanos * ; 
ncl 5 according to his description, the volcanic region 
ended over twen ty square leagues, from Amer to 




anet, in the Pyrenees, for traces of a lava-current; and 
c an say, with confidence, that the adjoining map gives 


c °rrect view of the true area of the volcanic action. 



The eruptions 

Ve burst entirely through secondary rocks, composed 
ln great part of grey and greenish sandstone and con- 
glomerate, with some thick beds of nummulitic lime- 
stone. The conglomerate contains pebbles of quartz, 

ltn estone, and Lydian stone. The limestone i,s not 

° n v replete with nummulites, but occasionally in- 

clu des oysters, pectens, and other shells. This system 

rocks is very extensively spread throughout Cata- 

0ril a ; one of its members being a red sandstone, to 
^hich the celebrated salt-rock of Cardona is subor- 
Um ate. It is conjectured that the whole belongs to 

e age of our green-sand and chalk. 

■^ear Amer, in the Valley of the Ter, on the south- 

rri borders of the region delineated in the map, pri- 
ar y rocks are seen consisting of gneiss, mica-schist, 
u clay-slate. They run in a line nearly parallel to 
e Pyrenees, and throw off the secondary strata from 
eir flanks, causing them to dip to the north and 
. ort h-west. This dip, which is towards the Pyrenees, 

s connected with a distinct axis of elevation, and pre- 
s trough the whole area described in the map, the 

Maclure, Journ. de Phys., vol. lxvi. p. 219., 1808 5 cited by 
aubeny, Description of Volcanos, p. 24. 



I 1 








[Book IV. 


inclination of the beds being sometimes at an angle of 
between 40 and 50 degrees. 

It is evident that the physical geography of the 
country has undergone no material change since the 
commencement of the era, of the volcanic eruptions, 
except such as has resulted from the introduction of 
new lulls of scoriae, and currents of lava upon the sur- 
**~ If the lavas could be remelted and poured out 
again from their respective craters, they would descend 
the same valleys in which they are now seen, and re- 
occupy the spaces which they at present fill. The only 
difference in the external configuration of the fresh 
lavas would consist in this, that they would nowhere 
be intersected by ravines, or exhibit marks of erosion 
by running water. 

Volcanic cones and lavas There are about four- 
teen distinct cones with craters in this part of Spain, 
besides several points whence lavas may have issued ; 
all of them arranged along a narrow line running north 
and south, as will be seen in the map. The greatest 
number of perfect cones are in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Olot, some of which are represented in 
the annexed plate (PL XI.) ; and the level plain on 
which that town stands has clearly been produced 
by the flowing down of many lava-streams from those 
hills into the bottom of a valley, probably once of 

considerable depth, like those of the surrounding 

In this plate an attempt is made to represent by 
colours the different geological formations of which 
the country is composed* The blue line of moun- 


* This view is taken from a sketch which I made on the spot 
in 1830. 


c h. XIV.] 



teins in the distance are the Pyrenees, which are to 
the north of the spectator, and consist of primary 
a nd ancient secondary rocks. In front of these are 
the secondary formations described in this chapter, 
coloured grey. Different shades of this colour are 
Produced, to express various distances. The flank 
°f the hill, in the foreground, called Costa de Pujou, 
*s composed partly of secondary rocks, and partly of 
v olcanic, the red colour expressing lava and scoriae. 

The Fluvia, which flows near the town of Olot, has 
cut to the depth of only 40 feet through the lavas of 
the plain before mentioned. The bed of the river is 
hard basalt ; and at the bridge of Santa Madalena are 
seen two distinct lava-currents, one above the other, 

separated by a horizontal bed of scoriae eight feet 


In one place, to the south of Olot, the even surface 
of the plain is broken by a mound of lava, called the 
Bosque de Tosca," the upper part of which is scori- 
aceous, and covered with enormous heaps of fragments 
of basalt more or less porous. Between the numerous 
hummocks thus formed are deep cavities, having the 
v appearance of small craters. The whole precisely re- 
sembles some of the modern currents of Etna, or that 
of Come, near Clermont ; the last of which, like the 
•Bosque de Tosca, supports only a scanty vegetation. 

Most of the Catalonian volcanos are as entire as 
those in the neighbourhood of Naples, or on the flanks 
of Etna. One of these, figured in the plate, called 
Montsacopa, is of a very regular form, and has a cir- 
cular depression or crater at the summit. It is chiefly 
toade up of red scoriae, undistinguishable from that of 
the minor cones of Etna. The neighbouring hills of 
Olivet and Garrinada, also figured in the plate, are of 


< r 



[Book IV. 

similar composition and shape. The largest crater of 
the whole district occurs farther to the east of Olot, 


It is 455 feet deep 

and about a mile in circumference. Like Astroni, 
near Naples, it is richly covered with wood, wherein 
game of various kinds abounds. 

Although the volcanos of Catalonia have broken out 
through sandstone, shale, and limestone, as have those 
of the Eifel, in Germany, to be described in the sequel, 
there is a remarkable difference in the nature of the 
ejections composing the cones in these two regions. 
In the Eifel, the quantity of pieces of sandstone and 
shale thrown out from the vents is often so immense 
as far to exceed in volume the scoriae, pumice, and 
lava ; but I sought in vain in the cones near Olot for 
a single fragment of any extraneous rock ; and Don 
Francisco Bolos, an eminent botanist of Olot, informs 
me that he has never been able to detect any. Vol- 
canic sand and ashes are not confined to the cones, 
but have been sometimes scattered by the wind over 
the country, and drifted into narrow valleys, as is seen 
between Olot and Cellent, where the annexed section 
is exposed. The light cindery volcanic matter rests 
in thin regular layers, just as it alighted on the slope 
formed by the solid conglomerate. No flood could 

a. Secondary conglo- 


6. Thin seams of vol- 
canic sand and scoria?. 

have passed through the valley since the scoria fell, or 
these would have been for the most part removed. 
The currents of lava in Catalonia, like those of 


uvergne, the Vivarais, Iceland, and all mountainous 

countries, are of considerable depth in narrow defiles, 

JJt spread out into comparatively thin sheets in places 

ere the valleys widen. If a river has flowed on 

e arly level ground, as in the great plain near Olot, 

e w ater has only excavated a channel of slight depth; 

u where the declivity is great, the stream has cut 

th Ge ^ section > som etimes by penetrating directly 

f ° u gh the central part of a lava-current, but more 

gently by passing between the lava and the se- 

° ndar y rock which bounds the valley. Thus, in the 

Cot npanying section, at the bridge of Cellent, six 

1 es east of Olot, we see th e lava on one side of the 

Q Section above the bridge of Cellent. 

6 * ^ c °riaceous lava. 

c ' ^ ch istose basalt. 

' Colu mnar basalt. 

d. Scoriae, vegetable soil, and alluvium. 

e. Nummulitic limestone. 

/. Micaceous grey sandstone. 

stream ; while the inclined stratified rocks con- 

of v^ t * le c ^ anne ^ anc * opposite bank. The upper part 
j. e lava at that place, as is usual in the currents of 
c a anc * Vesuvius, is scoriaceous ; farther down it be- 
St'll eS P orous > and assumes a spheroidal structure; 
t , ° Wer lt divides in horizontal plates, each about 
inches in thickness, and is more compact. Lastly, 


■ in 



[Book IV' 

at the bottom is a mass of prismatic basalt about five 
feet thick. The vertical columns often rest immediately 
on the subjacent secondary rocks ; but there is some- 
times an intervention of such sand and scoria? as cover 
the country during volcanic eruptions, and which when 
unprotected, as here, by superincumbent lava, is 
washed away from the surface of the land. Some- 
times, the bed d contains a few pebbles and angular 
fragments of rock; in other places fine earth, which 
may have constituted an ancient vegetable soil. 

In several localities, beds of sand and ashes are in- 
terposed between the lava and subjacent stratified 
rock, as may be seen if we follow the course of the 
lava-current which descends from Las Planas towards 
Amer, and stops two miles short of that town. The 
river there has often cut through the lava, and through 
eighteen feet of underlying limestone. Occasionally 
an alluvium, several feet thick, is interspersed between 
the igneous and marine formation; and it is interesting 
to remark that in this, as in other beds of pebbles 
occupying a similar position, there are no rounded 
fragments of lava ; whereas in the most modern gravel- 
beds of rivers of this country, volcanic pebbles are 

The deepest excavation made by a river through 
lava, which I observed in this part of Spain, is that 
seen in the bottom of a valley near San Feliu de Pal- 
lets, opposite the Castell de Stolles. The lava there 
has filled up the bottom of a valley, and a narro* 
ravine has been cut through it to the depth of one 
hundred feet. In the lower part the lava has » 
columnar structure. A great number of ages were 
probably required for the erosion of so deep a ravine ; 
but we have no reason to infer that this current is of 






higher antiquity than those of the plain near Olot. 

A he fall of the ground, and consequent velocity of the 

stream, being in this case greater, a more considerable 

y olume of rock may have been removed in the same 

* shall describe one more section to elucidate the 
Phenomena of this district. A lava-stream, flowing 

r om a ridge of hills on the east of Olot, descends a 
considerable slope, until it reaches the valley of the 
river Fluvia. Here, for the first time, it comes in 
c °ntact with running water, which has removed a 
Portion, and laid open its internal structure in a pre- 
Cl pice about 130 feet in height, at the edge of which 
stands the town of Castell Follit. 
% the junction of the rivers Fluvia and Teronel 

ne mass of lava has been cut away on two sides ; and 


(Fig. 134.) 

y never so high as the cliff a, as it may have 
instituted the lower part of the sloping side of the 
0ri ginal current. 

From an examination of the vertical cliffs, it appears 
hat the upper part of the lava on which the town is 
Uu t is scoriaceous, passing downwards into a sphe- 
ral basalt; some of the huge spheroids being no 
ess than six feet in diameter. Below this is a more 
Coi »pact basalt with crystals of olivine. There are in 
about four distinct ranges of prismatic basalt, separ- 
ated by thinner beds not columnar, and some of which 
re schistose. The whole mass rests on alluvium, ten 
or twelve feet in thickness, composed of pebbles of 
• Iftl estone and quartz, but without any intermixture of 
goeous rocks ; in which circumstance alone it appears 

to diff. 

er from the modern gravel of the Fluvia 

V OL.iv. 



. * 





[Book IV. 

Fig. 134 

Section at Castell Follit. 


A. Church and town of Castell Follit, overlooking precipices of 


B. Small island, on each side of which branches of the river 

Teronel flow to meet the Fluvia. 

c. Precipice of basaltic lava, chiefly columnar, about 1 30 feet in 


d. Ancient alluvium underlying the lava-current. 

e. Inclined strata of secondary sandstone. 

Bvfadors. — The volcanic rocks near Olot have often 
a cavernous structure, like some of the lavas of E tna 
and in many parts of the hill of Batet, in the environs 
of the town, the sound returned by the earth, when 
struck, is like that of an archway. At the base of the 
same hill are the mouths of several subterranean 
caverns, about twelve in number, which are called in 
the country " bufadors," from which a current of cold 
air issues during summer, but which in winter is said 
to be scarcely perceptible. I visited one of these 
bufadors in the beginning of August, 1830, when the 
heat of the season was unusually intense, and found a 
cold wind blowing from it ; which may easily be ex- 



.- " 





Ch. XIV.] 



plained ; f or as the external air, when rarefied by heat, 
ascends, the pressure of the colder and heavier air of 
the caverns in the interior of the mountain causes it 
to rush out to supply its place. 


It now 

on y remains to offer some remarks on the probable 
a £ e of these Spanish volcanos. Attempts have been 
m ade to prove, that in this country, as well as in Au- 
Ver gne and the Eifel, the earliest inhabitants were eye- 
witnesses to the volcanic action. In the year 1421, it 
ls said, when Olot was destroyed by an earthquake, 
au eruption broke out near Amer, and consumed the 

own. The researches of Don Francisco Bolos have, 
think, shown, in the most satisfactory manner, that 

her e is no good historical foundation for the latter 

P ar t of this story ; and any geologist who has visited 

^er must be convinced that there never was any 

Option on that spot. It is true that, in the year above 

Mentioned, the whole of Olot, with the exception of a 

^gle house, was cast down by an earthquake ; one 
those shocks which, at distant intervals during the 

; st fi y e centuries, have shaken the Pyrenees, and par- 

^ularly the country between Perpignan and Olot, 
er e the movements, at the period alluded to, were 
m °st violent. 

°°*ne houses are said to have sunk into the earth ; 

t h tllis account has been corroborated by the fact 

a t, within the memory of persons now living, the 

r ied arches of a Benedictine monastery were found 

j ^e depth of six feet beneath the surface ; and still 

er > some houses were dug out in the street called 

gua. D on Bolos informed me, that he was present 

a the latter excavation was made, and when the 

°f a buried house was found nearly entire ; the 

f 2 




[Book IV 

interior of the building being in a great part empty, so 
that is was necessary to fill it up with earth and 
stones, in order to form a sure foundation for the new 

The annihilation of the ancient Olot may, perhaps, 
be ascribed, not to the extraordinary violence of the 
movement on that spot, but to the cavernous nature of 
the subjacent rocks ; for Catalonia is beyond the line 
of those European earthquakes which have, within the 
period of history, destroyed towns throughout exten- 
sive areas. 

As we have no historical records, then, to guide us 
in regard to the extinct volcanos, we must appeal to 
geological monuments. I have little doubt that some 
fossil land-shells, and bones of quadrupeds, will here- 
after reward the industry of collectors. If such re- 
mains are found imbedded in volcanic ejections, the 
period of the eruptions may be inferred ; but at pre- 
sent we have no evidence beyond that afforded by 
superposition, in regard to which the annexed diagram 
will present to the reader, in a synoptical form, the 
results obtained from numerous sections. 

Fig. 135. 


Superposition of rocks in the volcanic district of Catalonia. 

Sandstone and nummulitic limestone. 

b. Older alluvium without volcanic pebbles. 


Cones of scorias and lava. 

d. Newer alluvium 

The more modern alluvium, d 9 is partial, and has 
been formed by the action of rivers and floods upon the 

Ch. XIV.] 



lava; whereas the older gravel, b, was strewed over 
the country before the volcanic eruptions. In neither 
have any organic remains been discovered ; so that we 
can merely affirm, as yet, that the volcanos broke out 
after the elevation of some of the newest rocks of the 
secondary series, and before the formation of an allu- 
v ^m, d, of unknown date- The integrity of the cones 

Merely shows that the country has not been agitated 

ky violent earthquakes, or subjected to the action of 
any great transient flood since their origin. 

East of Olot, on the Catalonian coast, marine tertiary 
st ^ata occur, which, near Barcelona, attain the height 
°f about five hundred feet. It appears probable, from 
a small number of shells which I collected, tbat these 
strata may correspond with the Subapennine beds; 
s ° that if the volcanic district had extended thus far, 
^e might be able to determine the age of the igneous 
products, by observing their relation to these Older 

■Pliocene formations. * 

Sardinian volcanos. — The line of extinct volcanos 
*** Sardinia, described by Captain Smyth f, is also of 
Ul *certain date, as, notwithstanding the freshness of 
s ome of the cones and lavas, they may be of high an- 
Equity. They rest, however, on a tertiary formation, 
supposed by some to correspond to the Subapennine 
str ata, but of which the fossil remains have not been 
fully described. 

Volcanic rocks of the Eifel. — The volcanos of the 
Lower Rhine and the Eifel are, for the most part, of no 



For some account of the Olot volcanos, see " Noticia de los 
Estinguidos Volcanes de la Villa de Olot," by Francisco Bolos. 
Barcelona. No date ; but the observations, I am told, preceded 
those of Dr. Maclure. 

t Present State of Sardinia, &c. pp. 69, 70. 

F 3 




[Book IV, 

less uncertain date than those of Catalonia ; but I am 
desirous of pointing out some of their peculiar charac- 
ters, and shall, therefore, treat of them in this chapter, 
trusting that future investigations will determine their 
chronological relations more accurately. 

For the geographical details of this volcanic region 
the reader is referred to thea nnexed map (Fig. 1 36.), 
for which I am indebted to Mr. Horner, whose resi- 
dence in the country has enabled him to verify the 
maps of MM. Noeggerath and Von Oeynhausen, from 
which that now given has been principally compiled. 

There has been a long succession of eruptions in 
this country, and some of them must have occurred 
when its physical geography was in a very different 
state, while others have happened when the whole dis- 
trict had nearly assumed its present configuration. 

The fundamental rock of the Eifel is an ancient 
secondary sandstone and shale, to which the obscure 
and vague appellation of « grey wacke" " has been given. 
The formation has precisely the characters of a great 
part of those gray and red sandstones and shales, 
which are called " old red sandstone " in England and 
Scotland, where they constitute the inferior member 
of the carboniferous series. In the Eifel they occupy 
the same geological position, and in some parts alter- 
nate with a limestone, containing trilobites and other 
fossils of our "mountain" and « transition" limestones. 
The strata are inclined at all angles, from the hori- 
zontal to the vertical, and must have undergone re- 
iterated convulsions before the country was moulded 
into its present form. 

Lake-craters. — The volcanos have broken out some- 
times at the bottom of deep valleys, sometimes on 
the summit of hills, and frequently on intervening 

Ch. XIV.] 





« CO — 






■5 H -3 & ^ 

o o o o Sd 



o3 '£ 













• rH 










• 1H 









8 S 


O 03 

PQ <*-« * 










x g. 1 36. 





[Book IV. 

platforms. The traveller often falls upon them unex- 
pectedly in a district otherwise extremely barren of 

geological interest. 


us, for example, he might 

arrive at the village of Gemund, immediately south of 
Daun, without suspecting that he was in the imme- 
diate vicinity of some of the most remarkable vents of 
eruption. Leaving a stream, which flows at the bottom 
of a deep valley in a sandstone country, he climbs the 
steep acclivity of a hill, where he observes the edges 
of strata of sandstone and shale dipping inwards to- 





^ q 





o ^ 




a) q 

Q o 


Ch. XIV.] 



^ards the mountain. When he has ascended to a con- 
siderable height, he sees fragments of scoriae sparingly 
scattered over the surface ; till, at length, on reaching 
the summit, he finds himself suddenly on the edge of 
a torn, or deep circular lake-basin. 

Tn . _ _ _ 



™*t of three lakes which are in immediate contact, 
e same ridge forming the barrier of two neighbouring 
cavities (see Fig. 137.)- On viewing the first of these 
w e recognize the ordinary form of a crater, for which 
^ e have been prepared by the occurrence of scoriae 
scattered over the surface of the soil. But on examin- 
ln g the walls of the crater, we find precipices of 
sandstone and shale which exhibit no signs of the 
ac tion of heat ; and we look in vain for those beds of 
lav a and scoriae, dipping in opposite directions on every 
side, which we have been accustomed to consider as 
characteristic of volcanic craters. As we proceed, 
however, to the opposite side of the lake, and after- 
wards visit the craters c and d (Fig. 138.), we find a 
c °nsiderable quantity of scoriae and some lava, and 
Se e the whole surface of the soil sparkling with vol- 
c anic sand, and strewed with ejected fragments of 
nalf-f usec j s hale, which preserves its laminated texture 

lXi the interior, while it has a vitrified or scoriform 

^ A few miles to the south of the lakes above men- 
tioned occurs the Pulvermaar of Gillenfeld, an oval 
a ke of very regular form, and surrounded by an un- 
r oken ridge of fragmentary materials, consisting of 
Jected shale and sandstone, and preserving a uniform 
hei ght of about 150 feet above the water. The side 
^ ,0 Pe in the interior is at an angle of about forty-five 
de grees ; on the exterior, of thirty-five degrees. Vol- 

f 5 







[Book IV. 

canic substances are intermixed very sparingly with 
the ejections, which in this place entirely conceal from 
view the stratified rocks of the country.* 

The Meerfelder Maar is a cavity of far greater size 
and depth, hollowed out of similar strata ; the sides 
presenting some abrupt sections of inclined secondary 
rocks, which in other places are buried under vast 
heaps of pulverized shale. I could discover no scoriae 
amongst the ejected materials, but balls of olivine 
and other volcanic substances are mentioned as having 
been found.f This cavity, which we must suppose to 
have discharged an immense volume of gas, is nearly 
a mile in diameter, and is said to be more than one 
hundred fathoms deep. In the neighbourhood is a 
mountain called the Mosenberg, which consists of red 
sandstone and shale in its lower parts, but supports 
on its summit a triple volcanic cone, while a distinct 
current of lava is seen descending the flanks of the 
mountain. The edge of the crater of the largest cone 
reminded me much of the form and characters of that 
of Vesuvius. 

If we pass from the Upper to the Lower Eifel, we 
find the celebrated lake-crater of Laach, which has a 
greater resemblance than any of those before men- 
tioned to the Lago di Bolsena, and others in Italy 
being surrounded by a ridge of gently sloping hills, 
composed of loose tuffs, scoriae, and blocks of a variety 
of lavas. 


One of the most interesting volcanos on the left 
bank of the Rhine is called the Roderberg. It forms 
a circular crater nearly a quarter of a mile in diameter, 
and one hundred feet deep, now covered with fields of 

* Scrope, Edin. Journ. of Sci., June, 1826, p. 145. 
f Hibbert, Extinct Volcanos of the Rhine, p. 24. 


Ch. XIV,] 




corn. The highly inclined greywack£ strata rise even 
to the rim of one side of the crater ; but they are over- 
spread by quartzose gravel, and this again is covered 
by volcanic scoriae and tufaceous sand. The opposite 
wall of the crater is composed of cinders and scorified 
r ock, like that at the summit of Vesuvius. It is quite 
evident that the eruption in this case burst through 
the greywacke and alluvium which immediately over- 
lies it; and I observed some of the quartz pebbles 
*nixed with scoriae on the flanks of the mountain, as if 
they had been cast up into the air, and had fallen again 

with the volcanic ashes. 

I have already observed, that a large part of this 
crater has been filled up with loess, and I have pointed 
out how far we may thus obtain a relative date for the 

period of its eruption.* 

The most striking peculiarity of a great many of the 
craters above described, is the absence of any signs of 
alteration or torrefaction in their walls, when these are 
composed of regular strata of greywacke-sandstone and 
>. It is evident that the summits of hills formed 


of the above-mentioned stratified rocks have, in some 

cases, been carried away by gaseous explosions, while 
at the same time no lava, and often a very small quan- 
tity only of scoriae, has escaped from the newly formed 
cavity. There is, indeed, no feature in the Eifel vol- 
canos more worthy of note, than the proofs they afford 
of very copious aeriform discharges, unaccompanied 
by the pouring out of melted matter, except, here and 
there, in very insignificant volume. I have seen no 
assemblage of extinct volcanos in France, Italy, or 
Spain, where gaseous explosions of such magnitude 





* See p. 34. 

F 6 








[Book IV. 


have been attended by the emission of so small a 
quantity of lava. Yet I looked in vain in the Eifel for 
any appearances which could lend support to the hy- 
pothesis, that the sudden rushing out of such enormous 
volumes of gas had ever lifted up the stratified rocks 
immediately around the vent, so as to form conical 
masses, having their strata dipping outwards on all 
sides from a central axis. In the Gemunder 
the beds, as before stated, have an inward dip on one 
side of the hill ; and in the walls of this and other cra- 
ters, there are strata which are inclined at all angles, 
just as may be observed in the greywacke, far from the 
points of eruption. Those who favour the theory of 
the elevation crater might naturally expect, that in a 
district where so many tremendous explosions have 
occurred, they would find masses of greywacke" tower- 
ing several thousand feet above the surrounding plat- 
form, whereas the height of these ancient rocks has 
not been visibly affected by the sites of the extinct 

Trass and its origin — It appears that in the Lower 
Eifel eruptions of trachytic lava preceded the emission 
of currents of basalt, and that immense quantities of 
pumice were thrown out wherever trachyte issued. 
In this district, also, we find the tufaceous alluvium of 
the Rhine volcanos called trass, which has covered 
large areas, and choked up some valleys now partially 
re-excavated. This trass is unstratified ; and its base 
consists almost entirely of pumice, in which are in- 
cluded fragments of basalt and other lavas, pieces of 
burnt shale, slate, and sandstone, and numerous trunks 
and branches of trees. 

* See Vol. II. p. 152 








Ch. XIV.] 

We may easily conceive the manner of its origin, if 
we reflect on what would happen if an eruption, at- 
tended by a copious evolution of gases, should now 
occur in one of the lake basins. The water might re- 
main for weeks in a state of violent ebullition, until it 
hecame of the consistency of mud, just as the sea con- 
tinued to be charged with red mud round Graham's 

Island, in 

a breach should then be made in the side of the cone, 
the flood would sweep away great heaps of ejected 
fragments of shale and sandstone, which would be 
borne down into the adjoining valleys. Forests might 
be torn up by such a flood ; and thus the occurrence 
of the numerous trunks of trees dispersed irregularly 
through the trass, can be explained. 



(Fig. 136.) 

It will be seen by the 

the opposite or right bank of the Rhine, where they 


great mass of the mountains called the Siebengebirge. 
They consist partly of basaltic and partly of trachytic 
lavas, the latter description being, in general, the more 
ancient of the two. There are many varieties of tra- 
chyte, some of which are highly crystalline, resem- 


g a 

_ coarse-grained granite, with large separate 
crystals of felspar. Trachytic tuff is also very abund- 
ant. It is a difficult task to determine the age of all 
these igneous rocks, although their position, relatively 
to the stratified formations with which they are asso- 
ciated, has been clearly made out. The accompanying 
table presents in a synoptical view the series of r 


(Fig. 136.) 

* See Vol. II. p. 147 






[Book IV. 

a. Volcanic. 

b. Loess# 

c. Gravel. 
b. L<oess. 
a. Volcanic. 

d. Volcanic. 

e. Gravel, 

/ Brown coal. 
g. Volcanic. 
f. Brown coal. 

Greywacke'. C. 

A. Newer Pliocen 


B ' T thlnAr ° f UnCertain P*** but °u<* 

to 111^ *-V h ? the PeyncU C ' befOTe ^'""ed 

(P- 102.), ,s the lowest rock of the series, which is 

usually m higMy inclined strata • <* » 

loose sand and ^t^^TSr^ 

ironstone and siliceous conglomerate. Bed s of Sg 

brown and sometimes black Ii g „i, e , rf various t ,S 
ness, are lnterstratified with the clav<, »n,i V 
often irregular,, di ffuS ed fl^?^ ^ £ 

^ , y cont ^m numerous im- 

pressions of leaves and stems of trees . Jn "al 

places layers of trachytic tuff a « • . . .„ several 

in these tuffs are leaves of *£j??TF t " d 

found in the brown coal, hTw n f tC 7 T 

period of the accumulation of thTfaL f ^ 

products fr) were ejected. ^ S ° me Volcanic 

A vast deposit of gravel e nW a 

pebb.e, of white ouarl *?£&?£?£ 

fragments of other rocks, lies over the brown cod 
formation, forming sometimes only a thin covering at 

others attaining a thickness of more than loo feet. 





A nis gravel is very distinct in character from that now 
Arming the bed of the Rhine. It is called « Kiesel 
Scrolle" by the Germans, often reaches great eleva- 
lon s, and is covered in several places with volcanic 
J e ctions. It is evident that the country has under- 
gone great changes in its physical geography since 
ftls gravel was formed, whereas no inconsiderable 
Proportion of the volcanic rocks, d, were produced 

te r the country had nearly attained its present con- 

-I he aqueous and igneous formations above enume- 

a * e d, constituting the group B, may be, declared to be 
te rtiary, from the character of the organic remains of 




^ have been shown to be so intimately connected with 
^ e loess *, that we may, without hesitation, declare 

e *n to belong to the Newer Pliocene period. It 

sh °uld be recollected, however, that the whole series 

"^ only forms, in the aggregate, a very insignificant 

e ature in the district, and the great mass of the vol- 

^ a nic products, d, may, possibly, belong to the Older 

hocene, or some still more remote era. 
The varieties of wood found in the brown coal strata 
are said to belong entirely to dicotyledonous trees; 

ut among the impressions of leaves, collected by 
1 * r * Horner, some were referred by Mr. Lindley to a 
P^tti, perhaps of the genus Chamserops, and others re- 
Se *nbled the Cinnamomum dulce, and Podocarpus ma- 

Cr °phylla, which would also indicate a warm climate, f 
The other organic remains of the brown coal are 

* See pp. 32. 34. 

f Trans, of Geol. Soc, 2d ser. vol. v 





\ . 



[Book IV. 

principally fishes; they are found in a bituminous 
shale, called paper-coal, from being divisible into ex- 
tremely thin leaves. The individuals are extremely 
numerous; but they appear to belong to about five 
species, which M. Agassiz informs me are all extinct, 
and hitherto peculiar to this brown coal. They belong 
to the freshwater genera Leuciscus, Aspius, and Perca- 
The remains of frogs also, of an extinct species, have 
been discovered in the paper-coal; and a complete 
series may be seen in the museum at Bonn, from the 
most imperfect state of the tadpole to that of the full 

grown animal. With 

salamander, scarcely 

• — it 

distinguishable from the recent species, has been found, 
and several remains of insects. 

The brown coal was evidently a freshwater form- 
ation ; but the extreme rarity of shells renders it diffi- 
cult to form any conjecture as to the subdivision of 
the tertiary period to which it may belong. Near 
Marienforst, in the vicinity of Bonn, large blocks are 
found of a white opaque chert, containing numerous 
casts of freshwater shells, which appear to belono- to 
Planorbis rotundatus and Limnea longiscata, two spe- 
cies common both to the Eocene and Miocene periods, 
but which have not been found in any newer deposits. 

to whom I showed the specimens, said 
he felt as confident of the above identifications as mere 
casts would warrant. These blocks of chert are not 
in situ, but they probably belong to the brown coal 
formation, of which the hills at Marienforst consist. 
The brown coal is well known to contain, at other 
places, subordinate beds of silex. It is to be hoped, 
that a comparison of the organic remains of the brown 


of Miocene 



Ch. XIV.] 



ugh t on the chronological relations of the igneous and 
freshwater formations above considered.* 

For fuller details consult Noeggerath's Rheinland West- 
Pnalen, Memoirs of Von Dechen, Oeynhausen, and Von Buch, 
Steininger (erloschenen Vulkane in der Eifel, &c., Mainz, 1820), 
Va n der Wyck (Uebersicht der Rheinischen und Eifeler 
erl osch, Vulkane, Bonn. 1826), Scrope (Edin. Journ. of Sci. 
26 3 p. 145.), Daubeny (Volcanos, p. 45.)? Leonhard (Ueber 
Basalt- Gebilde), Hibbert (Extinct. Voles, of Rhine), and the 
Memoir above cited by Mr. Horner, in the Trans, of Geol. Soc. 
Vo1 - v. 2d ser. 










Miocene period — Marine formations — Faluns of Touraine 
compared to the English crag — Basin of the Gironde and 
Landes — Freshwater limestone of Saucats (p. 121.) — Eocene 
strata in the Bordeaux basin. — Position of the limestone of 
Blaye — Inland cliff near Dax — Montpellier — Strata of 
Piedmont — Superga — Valley of the Bormida — Molasse of 
Switzerland (p. 128.) — Basin of Vienna — Styria^ — Hun* 
gary — Volhynia and Podolia — Mayence. 


Having treated in the preceding chapters of the Older 
and Newer Pliocene formations, I shall next consider 
those members of the tertiary series for which I have 
proposed the name of Miocene. The distinguishing 
characters of this group, as derived from its imbedded 
fossil testacea, have been explained in the fifth chap- 
ter.* In regard to the relative position of the strata, 
they underlie the Older Pliocene, and overlie the 
Eocene, formations, when any of these happen to be 

The area covered by the marine, freshwater, and 
volcanic rocks of the Miocene period, in different parts 
of Europe, can already be proved to be very consider- 
able ; for they occur in Touraine, in the basin of the 
Loire, and still more extensively in the South of 

* Vol. III. p. 370. 

■ - 











^ ~ 









1 >~: 






2 I 

k ^ 











> 1 





c h. XV.] 




ra nce, between the Pyrenees and the Gironde. They 

( av e also been observed in Piedmont, near Turin, and 

" e neighbouring valley of the Bormida, where the 

pennines branch off from the Alps. They are largely 

veloped in the neighbourhood of Vienna and in 

y ri a; they abound in parts of Hungary; and they 

ers pread extensive tracts in Volhynia and Podolia. 

, °nells characteristic of the Miocene strata are found 

all these countries, figures of some of which are 

? er * in Plate XII., the species here selected abounding 

. a '^ost all the deposits of this era, and not occurring 

any Eocene or Pliocene formations. Cardita Ajar, 

°^ever, is also a recent species, but has been admitted 

, n a ccount of its abundance in Miocene strata, and 

Ca use it has never yet been observed in any Pliocene 

P° s it, and is confined in a living state to tropical 

°^tri es> as Senegal. 

c «unt 

s hall now proceed to notice briefly some of the 


ri es before enumerated as containing monuments 

e era under consideration. 


°urctine. — I have already alluded to the proofs 

s uperp os ition adduced by M. Desnoyers, to show 

at the shelly strata provincially called " the Faluns 

he Loire," were posterior to the most recent fresh- 

er formation of the basin of the Seine. Their 

, ltlor *> therefore, shows that they are of newer 

§ l fl than the Eocene strata, — more recent, at least, 

the uppermost beds of the Paris basin. But an 

r *unation of their fossil contents proves also that 

tVi are re f era ble to that type which distinguishes 

e Miocene period. When 300 of the Touraine 

. s collected by M. Desnoyers were compared by 

s ' P es hayes with more than 1100 of the Parisian 

peci es, there were scarcely more than 20 which could 







be identified; and on the other hand, the fossil shell 3 
of the Touraine beds agree far less with the testace* 
now inhabiting our seas than do the shells of the 0\& eX 
Pliocene strata of Northern Italy. 

It is not merely in the basin of the Loire that the 



(see Map 


to repose on a great variety of older rocks between 
Sologne and the sea, in which line they are seen to rest 
successively upon gneiss, clay-slate, coal-measured 
Jura limestone, greenstone, chalk, and lastly upon the 
upper freshwater deposits of the basin of the Sein^ 
They consist principally of quartzose gravel, sand, and 
broken shells. The components are generally inco- 
herent, but sometimes agglutinated together by a cal- 
careous or earthy cement, so as to serve as a building 
stone. Like the shelly portion of the crag of Norfc^ 
and Suffolk, the faluns and associated strata are o( 
slight thickness, not exceeding seventy feet. They 
often bear a close resemblance to the crag in appear* 
ance, the shells being stained of the same ferruginous 
colour, and being in the same state of decay ; serving 
in Touraine, just as in Norfolk and Suffolk, to fertile 
the arable land. Like the crag, also, they contain mam' 
miferous remains, which are not only intermixed wit* 1 
marine shells, but sometimes incrusted with serpul^ 
flustra, and balani. These terrestrial quadrupeds 
belong to the genera Mastodon, Rhinoceros, Hippo- 
potamus, &c, the assemblage, considered as a whole 
being very distinct from those of the Paris gypsum. 



* Desnoyers, Bull, de la Soc. Geol. de France, tome ii. p. 445« 





c h. XV.] 



The faluns and contemporary strata of the basin of 
the Loire may be considered generally as having been 
f °rmed in a shallow sea, into which a river, flowing 
Perhaps from some of the lands now drained by the 
^°ire, introduced from time to time fluviatile shells, 
*°°d> and the bones of quadrupeds, which may have 
beer * washed down during floods. Some of these 
"°&es have precisely the same black colour as those 
f °und i n t he peaty shell-marl of Scotland ; and we 
^ght imagine them to have been dyed black in Mio- 
Cene peat, which was swept down into the sea during 
tfte waste of cliffs, did we not find the remains of 
Cet acea in the same strata— bones, for example, of 
the lamantine, morse, sea-calf, and dolphin, having 
Precisely the same colour. 

The resemblance which M. Desnoyers has pointed 
0ut as existing between the English crag and the 

Clrc utnstances at the respective periods when each 
Was deposited. In every age, where there is land and 
Sea > there must be shores, shallow estuaries, and rivers ; 
and near the sea-coasts banks of marine shells and 
Cora ls may accumulate. It must also be expected 


rivers will drift in freshwater shells, together 

Wlttl sand and pebbles, and occasionally, perhaps, 
s ^eep a own the carcasses of land quadrupeds into the 
Sea - If the sand and shells, both of the " crag" and 


u ns," have each acquired the same ferruginous 
c °Wr, such a coincidence would merely lead us to 
lnf er that, at each period, there happened to be springs 
ch arged with iron, which flowed into some part of the 

drench faluns is one which ought by no means ro m- 
duc e us to ascribe a contemporaneous origin to these 
l *° groups, but merely a similarity of geographical 








* M 

sea or basin of the river, by which the sediment was 
carried down into the sea. 

Even had the French and English strata which we 
are comparing shared a greater number of mineral 
characters in common, that identity could not have 
justified us in inferring the synchronous date of the 
two groups, where the discordance of fossil remains 
is so marked. The argument which infers a content 
poraneous origin from correspondence of mineral con- 
tents, proceeds on the supposition that the materials 
were either washed down from a common source, oh 
being derived from different sources, were mingled 
together in a common receptacle. If, according to 
the latter hypothesis, the crag and the faluns were 
thrown down in one continuous sea, the testacefl 
could not have been so distinct in two regions no* 
more distant from each other than Essex and the 
mouth of the Loire, unless we assume that the laW 
which regulated the geographical distribution of spe- 
cies were then very different from those now prevail- 
ing. But if it be said that the two basins may have 
been separated from each other, as are those of the 
Mediterranean and Red Sea, by an isthmus, and that 
distinct assemblages of species may have flourished 
in each, as is now actually the case in those two 
seas * I may reply, that such narrow lines of demarc- 
ation are extremely rare now, and must have been 
infinitely more so in remoter tertiary epochs ; because 
there can be no doubt that the proportion of land to 
sea has been greatly on the increase in European lati- 
tudes during the more modern geological eras. 



See above, chap. x. 



Ch. XV.] 

^hich occur 

°yers has discovered the following mammiferous 
Quadrupeds : 




m magnum, Mastodon an- 
major and H. minutus, 

•inoceros leptorhinus and R. minutus, Tapir gigas 9 


(small species), Sus, Equus (small 



-the first species on this list is common to the Paris 

§ypsum, and is therefore an example of a land qua- 
ru ped common to the Miocene and Eocene formations, 

an exception perfectly in harmony with the results 

Stained from the study of fossil shells.* 
Basin of the Gironde and district of the Landes.-f 

^ great extent of country between the Pyrenees and 
he Gironde is overspread by tertiary deposits, which 
av e been more particularly studied in the environs 
1 Bordeaux and Dax, from whence about six hundred 
Pecies of shells have been obtained. These shells be- 
n g to the same zoological type as those of Touraine/j: 
■Most of the beds near Dax, whence these shells 
re procured, consist of incoherent quartzose sand, 

*** l xed for the most part with calcareous matter, which 
as often bound together the sand into concretionary 

-For further details respecting the basin of the Loire, see 

' ^esnoyers, Ann. des Sci. Nat., tome xvi. pp. 171. 402., 

ere full references to other authors are given. 

t Since this account was first written in 1832, M. Dufrenoy's 

cie on the tertiary strata of the south of France, has been pub- 

lshe d with lists of shells by M. C. Desmoulins. See Memoires 

r servir a, une Descrip. Geol. de la France, torn. iii. p. 1. 
-^ris* 1836. 

+ *&• de Basterot has given descriptions of more than three 
Un dred shells of Bordeaux and Dax, and figures of the greater 
nUmber of them. M£m. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, tome ii. 







I) J 



[Book IV. 

nodules. A great abundance of fluviatile shells occurs 
in many places intermixed with the marine ; and in 
some localities microscopic shells of the order fora- 
minifera are in great profusion. 

The tertiary deposits in this part of France vary 
much in their mineralogical character, yet admit ge- 
nerally of being arranged in four groups. See diagram. 

Fig. 139. 

A dour R. 

Luy R. Puy Arzet. 

Tertiary strata overlying chalk in the environs of Dax. 

a. Siliceous sand without shells. 

b. Gravel. 

c. Sand and marl with shells. 

d. Blue marl with shells. 

E. Chalk and volcanic tuff. 


In some places the united thickness of these groups 
is considerable ; but in the country between the Py- 
renees and the valley of the Adour, around Dax, the 
disturbed secondary rocks are often covered by a 'thin 
pellicle only of tertiary strata, which rests horizontally 
on the chalk, and does not always conceal it. 

In the valleys of the Adour and Luy, sections of all 
the members of this tertiary formation are laid open ; 
but the lowest blue marl, which is sometimes two 
hundred feet thick, is not often penetrated. On the 
banks of the Luy, however, to the south of Dax, the 
subjacent white chalk is exposed in inclined and ver- 
tical strata. In the hill called Puy Arzet the chalk, 
characterized by its peculiar fossils, is accompanied by 
beds of volcanic tuff, which are conformable to it, and 
which may be considered as the product of submarine 
eruptions which took place in the sea wherein the chalk 
was formed. These tuffs must once have been nearly 



c h. XV.] 

horizontal, but, like the chalky strata, have been sub- 
jected to great subsequent derangement, 

-About a mile west of Orthes, in the Bas Pyrenees, 

the bl 

ue marl is seen to extend to the borders of the 

? rtlar y formation, and rises to the height probably of 
Slx or seven hundred feet. In that locality many of 


their original 

ginous gravel, which seems to in- 

e marine Miocene shells preserve 
ours. This marl is covered by a considerable 
Sickness of ferru 
ea se in volume near the borders of the tertiary basin 
n the side of the Pyrenees. 
■* n an opposite direction, to the north of Pax, the 
^ e % sands often pass into calcareous sandstone, in 
hich there are merely the casts of shells, as at Car- 
res; and 

°cks of recent origin which I have received from the 

0ra l reefs of the Bermudas. 

freshwater limestone at Saucats. — Associated with 

e Miocene strata near Bordeaux, at a place called 

u cats, is a compact freshwater limestone, of slight 

into a shelly breccia, resembling some 


ess, which is perforated on the upper surface by 

arine shells, for the most part of extinct species. 

ls evident that the ancient surface must at this 

" a ce have been alternately occupied by salt and fresh 

ter . The ground, perhaps, may have been alter* 

te ly raised and depressed, or a lagoon may have been 

/^ed, in which the water became fresh; then a bar- 

er of sand, by which the sea was excluded for a 

f ivy. 

le 5 may have been breached, so that the salt water 
a § a in obtained 

x l* Dufrenoy has classed this freshwater limestone 

"hocene (tertiaire superieur), but, from the fresh- 

a ter shells contained in it, as well as from the marine 

° Ssils °n which it rests and by which it is immediately 


v ol. iv. 







[Book JT- 


cene. Among the shells determined by M. C. Des- 
moulins, we find Cyrena Brongniarti, Bast., Planar* 
bis rotundatas, and Limnea longiscata, species found 
elsewhere in beds older than the Pliocene.* 


The rel 


tions of some of the members of the tertiary series, 
in the basin of the Gironde, have of late afforded 
matter of controversy. A limestone, resembling the 
calcaire grossier of Paris, and from one hundred to 
two hundred feet in thickness, occurs at Pauliac and 
Blaye, and extends on the right bank of the Gironde, 
between Blaye and La Roche. It contains many species 
of fossils identical with tho&e of the Paris basin- This 
fact was pointed out to me by M. Deshayes before I 
visited Blaye in 1830; but although I recognized the 
mineral characters of the rock to bp very different 
from those of the Miocene formations in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of Bordeaux, I had not time to 
verify its relative position. ] inferred, however, the 
inferiority of the Blaye limestone to the Miocene 
strata, from the order in which each series presented 
itself, as I receded from the chalk and passed to the 
central parts of the Bordeaux basin. 

Upon leaving the white chalk with flints, in travel- 
ling from Charante by Blaye to Bordeaux, I first found 
myself upon overlying red clay and sand (as at Mi- 
rambeau) : I then came upon the tertiary limestone 
above alluded to, at Blaye ; and lastly, on departing 
still farther from the chalk, reached the strata which, 
at Bordeaux and Dax, contain exclusively the Miocene 

* See M. Dufrenoy's Paper, p, 341 

■ , 

■ - . 

, : 

<*. XV. 3 



of tertiary 




The occurrence both of Eocene and Miocene fossils 

!l * the same basin of the Gironde, had been cited by 

**• Boue as a fact which detracted from the value of 

Zoological characters as a means of determining the 

c hronological relations 
arther inquiry, the Tact has been found to furnish 

Additional grounds of confidence in these characters. 

M. Ch. Desmoulins replied, to M. Boue's objections, 
that the assemblage of Eocene shells are never inter- 
mixed with those found in the " moellon/' as he calls 
*ke sandy calcareous rock of the environs of Bordeaux 
a ^d Dax; and M. Dufrenoy farther stated, that the 
^lls of limestone which border the right bank of the 
Fronde, from Marmande as far as Blaye, present 
several sections wherein the Parisian (or Eocene) 
^estone is seen to be separated from the shelly 
str ata called " faluns," or " moellon," by a freshwater 
0r *nation of considerable thickness. It appears, there- 


re > that as the marine faluns of Touraine rest on a 

r eshvvater formation, which overlies the marine cal- 
^re grossier of Paris, so the marine Miocene strata 
Q * Bordeaux are separated from those of Blaye by a 

freshwater deposit.* 

A he following diagram will express the order of 
P°sition of the groups above alluded to. 

Fig. 140. 

*• R ed clay and sand. 

imestone like calcaire grossier, sometimes 
6 r een marl, and containing Eocene shells. 

alternating with 


Bulletin de la Soc. Geol. de France, tome ii. * d4n - 

G 2 









[Book IV. 


c. Freshwater formation, same as that of the department of Lot 

and Garonne. 
di Tertiary strata of the Landes, same as Fig. 139., with Miocene 


M. Dufrenoy considers the upper sands without fos- 
sils, which cover the low flat countries of Medoc and 
the Landes, to be of the age of the Subapennine beds. # 
But there appears as yet to be scarcely sufficient data 
to enable us to draw such an inference. It is, however, 
clear that the true Subapennine or Older Pliocene 
formation exists between Perpignan and the Pyre- 
neesf ; so that in one region, in the south of France, 
we have the Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene form- 
ations all represented : an important fact, as directly 
opposed to the theory which endeavours to explain 
away the distinctness of the fossils of different tertiary 
groups, by supposing them to have been all deposited 
in contemporaneous basins belonging to independent 
zoological provinces, not in lakes and seas inhabited 
successive!// by distinct species. 


A few miles west from 

Dax, and at the distance of about twelve miles from 
the sea, a steep bank is seen running in a direction 
nearly north-east and south-west, or parallel to the 
contiguous coast. This steep declivity, which is about 
fifty feet in height, conducts us from the higher plat- 

Fig. 141.. 

Sea f 

Section of Inland Cliff at Abesse, neir Dax. 

&. Sand of the Landes. 

6. Limestone. 

c. Clay. 

* See his paper above cited, tomeiii. p. 11. 

i i r> r\ 

|3j2 a'jove, p. 69. 


Ch. XV.] 



form of the Landes to a lower plain which extends to 
the sea. The outline of the ground might suggest to 

rery geologist the opinion that the bank in question 
^as once a sea-cliff, when the whole country stood at 
a lower level relatively to the sea. But this can no 
longer be regarded as matter of conjecture. In making 
excavations recently for the foundation of a building at 
Abesse, a quantity of loose sand, which formed the 
slope de, was removed ; and a perpendicular cliff, about 
fi % feet in height, which had hitherto been protected 
from the agency of the elements, was exposed. The 
bottom of this cliff consists of limestone b, which con- 
tains tertiary shells and corals. Immediately below 

e limestone is the clay, c ; and above it the usual 
tertiary sand, a, of the department of the Landes. ^ At 
tl^e base of the precipice are seen large partially 
funded masses of rock, evidently detached from the 
stratum b. The face of the limestone is hollowed out 
a «d weathered into such forms as are seen in the cal- 
careous cliffs of the adjoining coast, especially at 
^iaritz, near Bayonne. It is evident that, when the 
country was at a somewhat lower level, the sea ad- 


v anced along the surface of the argillaceous stratum c, 
w hich, from its yielding nature, favoured the waste by 
Undermining the more solid superincumbent lime- 
stone b. Afterwards, when the country had been 
el evated, part of the sand, a, fell down, or was drifted 
b y the winds, so as to form the talus, d e, which 
tasked the inland cliff until it was artificially laid 
°Pen to view. 

The situation of this cliff is interesting, as marking 
°oe of the pauses which intervened between the suc- 
cessive movements of elevation by which the marme 

g 3 









[Book IV 

tertiary strata of this country were upheaved to their 
present height, a pause which allowed time for the 
sea to advance and strip off the upper beds a, b, from 
the denuded clay c. 

Montpellier. -The tertiary strata of Montpellier con- 
tain many of the Dax and Bordeaux species of shells, 
so that they are probably referable to the Miocene 
epoch ; but in the catalogue given by M. Marcel de 
Serres, many Pliocene species, similar to those of the 
Subapennine beds, are enumerated. M. de Christol 

angustidens, Rhinoceros lepto- 

mentions Ma 

rhinus, a Tapir, a Palaeotherium, and an Anthracothe- 
rium, together with many other mammifers, besides 
cetacea and reptiles. * 

It would be highly interesting if, upon fuller inves- 
tigation, the Montpellier beds should be found to 
indicate a passage from the fossils of the Miocene 
type to those of the Older Pliocene. We may expect 
the discovery of such intermediate links, and I have 
endeavoured to provide a place for them in the chs- 

Hills of Mont Ferrat 


The late 

Signer Bonelli of Turin was the first who remarked 
that the tertiary shells found in the green sand and 
marl of the Superga. near Turin differed, as a group, 
from those generally characteristic of the Subapennine 
beds. The same naturalist had also observed, that 
many of the species peculiar to the Superga were 
identical with those occurring near Bordeaux and 
Dax. The strata of which the hill of the Superga is 
composed are inclined at an angle of more than 

* Resum° 

de M. Boue, p. 128. Bull, de la Soc. G&l. de 

France, torn, iii. 

f Vol. Ill 



seventy degrees, as I found when I examined the 



■I hey consist partly of fine sand and marl, and partly 
G * a conglomerate composed of primary boulders, 
w hich forms a lower part of the series, and not, as 
re presented by M. Brongniart by mistake, an un- 
conformable and overlying mass.* The same series of 



0c cur in a bright green sand 

err at, especially in the basin of the Bormida. The 
high road which leads from Savona to Alessandria 
intersects them in its northern descent, and the form- 
a tion may be well studied along this line at Carcare, 
^ a iro, and Spinto, at all which localities fossil shells 

| At Piana, a conglo- 
merate, interstratified with this green sand, contains 
bounded blocks of serpentine and chlorite schist, larger 
than those near the summit of the Superga, some of 
*hetn being not less than nine feet in diameter. 

When we descend to Aqui, we find the green sand 

giving place to bluish marls, which also skirt the plains 

°* the Tanaro at lower levels. These newer marls are 

a ssociated with sand, and are nearly horizontal, and 

appear to belong to the Older Pliocene Subapennine 

str ata. f The shells which characterize the latter 

Abound in various parts of the country near Turin; but 

bat region has not yet been examined with sufficient 

c are to enable us to give exact sections to illustrate 

ttle superposition of the Miocene and Older Pliocene 

e ^s. It is, however, ascertained, that the highly 

nc hned green sand, which comes immediately in con- 

ac t with the primary rocks, is the oldest part of the 


* Terrains du Vicentin, p. 26. 
f See section, Fig. 84. Vol. Ill 

G 4 

p. 338. 







[Book IV. 

Molasse of 

If we cross the Alps 

and pass from Piedmont to Savoy, we find there, at 
the northern base of the great chain, and throughout 
the lower country of Switzerland, a soft green sand- 
stone much resembling some of the beds of the basin 
,of the Bormida, above described, and associated in a 

similar manner with marls and conglomerate. This 
formation is called in Switzerland « molasse," said to 
be derived from « mol," « soft? because the stone is 
easily cut in the quarry. It is of vast thickness; but 
shells have so rarely been found in it, that they do not 
supply sufficient data for correctly determining its 
age. M. Studer, in his treatise on the " molasse," 
enumerates some fossil shells found near Lucerne, 
agreeing, apparently, with those of the Subapennine' 
hills. The correspondence in mineral character be- 
tween the green sand of Piedmont and that of Switzer- 
land can in nowise authorise us to infer identity of 
— but merely to conclude that both have been 
derived from the degradation of similar ancient rocks. 
Until the place of the « molasse " in the chrono- 
logical series of tertiary formations has been more 
rigorously determined, the application of this provincial 
name to the tertiary groups of other countries must 
be very uncertain, and it will be desirable to confine 
it to the tertiary beds of Switzerland. 


Styria, Vienna, Hungary. 

Of the various groups 

which have hitherto been referred to the Miocene 
era, none are so important in thickness and geogra- 
phical extent as those which are found at the eastern 
extremity of the Alps, in what have been termed the 
basins of Vienna and Styria, and which spread thence 
into the plains of Hungary. The collection of shells 



Ch. XV.] 



of Vienna, and described by him in 1820*, was alone 
sufficient to identify a great part of the formations of 
'hat country with the Miocene beds of the Loire, 
^ironde^ and Piedmont. The fossil remains subse- 
quently procured by that indefatigable observer M. 
Boue have served to show the still greater range of 
'he same beds through Hungary and Transylvania. 
It appears from the recently published memoirs of 


ssor Sedgwick and 


formations of Styria may be divided into groups cor- 


Vienna beds ; the basin of Styria exhibiting nearly the 
s ame phenomena as that of Vienna. 

These regions 



'wo deep bays of the same sea, separated from each 
other by a great promontory connected with the cen- 
tal ridge of the eastern Alps. 

The English geologists above mentioned describe a 
l°flg succession of marine strata intervening between 
'he Alps and the plains of Hungary, which are divi- 
s *ble into three natural groups, each of vast thickness, 
an d affording a great variety of rocks.. All these 
S r oups are of marine origin, and lie in nearly horizontal 
str ata, but have throughout a slight easterly dip ; so 
'hat, in traversing them from west to east, we com- 
^ence with the oldest, and end with the youngest 


At their western extremity they fill an irregular 
' r ough-shaped depression, through which the waters 
°f the Mur, the Raab, and the Drave, make their way 
'° the lower Danube.^ Here the first group is de- 

* Journal de Physique, Novembre, 1 820. 

f Geol. Trans., Second Series, vol. iii. p. 301. 

\ Ibid., p. 382. 

G 5 

; 1 








[Book IV, 

veloped, consisting of conglomerate, sandstone, and 
marls, some of the marls containing marine shells. 
Beds also of lignite occur, showing that wood was 
drifted down in large quantities into the sea. In parts 
of the series there are masses of rounded siliceous 
pebbles, resembling the shingle banks which are form- 
ing on some of our coasts. 

The second principal group is characterized by 
coralline and concretionary limestone of a yellowish 
white colour ; it is finely exposed in the escarpments 



This coralline limestone is 

not less than 400 feet thick at Wildon, and exceeds, 
therefore, some of the most considerable of our se- 
condary groups in England, f 

Beds of sandstone, sand, and shale, and calcareous 

marls, are associated with the above-mentioned lime- 

The third group, which occurs at a still greater dis- 
tance from the mountains, is composed of sandstone 
and marl, and of beds of limestone, exhibiti 

ing Here 

and there a perfectly oolitic structure. In this system 
fossil shells are numerous. 

In regard to the age of the formations above de- 
scribed, it is by no means clear that the coralline lime- 
stones of the second group are posterior i 

in origin to 

all the beds of the first division ; they may possibly 
have been formed at some distance from land, while 
the head of the gulf was becoming filled up with 
enormous deposits of gravel, sand, and mud, which 
may, in that quarter, have rendered the waters too 
turbid for the fullest development of testaceous and 
coralline animals. 

Geol. Trans., Second Series, vol. iii. p. 385. f Ibid, p. 390. 

c h. XV. 3 




The middle group, both in the basins of Styria and 



J or the species of shells are the same as those of the 
-^oire, Gironde, and other contemporary basins before 
Noticed. Whether the lowest and uppermost systems 
are referable to the same, or to distinct tertiary epochs, 
ls the only question. We cannot doubt that the accu- 
mulation of so vast a succession of beds required an 
lr *imense lapse of ages, and we should expect to find 
s °ftie difference in the species characterizing the differ- 
en t members of the series ; nevertheless, all may be- 
0n g to different subdivisions of the Miocene period. 

Mr, Mur 


'hat the inferior, or first group, which comprises the 
str ata between the Alps and the coralline limestone of 
^ildon, may correspond in age to the Paris basin ; but 
delist of fossils which they have given seems rather 
to favour the supposition that the deposit is of the 
Miocene era. They mention four characteristic 
Miocene fossils, — Mytilus Brardii, Cerithium pictum, 
^- pupseforme, and C. plicatum : 
e W-of the associated shells are common to the Paris 

and though some 


as *n, such a coincidence is no more than holds 

regard to all the European Miocene form- 


at ions. 

On the other hand, the third or newest system, 
w hich overlies the coralline limestone, contains fossil 
^hirfi do not appear to depart so widely from the 
-liocene type as to authorize us to separate them. 
lle y appear to agree with the tertiary strata of a 
§ re at part of Hungary and Transylvania, which are 
deferable to the Miocene period.* 

See tables of shells by M. Deshayes, in Appendix I. of the 
<*tavo edition. 

G 6 


I t 




[Book IV. 

Volhynia and Podolia . — We 


strata; and there is already sufficient evidence that 
the marine deposits of the platform of Volhynia and 
Podolia were of this era. The fossils of that region, 
which is bounded by Galicia on the west, and the 
Ukraine on the east, and comprises parts of the basins 
of the Bog and the Dneister, has been investigated by 
Von Buch, Eichwald, and Du Bois ; and the latter has 
given excellent plates of more than one hundred fossil 



The formation consists of sand and sandstone, clay, 
coarse limestone, and a white oolite, the last of which 
is of great extent. 

Mayence. — The tertiary strata near Mayence con- 
tain in abundance the Mytilus Brardii, and several other 
characteristic Miocene fossils. They occupy a tract 
from five to twelve miles in breadth, extending a lon<r 
the left bank of the Rhine from Mayence to tl 
bourhood of Manheim, and are again found to be east, 
north, and south-west of Frankfort. In some places 
they have the appearance of a freshwater formation ; 
but in others, as at Alzey, the shells are for the most 
part marine. Cerithia are in great profusion, which 
indicates that the sea where the deposit was formed 
was fed by rivers; and the great quantity of fossil land 
shells, chiefly of the genus Helix, confirm th 
opinion. The variety in the species of shells is small, 
scarcely eighty having yet been discovered, as I learn 
from Professor Bronn, of Heidelberg, while the indi- 
viduals are exceedingly numerous; a fact which accords 

* Conch. Foss. du Plateau Wolhyni-Podol., par F. du Bois. 
Berlin, 1831. 

e same 

Ch. XV.] 



perfectly with the idea that the formation may have 
originated in a gulf or sea which, like the Baltic, was 
brackish in some parts and almost fresh in others. A 
s pecies of Paludina, very nearly resembling the recent 
^ttorina ulva, is found throughout this basin. These 
shells may be compared in size to grains of rice, and 
°*ten are in such quantity as to form almost entire 
s *rata of marl and limestone. I have seen them as 
thick as grains of sand, in stratified masses fifteen feet 
thick ; and Professor Bronn has observed a succession 
Q* beds thirty feet in thickness, of which they are the 
Principal constituent. 

I was unable to find any natural sections which ex- 
hibited the relations of the Mayence strata above de- 
scribed to the sandy beds of Eppelsheim, wherein the 
fie\y g enus Deinotherium, and the bones of the Mas- 
todon avernensis, and other mammifers, have been dis- 
covered. But I think it most probable that they all 


ong to the same era, and that the freshwater beds 

°t Georges Gemund, in Bavaria, as well as several 
°ther detached lacustrine groups of that country and 
°t Wurtemburg, may be referred to the Miocene period. 
*^t Georges Gemund, as in Touraine, we find an asso- 
Cla tion of the genera Palaeotherium, Mastodon, and 


Osnabruck. — From the fossils which I have seen in 
l he cabinet of Count Munster at Bayreuth, I have little 
do ubt that strata of the Miocene period are largely 
developed between the mountains of the Teutobour- 
Serwald and Wesergebirge, including the environs of 
snabruch, Munster, Astrupp, and other places. 






i . 




Miocene alluviums 


drupeds — Velay — Orleanais 

Mont Perrier — Extinct qua- 
Alluviums contemporaneous 

with Faluns of Touraine — Miocene freshwater formations- 
Upper Val d'Arno — Extinct mammalia (p. 138.) — Coal of 
Cadibona — Miocene volcanic rocks 





Hungary — Transyl- 

In the present chapter I shall offer some observations 
on the alluviums and freshwater formations of the 
Miocene era, and shall afterwards point out the coun- 
tries in Europe where the volcanic rocks of the same 
period may be studied. 


Miocene Alluviums. 
The annexed drawing will 

explain the 

position of two ancient beds of alluvium, c and e in 



Position of the Miocene alluviums of Mont Perrier (or Boulade). 

Descending series. 
Newer alluvium. bm Second trBchjtic breccIa , 

Second Miocene alluvium with bones. 

d. First trachytic breccia. 

e. First Miocene alluvium with bones 

f. Compact basalt. 

g. Eocene lacustrine strata. 


Ch. XVI.] 



•^uvergne, in which the remains of several quadrupeds 
characteristic of the Miocene period have been ob- 
a med. In order to account for the situation of these 
e ds of rounded pebbles and sand, we must suppose 
*at after the tertiary strata g, covered by the basaltic 
ava /> had been disturbed and exposed to aqueous 
^nudation, a valley was excavated, wherein the allu- 
Vl um e was accumulated, and in which the remains of 
9 u adrupeds then inhabiting the country were buried. 
*he trachytic breccia d was then superimposed; this 
Dr eccia is an aggregate of shapeless and angular frag- 
ments of trachyte, cemented by volcanic tuff and 
pUrxiice, resembling some of the breccias which enter 
lnt o the composition of the neighbouring extinct vol- 
cano of Mont Dor in Auvergne 3 or those which are 
*°und on Etna. Upon this rests another alluvium, c, 
w Wch also contains the bones of Miocene species, and 
^s is covered by another enormous mass of tufaceous 
re ccia. The breccias have probably resulted from the 
s Udden rush of large bodies of water down the sides of 
ari elevated volcano at its moments of eruption, perhaps 
v hen snow was melted by lava. Such floods occur in 
celand, sweeping away loose blocks of lava and ejec- 
ts surrounding the crater, and then strewing the 
P*ains with fragments of igneous rocks, enveloped in 

j**ud or " moya." The abrupt escarpment presented 
y the above-described beds, b, c, d, e, towards the 
alley of the Couze, must have been caused by subse- 
quent erosion, which has carried away a large portion 
of those masses.* 



■for an account of the position and age of the volcanic brec- 
as of Mont Perrier and Boulade, see Lyell and Murchison on 
e Beds of Mont Terrier, Ed. New Phil. Journ., July, 1829, 








[Book IV. 

In the alluviums 


Chabriol, and Bouillet have discovered the remains 
of about forty species of extinct mammalia, the greater 
part of which are peculiar as yet to this locality ; but 
some of them are characteristic of the Miocene period, 
being common to the faluns of Touraine, and asso- 

• , i • . » it.. ._ 



minor and M. arvernensis, Hippopotamus major, 
Rhinoceros leptorhinus, and Tapir arvernensis. The 
Elephas primigenius, a species common to so many 
tertiary periods, is also stated to accompany the rest. 
In some cases the remains are not sufficiently charac- 
teristic to indicate the exact species, but the follow- 
ing genera can be determined : — The boar, horse, ox, 

hyaena ( 

), felis (th 

or four), bear 
, otter, beaver, 

(three), deer (many species) 
hare, and water-rat.* 

Velay. — In Velay a somewhat similar group of 
mammiferous remains were found by Dr. Hibbert t 
in a bed of volcanic scoriae and tuff, inclosed between 
two beds of basaltic lava, at Saint Privat d'Allier. 
Some of the bones were found adhering to the slaggy 
lava. Among the animals were Rhinoceros lepto- 
rhinus, Hyaena spelaea, and another species allied to 
the spotted hyaena of the Cape, together with four 
undetermined species of deer, t 

At Cussac and Solilhac, one league from Puy en 

* Recherches sur les Oss. Foss. du Dept. du Puy de Dome, 
4to. 1828. Essai Geol. et Mineral, sur les Environs d'Issoire 
Dept. du Puy de Dome, folio, 1827. 

•f Edin. Journ. of Sci., No. iv. New Series, p. 276. 

$ Figures of some of these remains are given by M. Bertrand 
de Doue, Ann. de la Soc. d'Agricult. de Puy, 1828. 


C1 >- XVI.] 




covered with lava, the remains of Elephas primigenius, 



(seven species) 


an antelope. 

Orfeanais. — In the Orleanais, at Avaray, Chevilly, 
les Aides, and les Barres, fossil land quadrupeds have 
)e en found associated with fluviatile shells and rep- 
lies 5 identical with those found in the marine faluns 
°* Touraine. * These are supposed with great pro- 
bability, by M. Desnoyers, to mark the passage of 

str eams which flowed towards the sea in which the 
a *uns were deposited. 

Miocene Freshwater Formations. 

Upper Void Arno. — There are a great number of 
| s °lated tertiary formations, bf freshwater origin, rest- 
In § on primary and secondary rocks in different parts 
of: Europe, in the same manner as we now find small 
a{< es scattered over our continents and islands, wherein 
^Posits are forming, quite detached from all contem- 
porary marine strata. To determine the age of such 
§ r ° u ps, with reference to the great chronological 
Ser ies established for the marine strata, must often be 
a Matter of difficulty, since we cannot always enjoy an 
°Pportunity of studying a locality where the fresh- 
water species are intermixed with marine shells, or 

w here they occur in beds alternating with marine 
st rata. 

The deposit of the Upper Val d' Arno before alluded 

* MM. Desnoyers and Lockart, Bulletin de la Soc. G£ol., 
tom - u. p. 336. 







[Book AT. 


but, although the fossil testaceous and mammiferous 
remains preserved therein are very numerous, it is 
scarcely possible, at present, to decide with certainty 
the precise era to which they belong. I collected 
six. species of lacustrine shells, in an excellent state 
of preservation, from this basin, belonging to the ge- 



unable to identify any one of them with any 
recent or fossil species known to him. If the beds 
belonged to the Older Pliocene formations, we might 
expect that several of the fossils would agree specifi- 
cally with living testacea ; and I am therefore disposed 
to believe that they belong to an older epoch. If we 
consider the terrestrial mammilla of the same beds, 
we immediately perceive that they cannot be assimi- 
lated to the Eocene type, as exhibited in the Paris 
basin, or m Auyergne and Velay : but some of them 

s P ecIes - Mr. Pentland has 

agree with Mi 

obligingly sent me the following list of the 
mammifers of the upper Val d'Arno which are in the 


museums of Paris. 



Ursus cultridens, Vi- 


size of the common fox. Hyaana radiata, H. fossilis 


(a new species, of the size of the panther) 

Histrix nearly a n ied to d^saiu/caston 

Mastodon ansrusti- 

scrota, Khmoceros lentorh.nno w 

- . ' „ . ^Pwinmus, Hippopotamus ma ]or, 

dens, M. Taperoides, Tapir 

■» Equu 

fossilis. Ruminantia 

darnensis, C. 

B. urus and B. taurus. 

(new species) 


Cuvier also mentions the remains of a species of 
lophiodon as occurring among the bones in the Upper 



Ch - XVI.] 

Val d'Ar 



no. * The elephant of this place has been 


considered by 
snecies E. vri- 

^genius, with which, however, some eminent com- 
P a ^ative anatomists regard it as identical. The skele- 
tons of the hippopotamus are exceedingly abundant ; 

n0 less than forty had been 
procured when I visited Flo- 
rence in 1828. Remains of 







o #} 



£ O 






r- 1 












the elephant, stag, ox, and 
horse, are also extremely nu- 
merous. In winter the super- 
ficial degradation of the soil 
is so rapid, that bones which 
| the year before were buried 
are seen to project from the 
surface of the soil, and are 
described by the peasants as 
growing. In this manner the 
tips of the horns of stags, or 
of the tusks of hippopota- 
muses, often appear on the 
surface, and thus lead to the 
discovery of an entire head 


D { 












c3 .^ 

or skeleton. 

Another ex- 
ample of an isolated lacus- 
trine deposit, belonging pos- 
sibly to the Miocene period, 
is that which occurs at Cadi- 
0n a> between Savona and Carcare ; a place which I 


°ss. Foss., vol. v. p. 504. 
t Lettere sopraalcune Ossa Fossili del Val d'Arno, &c. Pisa, 










[Book Tf> 

Mr. Mu 

son. Its position is described in the annexed section, 
which does not, however, pretend to accuracy in regard 
to the relative heights of the different rocks, or the 
distances of the places from each other. The lacus- 
trine strata are composed of gravel, grit, and micaceous 
sandstone, of such materials as were derivable from 
the surrounding primary rocks; and so great is the 
thickness of this mass, that some valleys intersect it 
to the depth of seven or eight hundred feet without 
penetrating to the subjacent formations. In one part 
of the series, carbonaceous shales occur, and several 
seams of coal from two to six feet in thickness ; but 
no impressions of plants of which the species could be 
determined, and no shells have been discovered. Many 
entire jaws and other bones of an extinct mammifer, 
called by Cuvier Anthracotherium, have been found 
m the coal-beds, the bone being itself changed into a 
kind of coal ; but as this species has not as yet oc- 
curred elsewhere in association with organic remains of 
known date, it affords us no aid when we attempt to 
assign a place to the lignites of Cadibona. 

Miocene Volcanic Bocks. 

Hungary -M. Beudant, in his elaborate work on 
Hungary, describes five distinct groups of volcanic 
rocks, which, although nowhere of great extent, form 
striking features in the physical geography of that 
country, rising as they do abruptly from extensive 
plains composed of tertiary strata. They may have 
constituted islands in the ancient sea, as Santorin and 
Milo now do in the Grecian Archipelago • and M Beu- 





jlant has remarked that the mineral products of the 

as t-mentioned islands resemble remarkably those of 

le Hungarian extinct volcanos, where many of the 

an *e minerals, as opal, calcedony, resinous silex (silex 

Tesin ite), pearlite, obsidian, and pitchstone abound. 

( *he Hungarian lavas are chiefly felspathic, con- 

*sting of different varieties of trachyte ; many are 

eJ *ular, and used as millstones ; some so porous and 

% Ve n scoriform as to resemble those which have issued 

** the open air. Pumice occurs in great quantity ; and 

° er e are conglomerates, or rather breccias, wherein 

ra gments of trachyte are bound together by pumiceous 

u ^j or sometimes by silex. 

It is probable that these rocks were permeated by 

^ e waters of hot springs, impregnated, like the Gey- 

Sers > with silica ; or, in some instances, perhaps, by 

j^ous vapours, which, like those of Lancerote, may 

av e precipitated hydrate of silica. * 

■ky the influence of such springs or vapours the 
p Unks and branches of trees washed down during 
°°ds, and buried in tuffs on the flanks of the moun- 
ain s, may have become silicified. It is scarcely pos- 
lb *e, says M. Beudant, to dig into any of the pumiceous 
e posits of these mountains without meeting with 
Prized wood, and sometimes entire silicified trunks 
r trees of great size and weight. 
m ^ appears from the species of shells collected prin- 
cipally by M. Boue, and examined by M. Deshayes, 
at the fossil remains imbedded in the volcanic tuffs 
p in strata alternating with them in Hungary, are 
the Miocene type, and not identical, as was formerly 
8u Pposed, with the fossils of the Paris basin. 

* See Vol. II. p. 142 








[Book Vt 

Transylvania. — The igneous rocks of the eastern 
part of Transylvania, described by M. Boue, are pro- 
bably of the same age. They cover a considerable 
area, and bear a close resemblance to the Hungarian 
lavas, being chiefly trachytic. Several large craters, 


are met with in some regions ; and a rent in the tra- 
chytic mountains of Budoshagy exhales hot sulphureous 
vapours, which convert the trachyte into alum-stone; 
a change which that rock has undergone at remote 
periods in several parts of Hungary. 

Styria — Many of the volcanic groups of this country 
bear a similar relation to the Styrian tertiary deposits, 
as do the Hungarian rocks to the marine strata of that 
country. The shells are found imbedded in the vol- 


canic tuffs in such a manner as to show that they lived 
in the sea when the volcanic eruptions were in progress, 
as many of the Val di Noto lavas in Sicily, before de- 
scribed, were shown to be contemporaneous with the 
Newer Pliocene strata. * 

Auvergne— Velay.—l believe that part of the volca- 
nic eruptions of Auvergne took place during the Mio- 
cene period ; those, for example, which cover, or are 
interstratified with, the alluviums mentioned in this 
chapter, and some of the ancient basaltic cappings of 
hills in Auvergne, which repose on gravel characterized 
by similar organic remains. A part also of the igneous 
rocks of Velay must belong to this epoch ; but these 

will be again referred to when I treat 


fully of 

the volcanic rocks of Central France, the older part of 
which are referable to the Eocene period. 

* Sedgwick and Murchison, Geol. Trans., Second Series, rol.iii 
p. 400. Daubeny's Volcanos, p. 92. 











fr v 





cene period — Freshwater formations — Central France 
-Limagne d'Auvergne— - Sandstone and conglomerate 


lar y red marl and red sandstone — Green and white foliated 
ln arls (p. 149.) — Indusial limestone — Gypseous marls 
Ve Uin — Freshwater formation of Puy en Velay (p. 157.) 
^ Cantal — Resemblance of Aurillac limestone and flints to 
° Ur upper chalk - — Concluding remarks. 

fi have now traced back the history of the European 
, Nations to that period when the seas and lakes were 

lla bited by testacea, of which a few only belonged 
, s pecies now existing ; a period which I have de- 
boated Eocene, as indicatir 

But although a small 

a * e of the animate creation. 

. lrTl ber only of the living species of animals were then 

being, there are ample grounds for inferring that all 

e great classes of the animal kingdom, such as they 

w exist, were then fully represented. In regard to 

e ^stacea, indeed, it is no longer a matter of infer- 


I for more than 1200 species of this class have 

er * obtained from that small number of detached 

. ° c ene deposits which have hitherto been examined 
lri Europe. 

A »e celebrated Paris basin, the position of which 













seems to claim our chief attention when we examine 
the phenomena of this era. But in order the more 
easily to explain the peculiar nature and origin of that 
group, it will be desirable, first, to give a brief sketch 
of certain deposits of Central France, which afford 
many interesting points of analogy to that of Paris, 
both in organic remains and mineral composition, and 
where the original circumstances under which the 
strata were accumulated may more easily be dis- 

Auvergne. — The deposits alluded to, which I ex- 
amined in the summer of 1828, in company with Mr. 
Murchison, are those of the lacustrine basins of Au- 
vergne, Cantal, and Velay, and their sites may be 
seen in the annexed map. They appear to be the mo- 
numents of ancient lakes, which may have resembled 
in geographical distribution some of those now existing 
in Switzerland, and may like them have occupied the 
depressions in a mountainous country, and have been 
each fed by one or more rivers and torrents. The 
country where they occur is almost entirely composed 
of granite and different varieties of granitic schist, with 
here and there a few patches of secondary strata much 
dislocated, and which have probably suffered great de- 
nudation. There are also some vast piles of volcanic 
matter (see the map), the greater part of which is 
newer than the freshwater strata, and is sometimes 
seen to rest upon them, whilst a small part has evi- 
dently been of contemporaneous origin. Of these 
igneous rocks I shall treat more particularly in the 
nineteenth chapter, and shall now speak only of the 
lacustrine beds. 

The most northern of the freshwater groups is situ- 
ated in the valley-plain of the Allier, which lies within 






[Book IV 

the department of the Puy de Dome, being the tract 
which went formerly by the name of the Limagne 
d'Auvergne. It is inclosed by two parallel primitive 
ranges, — that of the Forez, which divides the waters 
of the Loire and Allier, on the east; and that of the 
Monts Domes, which separates the Allier from the 
Sioule, on the west.* The average breadth of this 
tract is about twenty miles ; and it is for the most part 
composed of nearly horizontal strata of sand, sandstone, 
calcareous marl, clay, and limestone, none of which 
observe a fixed and invariable order of superposition. 
The ancient borders of the lake wherein the fresh- 
water strata were accumulated, may generally be 
traced with precision, the granite and other ancient 
rocks rising up boldly from the level country. The 
precise junction, however, of the lacustrine and granitic 
beds is rarely seen, as a small valley usually intervenes 


between them. The freshwater strata may sometimes 
be seen to retain their horizontality within a very 

slight distance of the border-rocks, while in 


places they are inclined, and in a few instances ver- 
tical. The principal divisions into which the lacus- 
trine series may be separated are the following: 
1st, Sandstone, grit, and conglomerate, including red 

2dly, Green and white 



d red sandstone. 

foliated marls. 3dly, Limestone or travertin, oolite- 
4thly, Gypseous marls. 

1. a. Sandstone and conglomerate. — Strata of sand 
and gravel, sometimes bound together into a solid rock 


found in great abundance around the confines of 
the lacustrine basin, containing, in different places? 
pebbles of all the ancient rocks of the adjoining ele- 
vated country; namely, granite, gneiss, mica-schist? 

* Scrope, Geology of Central France, p. 15. 


Cl >. XVII.] 




c *ay-slate, porphyry, and others. But the arenaceous 
s ^ata do not form one continuous band around the 
jtoargin of the basin, being rather disposed like the 
independent deltas which grow at the mouths of tor- 
r ^nts along the borders of existing lakes.* 

At Chamalieres, near Clermont, we have an ex- 
arn ple of one of these littoral groups of local extent, 
^here the pebbly beds slope away from the granite as 
** they had formed a talus beneath the waters of the 
lake near the steep shore. A section of about fifty 
* e et in vertical height has been laid open by a torrent, 
an d the pebbles are seen to consist throughout of 
r °unded and angular fragments of granite, quartz, pri- 
mary slate, and red sandstone ; but without any inter- 
mixture of those volcanic rocks which now abound 


ln the neighbourhood. Partial layers of lignite and 
Pteces of wood are found in these beds, but no shells ; 
a fact which probably indicates that testacea could 
**°t live where the turbid waters of a stream were 


e quently hurrying down uprooted trees, together 
^ Vl th sand and pebbles, or that, if they existed, they 
^ere triturated by the transported rocks. 

There are other localities on the margin of the basin 
^here quartzose grits are found, composed of white 
s and bound together by a siliceous cement. 

Occasionally, when the grits rest on granite, as at 
Chamalieres before mentioned, and many other places, 
t * le separate crystals of quartz, mica, and felspar, of 
l ^e disintegrated granite, are bound together again by 
the silex, so that the granite seems regenerated in a 
^ e w and even more solid form ; and thus so gradual a 
Passage may easily be traced between a crystalline 


See book ii. chap. v. 

H 2 






<■ I 

[Book IV. 

rock and one of mechanical origin, that we can scarcely 
distinguish where one ends and the other begins. 

In the Puy de Jussat, and the neighbouring hill of 
La Roche, are white quartzose grits, cemented by 
calcareous matter, which is sometimes so abundant as 
to form imbedded nodules. These sometimes consti- 
tute spheroidal concretions six feet in diameter, and 
pass into beds of solid limestone resembling the Italian 
travertins, or the deposits of mineral springs. 

In the hills above mentioned, we have the advan- 
tage of seeing a section continuously exposed for about 
seven hundred feet in thickness. At the bottom are 
foliated marls, white and green, about four hundred 
feet thick; and above, resting on the marls, are the 
quartzose grits before mentioned, with the associated 
travertins. This section is close to the confines of the 
basin ; so that the lake must here have been filled up 
near the shore with fine mud, before the coarse super- 
incumbent sand was introduced. There are other 
cases where sand is seen below the marl. 

1. b. Red marl and sandstone. — But the most re- 
markable of the arenaceous groups is one of red sand- 
stone and red marl, which are identical in all their 
characters with the secondary new red sandstone and 
marl of England. In these secondary rocks, the red 
ground is sometimes variegated with light greenish 
spots, and the same may be seen in the tertiary form- 
ation of freshwater origin at Coudes, on the Allien 
The marls are sometimes of a purplish-red colour, as 
at Champheix, and are accompanied by a reddish lime- 
stone like the well-known « cornstone," which is asso- 
ciated with the old red sandstone of English geologists. 
The red sandstone and marl of Auvergne have evi- 
dently been derived from the degradation of gneiss 

fc #1 

Cil. XVII.3 



f n d mica-schist, which are seen in situ on the adjoin - 

n g hills, decomposing into a soil very similar to the 

ertiary red sand and marl. We also find pebbles of 

* eis s, mica-schist, and quartz, in the coarser sand- 

0Q es of this group, clearly pointing to the parent 

ocks from which the sand and marl were derived. 


e red beds, although destitute themselves of organic 
* ei *ains, pass upwards into strata containing Eocene 
0s sils, and are certainly an integral part of the lacus- 

trine formation. 


white foliated 

A great portion 

°* what we term clay in ordinary language consists of 
fte same materials as sand, but the component parts 
are in a finer state of subdivision. The same primary 
r °cks, therefore, of Auvergne which, by the partial 
de gradation of their harder parts, gave rise to the 
^artzose grits and conglomerates before mentioned, 
vv °uld, by the reduction of the same materials into 
Powder, and by the decomposition of their felspar, 
m *ca, and hornblende, produce aluminous clay ; and, if 
a sufficient quantity of carbonate of lime was present, 
calcareous marl. This fine sediment would naturally 
e carried out to a greater distance from the shore, as 
ar e the various finer marls now deposited in Lake 
Superior.* And, as in the American lake, shingle and 
s and are annually amassed near the northern shores, 
So in Auvergne the grits and conglomerates before 
Mentioned were evidently formed near the borders. 
t The entire thickness of these marls is unknown ; but 
* l certainly exceeds, in some places, seven hundred 
ee t- They are for the most part either light-green 
or white, and usually calcareous. They are thinly 


* See Vol. I. p. 344. 

H 3 





[Book IV. 

foliated, — a character which frequently arises from the 
innumerable thin plates or scales of that small animal 
called Cypris; a genus which comprises several species, 
of which some are recent, and may be seen swimming 
swiftly through the waters of our stagnant pools and 
ditches. The antennae, at the end of which are fine 

Fig. 145. 

Fig. 146 

Cypris unifasciata, a living species, greatly 


Cypris vidua, a living species 
greatly magnified.* 

a. Upper part. b. Side view of the same. 

pencils of hair, are the principal organs for swimming, 
and are moved with great rapidity. This animal re- 
sides within two small valves not unlike those of a 
bivalve shell, and moults its integuments annually, 
which the conchiferous mollusks do not. This cir- 
cumstance may partly explain the countless myriads 
of the shells of cypris which were shed in the Eocene 
lakes, so as to give rise to divisions in the marl as thin 
as paper, and that too in stratified masses several 
hundred feet thick. A more convincing proof of the 
tranquillity and clearness of the waters, and of the 
slow and gradual process by which the lake was filled 
up with fine mud, cannot be desired. But we may 


* See Desmarest's Crustacea, plate 55 




easily suppose that, while this fine sediment was 
thrown down in the deep and central parts of the 
basin, gravel, sand, and rocky fragments were hurried 
ir ^to the lake near the shore, and formed the group 
described in the preceding section. 

Not far from Clermont, the green marls, containing 
the cypris in abundance, approach to within a few yards 

Fig. 147 


Vertical strata of marl near Clermont 

A- Granite. B. Space of sixty feet, in which no section is seen. 
C« Green marl, vertical and inclined. D. White marl. 

°f the granite which forms the borders of the basin. 
The annexed section occurs at Champradelle, in a 
small ravine north of La petite Baraque, and above 
the bridge. 

The occurrence of these marls so near the ancient 
Margin may be explained by considering that, at the 
bottom of the ancient lake, no coarse ingredients were 
deposited in spaces intermediate between the points 
^here rivers and torrents entered, but finer mud only 
w as drifted there by currents. The verticality of some 
°f the beds in the above section bears testimony to 
considerable local disturbance subsequent to the de- 
position of the marls ; but such inclined and vertical 

strata are very rare. 

3. Limestone, travertin, oolite.— Both the preceding 
m embers of the lacustrine deposit, the marls and grits* 




[Book IV. 

pass occasionally into limestone. Sometimes only 
concretionary nodules abound in them ; but these, 
where there is an increase in the quantity of cal- 

regular beds. 



the west at Gannat, and on the east at Vichy, a white 
oolitic hmestone is quarried. At Vichy, the oolite 
resembles our Bath stone in appearance and beauty, 
and, hke it, is soft when first taken from the quarry, 
but soon hardens on exposure to the air. At Gannat, 
the stone contains land-shells and bones of quadru- 
peds, resembling those of the Paris gypsum. In 
several places in the neighbourhood of Gannat, at 

Indusial limestone. 


— „»„, «mi »wuc is uiviueu dv lavers 

of clay. J J 

At Chadrat, in the hill of La Serre, the limestone is 
pisohtic, and m this and other respects resembles the 
travertin of Tivoli. It presents the same combination 
of a radiated and concentric structure, and the coats 
of the different spheroids have the same undulating 

, c „ . ,, There is another remarkable 

form of freshwater limestone in Auvergne, called 
"indusial, from the cases, or indusice, of the larva, of 
Phryganea, great heaps of which have been incrusted, 
as they lay, by carbonate of lime, and formed int0 , 
hard travertin. Several beds of this rock, either in 
continuous masses or in concretionary nodules, are 
seen superimposed one upon another, with layers of 
marl interposed. We may often observe in our ponds 
some of the living species of this kind of insect, covered 

* See Fig. 1 2. Vol. I. p. 323. 


Ch. XVIL] 



w *th small freshwater shells, which they have the 
Power of fixing to the outside of their tubular cases, in 
or der, probably, to give them weight and strength. 

J—^Trill^^ --;*„ ~ T, «<r— t ,*S"" -*— ^ 35 ^W^.. 

■^ , — - - fT*Wx< 


Fig. 148. r f he individual figured in 

the annexed cut, which be- 
longs to a species very abun- 
dant in England, has hap- 
pened to cover its case 
with shells of a small Plan- 
In the same manner a large species which 
farmed in the Eocene lakes of Auvergne was accus- 
tomed to attach to its dwelling the shells of a small 


• *Mf*- "~ u 

Larva of recent Phryganea.* 



r al univalve of the genus Paludina. A hundred of 
se minute shells are sometimes seen arranged 
ar ound one tube, part of the central cavity of which is 
of ten empty, the rest being filled up with thin concen- 
tri c layers of travertin. The cases have been thrown 
to gether confusedly, and often lie, as in Fig. 149., at 
ri ght angles one to the other. When we consider 
ha t ten or twelve tubes are packed within the com- 
Pass of a cubic inch, and that some single strata of this 
lr *iestone are six feet thick, and may be traced over a 



a. Indusial limestone of Auvergne. 
6. Fossil Paludina magnified. 


I beli 

leve that the British specimen here figured is P. rhom 

lca > Linn. 

H 5 




[Book TV. 

considerable area, we may form some idea of the count- 
less number of insects and mollusca which contributed 
their integuments and shells to compose this singularly 
constructed rock. It is unnecessary to suppose that 
the Phryganeae lived on the spots where their cases 
are now found ; they may have multiplied in the shal- 
lows near the margin of the lake, or in the streams by 
which it was fed, and their buoyant cases may have 
been drifted by a current far into the deep water.* 

The calcareous strata of the Limagne, like the other 
members of this lacustrine formation, are for the most 
part horizontal, or inclined at a very slight angle, but 
instances of local dislocation are sometimes observable. 
At the town of Vichy, for example, in an ancient 
quarry behind the convent of Celestines, the strata 
dip at an angle of between thirty and forty degrees ; 
and near the hot spring at the same place, the beds 
of limestone are seen, in one part of the section, in- 
clined at an angle of eighty degrees, and in another 

4. Gypseous marls — More than fifty feet of thinly 
laminated gypseous marls, exactly resembling those in 
the hill of Montmartre, at Paris, are worked for gypsum 
at St. Romain, on the right bank of the Allier. They 
rest on a series of green cypriferous marls which 
alternate with grit, the united thickness of this inferior 
group being seen, in a vertical section on the banks of 
the river, to exceed 250 feet. 

General arrangement and origin of the freshwater 
formations of Auvergne. — The relations of the different 
groups above described cannot be learnt by the study 

* For remarks on the floating of empty land shells by rivers, 
see above, p. 33., and Vol. III. p. 360. 




of any one section, and the geologist who sets out with 
the expectation of finding a fixed order of succession 
m ay perhaps complain that the different parts of the 
basin give contradictory results. The arenaceous 
^vision (l.p.H6.), the marls (2. p. 149.), and the 
limestone (3. p. 151.), may all be seen in some places 
to alternate with each other ; yet it can by no means 
" e affirmed that there is no order of arrangement. The 
Sa nds, sandstone, and conglomerate, constitute in ge- 
neral a littoral group ; the foliated white and green 
^arls, a contemporaneous central deposit ; and the 
limestone is for the most part subordinate to the 
ttewer portions of both. The uppermost marls and 
s ands are more calcareous than the lower; and we 
never meet with calcareous rocks covered by a con- 
siderable thickness of quartzose sand or green marl. 
From the resemblance of the Eocene limestones of 
Auvergne to the Italian travertins, we may conclude 
that they were derived from the waters of mineral 


such springs as now exist in Auvergne, and 

w hich, rising up through the granite, precipitate tra- 
v ertin. They are sometimes thermal, but this cha- 
racter is by no means constant. 

It seems that, when the ancient lake of the Li- 
m agne first began to be filled with sediment, no vol- 
c anic action had yet produced lava and scoriae on any 
Part of the surface of Auvergne. No pebbles, there- 
fore, of lava were transported into the lake, 
fragments of volcanic rocks imbedded in the conglo- 
merate. But at a later period, when a considerable 




of sandstone and marl had accumulated, 

er uptions broke out, and lava and tuff were deposited, 
a t some spots, alternately with the lacustrine strata, 
^oofs of this will be given in the 19th chapter. It is 

h 6 









[Book IV 

not improbable that cold and thermal springs, holding 
different mineral ingredients in solution, became more 
numerous during the successive convulsions attending 
this development of volcanic agency, and thus deposits 
of carbonate and sulphate of lime, silex, and other 
minerals were produced. Hence these minerals pre- 
dominate in the uppermost strata. The subterranean 
movements may then have continued until they altered 
the relative levels of the country, and caused the waters 
of the lakes to be drained off, and the farther accumu- 
lation of regular freshwater strata to cease. The oc- 
currence of these convulsions anterior to the Miocene 
epoch, and their continuance during a succession o* 
after-ages, may explain why no freshwater formations 
more recent than the Eocene are now found in this 


We may easily conceive a similar series of events 
to give rise to analogous results in any modern basin, 
such as that of Lake 1 Superior, for example, where 
numerous rivers and torrents are carrying down the 
detritus of a chain of mountains into the lake. The 
transported materials must be arranged according to 
their size and weight, the coarser near the shore, the 
finer at a greater distance from land; but 

in the 
gravelly and sandy beds of Lake Superior no pebbles 
of modern volcanic rocks can be included, since there 
are none of these at present in the district. If igneous 
action should break but in that country and produce 
lava, scoriae, and thermal springs, the deposition of 
gravel, sand, and marl might still continue as before ; 
but in addition, there would then be an intermixture 
of volcanic gravel and tuff, and of rocks precipitated 
from the waters of mineral springs. 

Although the freshwater strata of the Limagne ap- 



P r oach generally to a horizontal position, the proofs of 
ocal disturbance are sufficiently numerous and violent 
allow us to suppose great changes of level since the 

Eocene period. We are unable to assign a northern 

carrier to the ancient lake, although we can still trace 
lts limits to the east, west, and south, where they were 

0r nied of bold granitic eminences. But we need not 
" e surprised at our inability to restore the physical 
geography of the country after so great a series of 

°lcanic eruptions ; for it is by no means improbable 


one part of it may have been moved upwards 

bodily, while others remained at rest, or even suffered 
a Movement of depression. 

Puy en Velay. — In the department of the Haute 
^°ire, a freshwater formation, very analogous to that 
°f Auvergne, is situated in the basin of the Loire, and 
is exposed in the valley in which stands the town of 
^ e Puy. Since the deposition of the lacustrine strata, 

^ere have been so many volcanic eruptions in this 
c °Untry, and such immense quantities of lava and 
s coriae have been poured out upon the surface, that 

** e aqueous rocks are almost buried and concealed. 
■**ut we are indebted co the researches of M. Bertrand 


oue, for having distinctly ascertained the succes- 

sion of strata, and I have myself had opportunities of 
e *ifying his observations during a visit to Le Puy. 

■hi this basin we find, as in Auvergne, two great 
Visions, consisting of grits and marls ; the former 
c °ttiposed of quartzose grit, in some places resembling 
§ r anite, and of reddish and mottled sands and conglo- 
merates. All these were evidently derived from the 
degradation of granitic rocks, and are very like the 
^"enaceous group of the Limagne before described. 
f hey are almost confined to the borders of the basin, 








[Book I V. 

and were evidently a littoral deposit. The other 
member of the formation, the marls, are more or less 
calcareous, and are associated with limestone and 
gypsum, which last exactly resembles that of Paris, 
and is worked for agricultural uses. 

The analogy in the mineral charater of the Velay 
and £aris basins is rendered more complete by the 
presence in both of silex in regular beds. In the 
limestone I found gyrogonites, or seeds of the Chara, 
of the same species as those most common in the 
Paris basin ; and M. Bertrand de Doue has discovered 
the bones of several mammiferous animals of the same 
genera as those which characterize the basins of Au- 
vergne and Paris.* The species of shells also of this 
formation are the same as those of Eocene formations 

in other parts of France. 

The sand and conglomerate of the freshwater basin 
of Velay are entirely free from volcanic pebbles, agree- 
ing in this respect with the analogous group of the 
Limagne ; but the fact is the more striking in Velay. 
because the masses of trachyte, clinkstone, and other 
igneous rocks now abounding in that country, have an 
aspect of very high antiquity, and constitute a most 
prominent feature in the geological structure of the 
district. Yet the non-intermixture of volcanic pro- 
ducts with the lacustrine sediment, is just what we 
should expect when we have ascertained that the im- 
bedded organic remains of those strata are Eocene ; 
whereas the lavas belong in part, if not entirely, to the 
Miocene period.-)- 

Cantal — Near Aurillac, in Cantal, another series 
of freshwater strata occurs, which resembles, in mi- 

* Descrip. Geognos. des En v. du Puy en Velay, 1823. 
f See p. 136., and chap. xix. 

Ch - XVII.] 



er al character and organic remains, those of Auvergne 
an d Velay already described. The leading feature of 

hls group, as distinguished from the two former, is 

ne immense abundance of silex associated with the 
calcareous marls and limestone, which last constitute, 

lk e the limestone of Auvergne, an upper member of 
ltle freshwater series. 




* the 



groups, the lower composed of gravel, sand, and 
cla y> such as might have been derived from the wear- 
n g down and decomposition of the granitic schists of 
he surrounding country ; the upper system, consisting 
°* siliceous and calcareous marls, contains subordin- 
ate^ gypsum, silex, and limestone — deposits such as 
**e waters of springs charged with carbonate and sul- 
phate of lime, and with silica, may have produced. 
Freshwater limestone and fl\ 

, ° the English geologist, the most interesting feature 

Cantal is the resemblance of the freshwater 
lr ttestone, and its accompanying flint, to our upper 
°halk ; a resemblance which (like that of the red sand- 
st °ne of Auvergne to our secondary " new red") is 
^ e more important, as being calculated to put the 
st udent upon his guard against relying too implicitly 
0tl Hthological characters as tests of the relative ages 
r ocks. When we approach Aurillac from the west, 

e pass over great heathy plains, where the sterile 
^ca-schist is barely covered with vegetation. Near 
* tr ac, and between La Capelle and Viscamp, we find 

116 surface strewed over with loose broken flints, some 
ot them black in the interior, but with a white externa) 

others stained with tints of yellow and red, 

bating ; 

atl d in appearan 
c halk districts. 

precisely like the flint gravel of our 


! i 






announced our approach to a new formation, we arrive 
at length at the escarpment of the lacustrine beds. A* 
the bottom of the hill which rises before us, we see 
strata of clay and sand resting on mica-schist ; and 
above, in the quarries of Belbet, Leybros, and Bruel, 
a white limestone, in horizontal strata, the surface of 
which has been hollowed out into irregular furrows, 
since filled up with broken flint, marl, and dark vege- 
table mould. In these cavities we recognize an exact 
counterpart to those which are so numerous on the 
furrowed surface of our own white chalk. Advancing 
from these quarries, along a road made of the white 
limestone, which reflects as glaring a light in the sun, 
as do our roads composed of chalk, we reach, at length, 
in the neighbourhood of Aurillac, hills of limestone and 
calcareous marl, in horizontal strata, separated in some 

places by regular layers of flint in nodules, the coat- 
ing of each nodule being of an opaque white colour, 
like the exterior of the flinty nodules of our chalk- 
This hard white substance has been ascertained in 
England to consist, in some instances, wholly 6f sili- 
ceous matter, and sometimes to contain a small admix- 
ture of carbonate of lime *, an d the analysis of the 
similar rocks in the Cantal would probably give the 
same results. The Aurillac flints have precisely the 
appearance of having separated from their matrix after 
the siliceous and calcareous matter had been blended 
together. The calcareous marl sometimes occupies 
small sinuous cavities in the flint ; and the siliceous 
nodule, when detached, i s often as irregular in form as 
those found in our chalk. 


Phillips, Geol. Trans., First Series, vol. v. p. 22. — Outlines 

of Geology, p. 95. 

CJ >. XVI L] 



By what means, then, can the geologist at once 
decide that the limestone and silex of Aurillac are 
re ferable to an epoch entirely distinct from that of 
the English chalk ? It is not by reference to position ; 
tor we can merely say of the lacustrine beds, as we 
s hould have been able to declare of the true chalk had 
xt been present, that they overlie the granitic rocks of 
hls part of France. It is from the organic remains 
° n 'y that we are able to pronounce the formation to 


g to the Eocene tertiary period. Instead of the 

Marine Alcyonia of our cretaceous system, the silici- 
^ e d seed-vessels of the Chara, a plant which grows at 
t * le bottom of lakes, abound in the flints of Aurillac, 


in those which are in situ and those forming the 

S^vel. Instead of the Echini and marine testacea of 
** e chalk, we find in these marls and limestones the 


s of the Planorbis, and other lacustrine testacea, 

| °f them, like the gyrogonites, agreeing specifically 


species of the Eocene type. 


Proofs of the gradual deposition of marl. 
e ctions of the foliated marls in the valley of the Cer, 
ear Aurillac, attest, in the most unequivocal manner, 
ne extreme slowness with which the materials of the 
aeu strine series were amassed. In the hill of Barrat, 
^ example, we find an assemblage of calcareous and 

^ceous marls, in which, for a depth of at least sixty 

et > the layers are so thin that thirty are sometimes 

Stained in the thickness of an inch ; and when they 

e separated we see preserved in every one of them 

< e flattened stems of Charse, or other plants, or some- 

^es myriads of small paludince and other freshwater 

e us. These minute foliations of the marl resemble 

j: Wisely some of the recent laminated beds of the 
c °tch marl lakes, and may be compared to the pages 





[Book IV. 

of a book, each containing a history of a certain period 
of the past. The different layers may be grouped 
together in beds from a foot to a foot and a half i n 
thickness, which are distinguished by differences of 
composition and colour, the tints being white, green, 
and brown. Occasionally there is a parting layer of 
pure flint, or of black carbonaceous vegetable matter, 
about an inch thick, or of white pulverulent marl. 
We find several hills in the neighbourhood of Aurillac 
composed of such materials for the height of more 
than 200 feet from their base, the whole sometimes 

covered by rocky currents of trachytic or basaltic 
lava. * 

Thus wonderfully minute are the separate parts 
of which some of the most massive geological monu- 
ments are made up ! When we desire to classify* 
it is necessary to contemplate entire groups of strata 
in the aggregate; but if we wish to understand 
the mode of their formation, and to explain their 
origin, we must think only of the minute 

visions of which each mass is composed. We must 
bear in mind how many thin leaf like seams of matter, 
each containing the remains of myriads of testacea 
and plants, frequently enter into the composition of a 
single stratum, and how vast a succession of these 
strata unite to form a single group ! We must re- 
member also, that volcanos like the Plomb du Cantal 
which rises in the immediate neighbourhood of Au- 
rillac, are themselves equally the result of succes- 
sive accumulation, consisting of reiterated flows of 
lava and showers of scoriae ; and I have shown, when 


* Lyell and Murehison, sur les Depots Lacust. Tertiaires d* 
Cantal, &c. Ann. des Sci. Nat., Oct. 1829. 



^eating of the high antiquity of Etna, how many dis- 
tin ct lava-currents and heaps of ejected substances 
are required to make up one of the numerous conical 

env elopes whereof a volcano is composed. 


We must not forget that continents and mountain- 
clla ins, colossal as are their dimensions, are nothing 
""ore than an assemblage of many such igneous and 
a< lUeous groups, formed in succession during an 

definite lapse of ages, and superimposed upon each 














Marine Eocene strata — Paris basin how far analogous to deposit* 
of Central France — Connexion of Auvergne and Paris basins 
— Groups in Paris basin— Observations of M. C. Prevost— 
Contemporaneous marine and freshwater strata — Abundant 

of Cerithia (p. 169.) 
Parisian groups Eocene 
of quadrupeds in gypsum 

Upper marine formation 

All the 

Microscopic shells (p. 176.)- 

Strata with and without organic 


of the 

remains alternating _ Extent of our ^ 

physical geography, fauna, and flora of the Eocene period 
Concluding remarks. 

The geologist who has studied the lacustrine form- 
ations described in the last chapter cannot enter the 
tract usually termed « the Paris Basin " without im- 
mediately recognizing a great variety of rocks with 
which his eye has already become familiar. The green 
and white marls of Auvergne, Cantal, and Velay, 
again present themselves, together with limestones and 
quartzose grits, siliceous and gypseous marls, nodules 
and layers of flint, and saccharoid gypsum ; lastly, in 
addition to all this identity of mineral character, he 
finds an assemblage of the same species of fossil ani- 
mals and plants. 

When we consider the geographical proximity oi 
the two districts, we are the more prepared to ascribe 
this correspondence in the mineral composition <& 
these groups to a combination of similar circumstances 






e same era. From the map (Fig. 144. p. 145.) in 

e last chapter, it will be seen that the united waters 

tfie Allier and Loire, after descending from the 

le ys occupied by the freshwater formations of 

' er *tral France, flow on till they reach the southern 

e *tremity of what is called the Paris basin. M. Oma- 

s d'Halloy long ago suggested the very natural idea 

at there existed formerly a chain of lakes, reaching 

*** the highest part of the central mountain-group 

France, and terminating in the basin of Paris, which 

Su pposes was at that time an arm of the sea. 

t Notwithstanding the great changes which the phy- 

c al geography of this part of France must since have 

*^ er gone, we may easily conceive that many of the 

pritl cipal features in the configuration of the country 

*y have remained unchanged, or but slightly modified. 


s of volcanic matter have indeed been formed since 


e E 

ocene formations were accumulated, and the 

e *s of large tracts have been altered in relation to 

s ^a ; lakes have been drained, and a gulf of the 

turned into dry land, but many of the reciprocal 

ations of the different parts of the surface may still 

^ ai n the same. The waters which flowed from the 

ni tic heights into the Eocene lakes may now 

, Ce nd in the same manner through valleys once the 

-tts of those lakes. Let us, for illustration, suppose 

tl t great Canadian lakes, and the gulf into which 

, Ir Waters are discharged, to be elevated and laid 

^ b y subterranean movements. The whole hydro- 

, Phical basin of the St. Lawrence might be upraised 

n g these convulsions, yet that river might continue, 

11 after so extraordinary a revolution, to drain the 

e elevated regions, and might still convey its 

ers in the same direction from the interior of the 










1 • 

166 EOCENE PERIOD. [Book 1 V ' 

continent to the Atlantic. Instead of traversing the 
lakes, it would hold its course through deposits ot 
lacustrine sand and shelly marl, such as we know to b e 
now forming in Lakes Superior and Erie ; and these 
freshwater strata would occupy the site, and bea* 
testimony to the pristine existence of the lakes. M^ 
rine strata may also be brought into view in the spa° e 
where an inlet of the sea, like the estuary of the S^ 
Lawrence, had once received the continental waters 5 
and in such formations we might discover shells ot 
lacustrine and fluviatile species intermingled with 
marine testacea and zoophytes. 

Subdivisions of strata in the Paris basin.— The are* 1 
which has been called the Paris basin is about 1 8 ° 
miles in its greatest length from north-east to south- 
west, and about ninety miles from east to west. Th lS 
space may be described as a depression in the chal* 
(see Fig. 82. Vol. III. p. 332.), which has been filled up 
by alternating groups of marine and freshwater strata 
MM. Cuvier and Brongniart attempted in 1811 to dis* 
tinguish five different formations, and to arrange the** 1 
in the following order, beginning with the lowest: 

_. r , . f Plastic clay. 
1. First freshwater! T . J 

1 . i Lignite. 

formation ^ F irst sandstone . 

2. First marine form- 1 ~ . . 
. r J- Calcaire grossier. 

ation J 

~ c j c ~„u«~„* f Siliceous limestone. 

3. Second freshwater I G with bones of anima i s . 
formation [ Freshwater marls. 

& -i • f Gypseous marine marls. 

4. Second marine I T /^ . a a a ^nps, 

< Upper marine sands and sandstones 

formation ^ Upper marine marls and ii mes tones. 

ml _. j A, rt i, 4 f Siliceous millstone, without shells. 
5 . Third freshwater I Siliceous millstone , with shells, 
formation ^ Upper freshwater mar i s . 

Ch .'XVin.] 




These formations were supposed to have been de- 
Posited in succession upon the chalk ; and it was 
imagined that the waters of the ocean had been by 
tur ns admitted into and excluded from the same 

gion. But the subsequent investigations of several 
geologists, especially of M. Constant Prevost *, have 
le d to great modifications in the theoretical views en- 
ter tained respecting the order in which the several 
§ r °ups were formed ; and it now appears that the form- 
ati °ns Nos. 1, % and 3. of the table of MM. Cuvier and 
Br °ngniart, instead of having originated one after the 
ot her, are divisible into four nearly contemporaneous 
§ r oup s . 

position of different formations in the Paris 

A comparison of the two accompanying dia- 

^ams will show at a glance the different relations 


a $in. 

% Brongniart. 

Fig. 151. 
M. Constant Prevost. 


O- Upvur Freshwater 


4- - Upper M.ari/u; 




Cede, Sil. 



(*yps. Sec 



Cole. Gros . 

1. JPlastic Claif 

c halfr 


Bulletin des Sci. de la Soc. Philom., May, 1825, p. 74 










which the several sets of strata bear to each other, 
according to the original as well as the more modern 
classification. I shall now proceed to lay before the 
reader a brief sketch of the several sets of strata re- 
ferred to in the above systems. 

Immediately upon the chalk a layer of broken chalfc 
flints, often cemented into a breccia by siliceous sand, 
is very commonly found. These flints probably indi- 
cate the action of the sea upon reefs of chalk when a 
portion of that rock had emerged, and before the 
regular tertiary beds were superimposed. To this 
partial layer no reference is made in the annexed 

Plastic clay and sand. — Upon this flinty stratum* 
or, if it be wanting, upon the chalk itself, rests fre- 
quently a deposit of clay and lignite (No. 1. of the 
above tables). It includes the remains of freshwater 
shells and drift-wood, and was, at first, regarded as a 
proof that the Paris basin had originally been filled 
with fresh water. But it has since been shown that 
this group is not only of very partial extent, but is by 
no means restricted to a fixed place in the series ; for 



that limestone at Veaugirard, Bagneux, and other 
places, where the same Planorbes, Paludinae, and Lim- 
neae occur. * M. Desnoyers pointed out to me a sec- 
tion in the suburbs of Paris, laid open in 1829, where 
a similar intercalation was seen in a still higher part 
of the calcaire grossier. These observations relieve U* 
from the difficulty of seeking a cause why vegetable 
matter, and certain species of freshwater shells and a 

* Prevost, Sur les Submersions Iteratives, &c. Mem. de 1» 
Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, tome iv. p. 74. 

* Ch XVIIL] 




The calcaire grossiei 


bove al- 

Particular kind of clay, were at first introduced into 
e basin, and why the same space was subsequently 
burped by the sea. A minute examination of the phe- 
nomena leads us simply to infer, that a river charged 
!th argillaceous sediment entered a bay of the sea 
nd drifted into it, from time to time, freshwater shell 
an d wood. 

Calcaire grossier 

U(J ed to, is a coarse limestone, often passing into sand, 

|* c « as may perhaps have been in part derived from 

e aqueous degradation of a chalk country. It con- 

ain s by far the greater number of the fossil shells 

mch characterize the Paris basin. No less than 400 

ls tinct species have been procured from a single spot 

e ar Grignon. They are imbedded in a calcareous 

an d, chiefly formed of comminuted shells, in which, 

ev ertheless, individuals in a perfect state of preserv- 

. l0 n, both of marine, terrestrial, and freshwater spe- 

les > are mingled together, and were evidently trans- 

j/ rted from a distance. Some of the marine shells 

^ a y have lived on the spot ; but the Cyclostoma and 

ln inea must have been brought thither by rivers and 

c Urr ents, and the quantity of triturated shells implies 

ns iderable movement in the waters. 




ing is more 


, . _ ^ m this assemblage of 

* Sl1 testacea than the great proportion of species 

erable to the genus Cerithium. 

er e occur no less than one hundred and thirty-seven 

(See fig. 152.) 

g t — ~ «..«.. v,.w *.v*»uiuu cum urn ^-OCVCH 

°f tt! es of this genus in the Paris basin? and almost a11 

^ h em in the calcaire grossier. Now the living tes- 
*iy €a 0f this S en us inhabit the sea near the mouths of 

ab^' Wllere the waters are brackish, so that their 
Undance in the marine strata of the Paris basin is in 
e ct harmony with the hypothesis before advanced, 

^o L , 






; : ! 











Pig. 152. 

that a river flowed into the gulf, and gave rise 
to the beds of clav and lignite before me 11 " 
tioned. But there are ample data for infe r * 
ring that the gulf was supplied with &e sl 
water by more than one river ; for while tn 
alcaire grossier occupies the northern p& r 
of the Paris basin, another contemporaneous 
deposit, of freshwater origin, appears at tb^ 
southern extremity. 

Calcaire siliceux. — This group (No, 3. ° ' 
the foregoing tables) is a compact siliceous 
limestone, which resembles a precipitate fro*** 


the waters of mineral springs. It is often W 

i Cerithium . . . . 

cinctmn. * versed by small empty sinuous cavities , 
for the most part devoid of organic remains, but * IT 
some places contains freshwater and land specif 
and never any marine fossils. The siliceous lim e ' 
stone and the calcaire grossier occupy distinct parts o 
the basin, the one attaining its fullest development ll 
those places where the other is of slight thickness 
They also alternate with each other towards the centra 
of the basin, as at Sergy and Osny ; and there are eve** 
points where the two rocks are so blended together 
that portions of each may be seen in hand specimen^ 
Thus in the same bed, at Triel, we have the compa c 
freshwater limestone, characterized by its lAv$se& 9 
mingled with the coarse marine limestone throng 
which the small multilocular shell, called miliiolite, 1& 
dispersed in countless numbers. These microscop 1 
testacea are also accompanied by Cerithia and othe 
shells of the calcaire grossier. It is very extraordinary 
that in this instance both kinds of sediment must b aV 
been thrown down together on the same spot, ar> 

* This snecies is found also in the Paris and London bastf* 5 * 



Ch. XVIII.] 




ea cn has still retained its own peculiar organic remains 


t) °th m $# w a t Triel, and in hand specimens in his 

These facts lead irresistibly to the conclusion, that 
wll *le to the north, where the bay was probably open 
the sea, a marine limestone was formed, another 


e posit of freshwater origin was introduced to th 


southward, or at the head of the bay; for it appears 
lla t during the Eocene period, as now, the ocean was 

the north ; and the continent, where the great lakes 
exi sted, to the south. From that southern region we 
111 a y suppose a body of fresh water to have descended 
charged with carbonate of lime and silica, the water 

r\ m 

ein g perhaps in sufficient volume to convert the upper 
en d of the bay into fresh water, like some of the gulfs 
of the Baltic. 

Gypsum and marls. — The next group to be con- 
quered is the gypsum, and the white and green marls, 
Subdivisions of No. 3. of the table of Cuvier and 

r °ngniart. These were once supposed to be entirely 
s ^bsequent in origin to the two groups already con- 
quered ; but M. Prevost has pointed out that in some 

° Ca lities they alternate repeatedly with the calcaire 

1 lc eux, and in others with some of the upper mem- 

ers of the calcaire grossier. The gypsum, with its 

Ss °ciated marl and limestone, is in greatest force 

° w ards the centre of the basin, where the two groups 

ef ore mentioned are less fully developed ; and M. 

rev ost infers, that while those two principal deposits 

ere gradually in progress, the one towards the north, 

a the other towards the south, a river descending 

m the east may have brought down the gypseous 

nc * marly sediment. 

i 2 









{[Book iV- 

It must be admitted, as highly probable, that a bay 
or narrow sea, 180 miles in length, would receive, at 
more points than one, the waters of the adjoining 
continent ; at the same time I may observe, that if the 
gypsum and associated green and white marls of 
Montmartre were derived from a hydrographical basin 
distinct from that of the southern chain of lakes before 
adverted to, this basin must nevertheless have been 
placed under circumstances extremely similar; for the 
identity of the rocks of Velay and Auvergne with the 
freshwater group of Montmartre, is such as can scarcely 
be appreciated by geologists who have not carefully 
examined the structure of both these countries. 

Some readers may think that the view above given 
of the arrangement of four different sets of strata i n 
the Paris basin is far more obscure and complicated 
than that first presented to them in the system of 
MM. Cuvier and Brongniart. Undoubtedly the rela- 
tions of the several groups are less simple than the 
first observers supposed, being much more analogous 
to those before described in the lacustrine deposits 
of Central France. The simultaneous deposition of 
two or more groups of strata in one basin, some of 
them freshwater and others marine, must always pro- 
duce very complex results ; but in proportion as it & 
more difficult in these cases to discover any fixed 
order of superposition in the associated mineral masses? 
so also is it more easy to explain the manner of then* 
origin, and to reconcile their relations to the agency °* 
known causes. Instead of the successive irruptions 
and retreats of the sea, and changes in the chernicd 
nature of the fluid and other speculations of the earlier 
geologists, we are now simply called upon to imagin e 
a gulf, into one- extremity of which the sea entered* 



Ch - XVIII.] 



an d at the other a large river, while other streams may 
uave flowed in at different points, whereby an inde- 
finite number of alternations of marine and freshwater 
beds would be occasioned. 

Second or Upper marine group* — The next group, 

Ca 'led the second or uppe 





^hich alternate with the freshwater beds of gypsum 
an d marl last described. Above this division the pro- 
ducts of the sea exclusively predominate, the beds 
uemg chiefly formed of micaceous and quartzose sand, 
ei ghty feet or more in thickness, surmounted by beds 
°f sandstone, with scarcely any limestone. The sum- 
^ts of a great many platforms and hills in the Paris 
basin consist of this upper marine series. 

I fully agree with M. C. Prevost that the alternation 

°* the various marine and freshwater formations before 

^scribed admit of a satisfactory explanation without 

apposing different retreats and subsequent returns 

°* the sea ; yet I think that a subsidence of the soil 

v °uld best account for the position of these upper 

ine sands. Oscillations of level may have oc- 

Cl *rred, in consequence of which the sea and a river 

^ a y have prevailed each in their turn for a time, until 

1 length, by a more considerable sinking down of part 

the basin, a tract previously occupied by fresh 

a ter was converted into a sea of moderate depth. 

£* one part of the Paris basin there are decisive 

P r °ofs that during the Eocene period, and before the 

Pper marine sand was formed, parts of the calcaire 

sier were exposed to the action of denuding 

es. At Valmondois, for example, a deposit of the 


c au s 

u Pper 

marine sandstone is found, in which rolled 
lo cks of the calcaire grossier with its peculiar fossils, 

i 3 







[Book IV. 

and fragments of a limestone resembling the calcaire 
siliceux, occur.* These calcareous boulders are rolled 
and pierced by perforating shells belonging to no less 
than fifteen distinct species. Both the blocks and 
many worn shells washed out from the calcaire gros- 
sier, are found mingled with the ordinary fossils of the 
upper marine sand. 

We have seen that the same earthquake in Cutcb 
could raise one part of the delta of the Indus and 
depress another, and cause the river to cut a passage 
through the upraised strata, and carry down the mate- 
rials removed from the new channel into the sea. AU 
these changes, therefore, might happen within a short 
interval of time between the deposition of two sets of 
strata in the same delta.f 

It is not improbable, then, that the same convul- 
sions which caused one part of the Paris basin to sink 
down, so as to let in the sea upon the area previously 
covered by gypsum and freshwater marl, may have 
lifted up the calcaire grossier and the siliceous lime- 
stone, so that they might be acted upon by the waves 
and fragments of them swept down into the contiguous 
sea, there to be drilled by boring testacea. 

It is observed that the older marine formation at 
Laon is now raised three hundred metres or nearly 
one thousand feet above the sea, whereas the upper 
marine sands never attain half that elevation. Such 
may possibly have been the relative altitude of the 
two groups when the newest of them was deposited. 

* M. Deshayes, Memoires de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Pari^ 
torn. i. p. 243. The sandstone is there called, by mistake, g r ^ 
marin inferieur, instead of superieur, to which last the author ha* 
since ascertained it to belong. 

f Vol. II. p. 194. 



Ch - XVIII.] 



freshwater fi 


sider another formation, the third freshwater group 
(No. 5. of the preceding tables). It consists of marls 
in terstratified with beds of flint and layers of flinty 
n odul es . One set of siliceous layers is destitute of 
0r ganic remains, the other replete with them. 

Gyrogonites, or fossil seed-vessels of charge, are 
f °und abundantly in these strata ; and all the animal 
and vegetable remains agree well with the hypothesis, 
tn at after the gulf or estuary had been silted up with 
l he sand of the upper marine formation, a great number 
of marshes and shallow lakes existed, like those which 
frequently overspread the newest parts of a delta. 
These lakes were fed by rivers or springs which con- 
tained, in chemical solution or mechanical suspension, 
s uch kinds of sediment as we have already seen to 
have been deposited in the lakes of Central France 
during the Eocene period. 

The Parisian groups all Eocene.— Having now given 
a rapid sketch >f the different groups of the Paris 
hasin, I may observe generally that they all belong 
to the Eocene epoch, although the entire series must 
doubtless have required an immense lapse of ages for 
*fe accumulation. The shells of the different fresh- 
w ater groups, constituting at once some of the lowest 
an d uppermost members of the series, are nearly all 
deferable to the same species, and the discordance 
between the marine testacea of the calcaire grossier 
an d the upper marine sands is very inconsiderable. 

A curious observation has been made by M. Des- 
hayes, in reference to the changes which one species, 
the Cardium porulosum, has undergone during the long 
Period of its existence in the Paris basin. Different 
v arieties of this cardium are characteristic of different 






ir i 



[Book IV. 

strata. In the older sand of the Soissonais (a marine 
formation underlying the regular beds of the calcaire 


a small volume, and 


Fig. 1 52. Jp 

Cardium porulosum 

Paris and London basins. 

has many peculiarities, which disappear in the lowest 
beds of the calcaire grossier. In these the shell attains 
its full size, and many peculiarities of form, which are 
again modified in the uppermost beds of the calcaire 

grossier; and these last characters are preserve 
throughout the whole of the " upper marine" series.* 



In some 

parts of the calcaire grossier round Paris, certain 
beds occur of a stone used in building, and called by 
the French geologists miliolite limestone. It is almost 
entirely made up of millions of small shells of the size 
of minute grains of sand, which all belong to the same 
class, but are of distinct species from those found in 
the Older Pliocene beds of Italy. These minute fossil 
bodies consist of multilocular shells, which were for- 
merly referred to the order Cephalopoda, by M- 
D'Orbigny, but M. Dujardin has shown that some of 
them do certainly not belong to that order. They 
were separated by D'Orbigny from the nautilus and 
ammonite, by their having no siphon or internal tube 
connecting the different chambers, and were called by 
him Foraminifera. They are often in an excellent 

* Coquilles caracterist. des Terrains, 1831 






■ ■' 


» ■ 




■ . 





k ■ 






r - 





■ i 

I ■ 










> - * * *\ - ' 

• / , ♦ > * - - ■ 




. 1 * 

i' ; 






■ L 





* ,v 

- .■ 7.i. 


: . 


Ki < 




*A V 



. " 






























«J IN 
























■ - 






■ I 


r ~-H 

















VCs ^ 







* ± 












tete of preservation, and their forms are singularly 
Cerent from those of the larger testacea. 
A plate of some of these is given, from unpublished 
Swings by M. Deshayes, who has carefully selected 
116 most remarkable types of form. The natural size 
e ach species figured (Plate XIII.) is indicated by 

8u ch minute points, that it is necessary to call atten- 

l °n to them, as they might otherwise be overlooked. 

1 should also be mentioned that the genus miliolite of 

^ftiarck has since been subdivided into several genera, 

J^ong which are the Triloculina and Quifiqueloculina 

Wd in the plate (PI. XIII.). 

Characteristic shells. — The species of shells figured 
ln the annexed plate are common in the Paris basin, 
ar *d i^ a y b e considered as characteristic of the Eocene 




They appear as yet to be exclu- 

Slv ely confined to deposits of that period, and are for 
^ e most part abundant in them wherever they have 
be en attentively studied. (PI XIV.) 

~&o?ies of quadrupeds in gypsum. — I have already 

c °ttsidered the position of the gypsum which occurs in 

^ e form of a saccharoid rock in the hill of Mont- 

^artre at Paris, and other central parts of the basin. 

^ the base of that hill it is seen distinctly to alternate 

Vl th soft marly beds of the calcaire grossier, in which 

Cer ithia and other marine shells occur. But the great 

^ a ss of gypsum may be considered as a purely fresh- 

^ter deposit,, containing land and fluviatile shells, 

°§ether with fragments of palm-wood, and great 

Ut *ibers of skeletons of quadrupeds and birds, an 

s semblage of organic remains which has given great 

ee lebrity to the Paris basin. The bones of freshwater 

®h,. also, and of crocodiles, and many land and fluvia- 

e reptiles, occur in this rock. The skeletons of raara- 

i 5 







[Book IV 

malia are usually isolated, often entire, the most deli- 
cate extremities being preserved, as if the carcasses, 


clothed with their flesh and skin, had been floated 
down soon after death, and while they were still swoln 
by the gases generated by their first decomposition- 
The few accompanying shells are of those light kinds 
which frequently float on the surface of rivers together 
with wood. 



have swept away the bodies of animals, and the plants 
which lived on its borders, or in the lakes which i* 
traversed, and may have carried them down into the 
centre of the gulf into which flowed the waters im- 
pregnated with sulphate of lime. We know that the 
Fiume Salso in Sicily enters the sea so charged with 
various salts that the thirsty cattle refuse to drink of 
it. A stream of sulphureous water, as white as milk? 
descends into the sea from the volcanic mountain of 
Idienne, on the east of Java ; and a great body of hot 
water, charged with sulphuric acid, rushed down from 
the same volcano on one occasion, and inundated a 
large tract of country, destroying, by its noxious pro- 
perties, all the vegetation.* In like manner the P«" 
sanibio, or " Vinegar River," of Colombia, which rises 
at the foot of Purace, an extinct volcano, 7500 feet 
above the level of the sea, is strongly impregnated 
with sulphuric and muriatic acids, and with oxide of 

We may easily suppose the waters of such 
streams to have properties noxious to marine animals* 
and in this manner the entire absence of marine re- 
mains in the ossiferous gypsum may be explained.! 

• Leyde Magaz. voor Wetensch Konst en Lett., partie *• 
cahier i. p. 71. Cited by Rozet, Journ. de Geologie, torn. i. p.. 4& 

* M..C Provost, Submersions Iteratives, &c. Note 23. 





There are no pebbles or coarse sand in the gypsum ; 
a circumstance which agrees well with the hypothesis 

h&t these beds were precipitated from water holding 

Su lphate of lime in solution, and floating the remains 

v0t different animals. The bones of land quadrupeds, 

However, are not confined entirely to the freshwater 

Or ftiation to which the gypsum belongs; for the re- 
gains of a Palasotherium, together with some fresh- 

a ter shells, have been found in a marine stratum be- 

°ttging to the calcaire grossier at Beauchamp. 

In the gypsum the remains of about fifty species of 
quadrupeds have been found, all extinct, and nearly 
four-fifths of them belonging to a division of the order 
^achydermata, which is now represented by only four 
* l ving species ; namely, three tapirs and the daman of 
*he Cape. With them a few carnivorous animals are 
as sociated, among which are a species of fox and gen- 
^t. Of the Rodentia, a dormouse and a squirrel ; of 
^e Insectivora, a bat ; and of the Marsupialia (an 
°rder now confined to America, Australia, and some 
Contiguous islands), an opossum, have been discovered. 

Of birds, about ten species have been ascertained, 
***e skeletons of some of which are entire. None of 


em are referable to existing species.^ The same 

re naark applies to the fish, according to MM. Cuvier 
***d Agassiz, as also to the reptiles. Among the last 
ar e crocodiles and tortoises of the genera Emys and 

The tribe of land quadrupeds most abundant in this 

0r ttiation is such as now inhabits alluvial plains and 

Marshes and the banks of rivers and lakes, a class most 

* Cuvier, Oss. Foss., torn. iii. p. 255 

i 6 

B ii 












exposed to suffer by river inundations. Whether the 
disproportion of carnivorous animals can be ascribed 
to this cause, or whether they were comparatively 
small in number and dimensions, as in the indigenous 
fauna of Australia, when first known to Europeans, * s 
a point on which it would be rash, perhaps, to offer an 
opinion in the present state of our knowledge. 
, We have no reason to be surprised that all the 
species of vertebrated animals hitherto observed are 
extinct, when we recollect that out of 1122 species of 
fossil testacea obtained from the Paris basin, thirty* 
eight only can be identified with species now living* 
I have more than once adverted to the fact, that ex- 
tinct mammalia are often found associated with assent 
blages of recent shells, a fact from which I have inferred 
the inferior duration of species of the mammalia as com- 
pared with the testacea ; and it is not improbable that 
the higher order of animals in general may more readily 
become extinct than the marine mollusca. Some of 
the thirty-eight species of testacea above alluded Uh 
as having survived from the Eocene period to our own 
times, have now a wide geographical range, as, for ex- 
ample, Lucina divaricata*, and are therefore fitted to 
exist under a great variety of circumstances. On the 
other hand, the great proportion of the Eocene marine 
testacea which have become extinct sufficiently de- 
monstrates that the loss of species has been due to 
general laws ; and that a sudden catastrophe, such as 
the invasion of a whole continent by the sea 
which could annihilate only the terrestrial and fresh- 
water tribes, — is an hypothesis wholly inadequate to 
account for the phenomenon. 

a cause 


See Fig. 85. Vol. III. p. 372, 




Ch -XVlII.l 




Strata with and without organic remains alternating. 

Between the gypsum of the Paris basin and the 
u Pper marine sands a thin bed of oysters is found, 
^hich is spread over a remarkably wide area. From 
the manner in which they lie, it is inferred that they 
*hd not grow on the spot, but that some current swept 
them away from a bed of oysters formed in some other 
P a *'t of the bay. The strata of sand which immediately 
r epose on the oyster-bed are quite destitute of organic 
r emains ; and nothing is more common in the Paris ba- 
Slr * and in other formations, than alternations of shelly 
"eds with others entirely devoid of them. The tempo- 
ra *y extinction and renewal of animal life at successive 
Periods have been inferred from such phenomena, 
^hich may nevertheless be explained, as M. Prevost 
Justly remarks, without appealing to any such extra- 
ordinary revolutions in the state of the animate cre- 
ation. A current one day scoops out a channel in a 
^d of shelly sand and mud, and the next day, by a 
s hght alteration of its course, ceases to prey upon the 
Sa me bank. It may then become charged with sand 
^ttttrixed with shells, derived from some dune, or 
fought down by a river. In the course of ages an 
^definite number of transitions from shelly strata to 
those without shells may thus be caused. 

Concluding remarks. — It will be seen by our ob- 
servations on Auvergne and other parts of Central 
France, and on the district round Paris, that geologists 
have already gained a considerable insight into the 
st ate of the physical geography of part of Europe during 
the Eocene period. We can point to some districts 
^here lakes and rivers then existed, and to the site of 
So *ne of the lands encircling those lakes, and to the po- 
s *tion of a great bay of the sea, into which their surplus 







waters were discharged. We can also show, as I shall 
endeavour to explain in the next chapter, the points 
where some volcanic eruptions took place. Much 
information has been acquired respecting the quadru- 
peds which inhabited the land at that period, and con- 
cerning the reptiles, fishes, and testacea which swarmed 
in the waters of lakes and rivers ; and we have a col- 
lection of the marine Eocene shells more complete 
than has yet been obtained from any existing sea of 
equal extent in Europe- Nor are the contemporary 
fossil plants altogether unknown to us, which, like 
the animals, are of extinct species, and indicate & 
warmer climate than that now prevailing in the same 

When we reflect on the tranquil state of the earth? 
implied by some of the lacustrine and marine deposits 
of this age, and consider the fulness of all the different 
classes of the animal kingdom, as deduced from the 
study of the fossil remains, we are naturally led to 
conclude, that the earth was at that period in a per- 
fectly settled state, and already fitted for the habitation 
of man. 


The heat of European latitudes during the Eocene 
period does not seem to have been superior, if eqbal? 
to that now experienced between the tropics ; some 
living species of molluscous animals, both of the land, 
the lake, and the sea, existed when the strata of the 
Paris basin were formed ; and the contrast in the or- 
ganization of the various tribes of Eocene i animals? 
when compared to those now co-existing with man? 
although striking, is not, perhaps, so great as between 
the living Australian and European types. At the 
same time, we must be fully aware that we cannot 
reason with any confidence on the capability of our 


Ch - XVIII.] 



°^n, or any other contemporary species, to exist under 
Clr cumstances so different as those which might be 
c ^used by an entirely new distribution of land and sea; 
ai *d we know that in the earlier tertiary periods the 
Physical geography of the northern hemisphere was 
Ver y distinct. Our inability to account for the atmo- 
s pheric and other latent causes, which often give rise 
to the most destructive epidemics, proves the extent 
°t our ignorance of the entire assemblage of conditions 
re quisite for the existence of any one species on the 












Train of minor volcanos stretching from Auvergn e 

Volcanic rocks of Auvergne — Eruptions at successive periods 
Mont Dor an extinct volcano — Velay — Plomb du Cantal 
(p. 191.) 

to the Vivarais — Monts Domes — Ravines excavated through 
lava — Alluviums of distinct ages (p. 195.) 
modern lavas of Central France — No eruption during them 9- 
torical era — Division of volcanos into ante-diluvian and post- 
diluvian inadmissible — Theories respecting the effects of the 
Flood considered (p. 201.) — Recapitulation. 

Age of more 


In treating of the lacustrine deposits of Central France, 
in the seventeenth chapter, I omitted, in order to 
avoid confusion, all details respecting the associated 
volcanic rocks, to which I now recall the reader's at- 
tention. (See the Map, p. 145.) 

It was stated that, in the arenaceous and pebbly 
group of the lacustrine basins of Auvergne, Cantal, 
and Velay, no volcanic pebbles had ever been detected, 
although massive piles of igneous rocks are now found 
in the immediate vicinity. As this observation has 
been confirmed by minute research, we are warranted 
in inferring that the volcanic eruptions had not com- 
menced when the older subdivisions of the freshwater 
groups originated. 

In Cantal and Velay no decisive proofs have yet 
been brought to light that any of the igneous out- 
bursts happened during the deposition of the fresh* 



Wat er strata ; but there can be no doubt that in 
•^uvergne some volcanic explosions took place before 
Jj 16 drainage of the lakes, and at a time when the 
■"°cene species of animals and plants still flourished. 

as relating to the 

1 shall 


first advert to these proofs 

story of the period under consideration, and shall then 
" °ceed to show that there are in the same country 
01c anic rocks of much newer date, some of which 
Ppear to be referable to the Miocene era. 
Volcanic rocks associated with lacustrine in Au- 




'ffne, — The first locality to which I shall call the 

fader's attention is Pont du Chateau, near Clermont, 

, kieh spot, as well as others in Auvergne, mentioned 

lri this chapter, I examined, with Mr. Murchison, in 

8 28. The section is seen in a precipice on the right 

atl k of the river Allier. Here beds of volcanic tuff 

ter nate with a freshwater limestone, which is in some 

a ces pure, but in others spotted with fragments of 

c &nic matter, as if it were deposited while showers 

Sa nd and scoriae were projected from a neighbouring 


*U.* This limestone contains the Helix Ramondi 
** other shells of Eocene species. It is immaterial 
the present argument whether the volcanic sand was 
. °^ered down from above, or drifted to the spot by a 
er ; for the latter opinion must presuppose the 
^ntry to have been covered with volcanic ejections 
rj fig the Eocene period. 

Mother example occurs in the Puy de Marmont, 
ar ^eyres, where a freshwater marl alternates with 
canic tuff containing Eocene shells. The tuff or 
ec cia in this locality is precisely such as is known to 
u 't from volcanic ashes falling into water, and sub- 

* See Scrope's Central France, p. 21c 

i i 











siding together with ejected fragments of marl and 
other stratified rocks. These tuffs and marls are highly 
inclined, and traversed by a thick vein of basalt, which, 
as it rises in the hill, divides into two branches. 

, Gergovia The hilL of Gergovia, near Clermont, 

affords a third example, 
and Jobert that there is no alternation here of lava 
and freshwater strata, in the manner supposed by some 
other observers*; but the position and contents of 
some of the tuffs prove them to have been derived 
from volcanic eruptions which occurred during the 
deposition of the Eocene formations. 

The bottom of the hill consists of slightly inclined 
beds of white and greenish marls, more than three 
hundred feet in thickness, intersected by a dike of 
basalt, which may be studied in the ravine above the 


The dike here cuts through the 

marly strata at a considerable angle, producing, "* 
general, great alteration and confusion in them fot 



L- l I I INI' 1 / 1 j ', ' J 



capP in ' 

3 White a-,, 
yellow ^ 

Hill of Gergovia. 

* See Scrope's Central France, p. 7. 


° h - Xix. 




s °me distance from the point of contact. Above the 

hl te and green marls, a series of beds of limestone 

( * marl, containing freshwater shells, are seen to 

e *nate with volcanic tuff. In the lowest part of 

ls division, beds of pure marl alternate with compact 




6 tuff, resembling some of the subaqueous tuffs of 

y and Sicily called peperinos. Occasionally frag- 

% e *Us of scoriae are visible in this rock. Still higher 

Se en another group of some thickness, consisting 

, c 'usively of tuff, upon which lie other marly strata 

te ^mixed with volcanic matter. 

■There are many points in Auvergne where igneous 

° c ks have been forced by subsequent injection through 

a ys and marly limestones, in such a manner that the 

w hol e has become blended in one confused and brec- 

Clat ed mass, between which and the basalt there is 

betimes no very distinct line of demarcation. In 

e cavities of such mixed rocks we often find calce- 

0t) y> and crystals of mesotype, stilbite, and arragonite. 

L ° formations of this class may belong some of the 

ec cias immediately adjoining the dike in the hill of 

er govia; but it cannot be contended that the vol- 

at *ic sand, and scoriae interstratified with the marls 

**d limestones in the upper part of that hill were in- 

r °duced, like the dike, subsequently, by intrusion from 

e W. They must have been thrown down like sedi- 

. en t from water, and can only have resulted from 

b^eous action, which was going on contemporaneously 

!t h the deposition of the lacustrine strata. 

The reader will bear in mind that this conclusion 

§ r ^es well with the proofs, adverted to in the seven- 

ee *tth chapter, of the abundance of silex, travertin, 

nc * gypsum precipitated when the upper lacustrine 



- . 










strata were formed ; for these rocks are such as the wa- 
ters of mineral and thermal springs might generate. 

The igneous products above mentioned, as asso- 
ciated with the lacustrine strata, form the lowest 

members of tl 




series of volcanic rocks 
Auvergne, Cantal, and Velay, which repose for the most 

part on 

(see Map 

Ihere was evidently a long succession of eruptions- 
beginning with those of the Eocene period, and ending' 
so far as can yet be inferred from the evidence de- 
rived from fossil remains, with those of the Miocene 
epoch. The oldest part of the two principal volcanic 


perhaps belong to the Eocene period, — the ne* er 


as Etna commenced its operations during the Ne^er 
Pliocene era, and has continued them down to the 
Recent epoch, and still retains its energy undiminished- 

There are some parts of the Mont Mezen, in Velay> 
which are perhaps of the same antiquity as the oldest 
parts of Mont Dor. 

Besides these ancient rocks, of which the lavas are 
in a great measure trachytic, there are many minor 
cones in Central France, for the most part of poste- 
rior origin, which extend from Auvergne, in a direction 
north-west and south-east, through Velay, into the 
yivarais, where they are seen in the basin of the 

This volcanic line does not pass by the 
Plomb du Cantal ; it was formed, as nearly as can be 
conjectured in the present imperfect state of our 
knowledge, during the Miocene period; but there 
may probably be found, among these cones and their 
accompanying lavas, rocks of every intermediate age 














^een the oldest and newest volcanic formations of 
te »tral France. 


d the Plomb du Cantal, and then pass on to the train 

newer cones, examining the evidence at present 

tamed respecting their relative ages, and the light 

% llc h they throw on the successive formation of allu- 

Urr *s and on the excavation of valleys. 





e volcanic masses of Auvergne, rests immediately on 

e granitic rocks standing apart from the freshwater 

rata.* This volcano rises suddenly to the height of 

ev eral thousand feet above the surrounding platform, 

^ retains the shape of a flattened and somewhat irre- 

Sular cone, all the sides sloping more or less rapidly, 
11 W their inclination is gradually lost in the Jiigh 

\ a ' l n around. This cone is composed of layers of sco- 
^5 pumice-stones, and their fine detritus, with inter- 

!° s ^d beds of trachyte and basalt, which descend often 

Uninterrupted currents, till they reach and spread 

)er fiselves round the base of the mountain.* Con- 

£ derates also, composed of angular and rounded 
a gftients of igneous rocks, are observed to alternate 
lt; h the above ; and the various masses are seen to 
P off from the central axis, and to lie parallel to the 
°ping flanks of the great cone, in the manner I have 
Scribed when treating of Etna. 

, ■'■he summit of the mountain terminates in seven or 
gat rocky peaks, where no regular crater can now 

, e traced, but where we may easily imagine one to 
aVe existed, which may have been shattered by earth- 

* a kes, and have suffered degradation by aqueous 


* See the Map, p. 145. 

f Scrope's Central France, p. 98. 




"■ m 









agents. Originally, perhaps, like the highest crater ot 
Etna, it may have formed an insignificant feature m 
the great pile, and may frequently have been destroyed 

and renovated. 





of the 

have yet been found in the tuffs, except impression 5 
of the leaves of trees of species not determined- 
Some of the lowest parts of the mountain are formed 
of white pumiceous tuffs, in which animal remains ma)' 
perhaps be one day found. In the mean time, we ma,V 
conclude that Mont Dor had no existence when the 
grits and conglomerates of the Limagne, which contain 
no volcanic materials, were formed ; but some of the 
earliest eruptions were, perhaps, contemporary wit' 1 
those described in the commencement of this chapter* 
To the latest of these eruptions, on the other hand, 1 
refer those trachytic breccias of Mont Perkier which 
were shown in the sixteenth chapter (p. 134.) 





have not yet established that any of the most ancient 
volcanos of Velay were in action during the Eocene 
period, although it is very probable that some of then 1 
may have been contemporaneous with the oldest of the 
Auvergne lavas. There are beds of gravel in Vety> 
as in Auvergne, covered by lava at different height 
above the channels of the existing rivers. In the high- 
est and most ancient of these alluviums the pebble 5 
are exclusively of granitic rocks ; but in the ne*er> 
which are found at lower levels, they contain an inter- 
mixture of volcanic substances. I have already sho^n* 
in the sixteenth chapter, that, in the volcanic ejection 5 
and alluviums covered by the lavas of Velay, the bone 5 





^ XIX.] 



ot animals of Miocene species have been found, in 
v hich respect the phenomena accord perfectly with 
th °se of Auvergne. 

k Womb du Cantal. — In regard to the age of the 
§ n eous rocks of the Cantal we are still less informed, 
Jj^ at present can merely affirm, that they overlie the 
° c ene lacustrine strata of that country. (See Map, 
** H5.) They form a great dome-shaped mass, which 
as evidently been accumulated, like the cone of Etna, 
Uring a long series of eruptions. It is composed of 
^chytic, phonolitic, and basaltic lavas, tuffs, and con- 
secrates, or breccias, forming a mountain several thou- 
sand feet in height. Dikes also of phonolite, trachyte, 
an d basalt are numerous, especially in the neighbour- 
ed of the large cavity, probably once a crater, around 
^ich the loftiest summits of the Cantal are ranged 
Ocularly, few of them, except the Plomb du Cantal, 
1Sln g far above the border or ridge of this supposed 
la ter. A pyramidal hill, called the Puy Griou, occu . 
P Ies the middle of the cavity.* It is evident that the 
°'cano of the Cantal broke out precisely on the site 
the lacustrine deposit before described (Chapter 
ll «), which had accumulated in a depression of a 
ac t composed of micaceous schist. In the breccias, 
er * to the very summit of the mountain, we find 
^3 e cted masses of the freshwater beds, and sometimes 
ra gments of flint, containing Eocene shells* Valleys 
a diate in all directions from the central heights of the 
°untain, increasing in size as they recede from those 
ei ghts. Those of the Cer and Jourdanne, which are 
0r e than twenty miles in length, are of great depth, 
n u lay open the geological structure of the mountain. 





/ j 








* Mem. de la Soc. G£ol. de France, torn. i. p. 175. 







Book IV- 

No alternation of lavas with undisturbed Eocene strata 
has been observed, nor any tuffs containing freshwate 
shells, although some of these tuffs include fossil re- 
mains of terrestrial plants said to imply several distinc 
restorations of the vegetation of the mountain m li 
intervals between great periods of eruption. On t 
northern side of the Plomb du Cantal, at La Vissier<J> 
near Murat, is a spot, pointed out on the Map (p- l^v 

where freshwater limestone and marl are seen covei 
by a thickness of about eight hundred feet of volcafl 1 
rock. Shifts are here seen in the strata of limestone 

and marl.* 

Although it appears that the lavas of the Cantal at 

than the freshwater formation of ^ a 

more recent 

country, it does not follow that they may not belo n » 
to the Eocene period. The lake may possibly ha^ 

been drained by the earthquakes which preceded ° 
accompanied the first eruptions, but the Eocene an 1 ' 
mals and plants may have continued to exist for a 1°^ 
series of ages, while the cone went on increasing in 


I shall next consi^ r 

those minor volcanos, before alluded to, which stretc 
in a long range from Auvergne to the Vivarais, aD 
which appear for the most part to be of newer orig 1 
than the mountains above described. These volcano 
were faithfully described, so early as the year \W^ 
by M. de Montlosier.f They have been thrown up in 
a great number of isolated points, and much resell 1 
those scattered over the Phlegrsean fields and the flan** 
of Etna. They have given rise chiefly to currents o 

* See Lyell and Murchison, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Oct. 1829- 
| Theorie des Vole, d' Auvergne. — Clermont, An X. 

C ^. XIX.] 




Baltic lava, whereas those of Mont Dor and the 
c antal are in great part trachytic. There are perhaps 
a bout 300 of these minor cones in Central France ; but 
a Part of them only occur in Auvergne, where some 

e ^ are found at the bottom of valleys excavated 
r ough the more ancient lavas of Mont Dor, as the 

u y de Tartaret, for example, whence issues a current 
°* lava which, flowing into the bed of the river Couze, 
gave rise to the lake of Chambon. Here the more 


^cient columnar basalts of Auvergne are seen form- 
lI1 g the upper portion of the precipices which bound 
tll e valley. 

But the greater part of the minor cones of Auvergne 
are placed upon the granitic platform, where they 
f ° r m an irregular ridge, about eighteen miles in length 
^*d two in breadth. They are usually truncated at 
*he summit, where the crater is often preserved entire, 

he lava having issued from the base of the hill. 

re quently the crater is broken down on one side, 
^We the lava has flowed out. The hills are composed 
°* loose scoriae, blocks of lava, lapilli, and puzzuolana, 
^ lt; h fragments of trachyte and granite. 

The lavas may be often traced from the crater to 
*he nearest valley, where they usurp the channel of 
the river, which has often excavated a deep ravine 
trough the basalt. We have thus an opportunity of 
Cor *trasting the enormous degradation which the solid 
***d massive rock has suffered by aqueous erosion, and 
Jhe integrity of the cone of sand and ashes which has, 



mean time, remained uninjured on the neigh- 

boring platform, where it was placed beyond the reach 
* the power of running water. 
Puyde Come. — The Puy de Come and its lava cur- 
re *it, near Clermont, may be mentioned as one of the 

Vol. iv. 




■ f 







numerous illustrations of the phenomenon here alluded 
to.* This conical hill rises from the granitic platform? 
at an angle of about 40°, to the height of more than 
900 feet. Its summit presents two distinct craters, 
one of them with a vertical depth of 250 feet. A 
stream of lava takes its rise at the western base of the 
hill, instead of issuing from either crater, and descends 
the granitic slope towards the present site of the 
town of Pont Gibaud. Thence it pours in a broad 
sheet down a steep declivity into the valley of the 
Sioule,, filling the ancient river-channel for the distance 
of more than a mile. The Sioule, thus dispossessed °* 
its bed, has worked out a fresh one between the la va 
and the granite of its western bank ; and the excava* 
tion has disclosed, in one spot, a wall of column** 
basalt about 50 feet high.f f 

The excavation of the ravine is still in progress? 
every winter some columns of basalt being undermined 
and carried down the channel of the river, and in the 

d pebbl 


course of a few miles rolled to sand an 

Meanwhile the cone of Come remains sfau .. J7 

loose materials being protected by a dense vegetation? 
and the hill standing on a ridge not commanded by 
any higher ground whence floods of rain-water may 

Puy Rouge. — At another point, farther down the 
course of the Sioule, we find a second illustration of 
the same phenomenon in the Puy Rouge, a conical hill 
to the north of the village of Pranal. The cone is 
composed entirely of red and black scoriae, tuff, and 
volcanic bombs. On its western side there is a worn- 

'i * 


* Montlosier, Theorie des Vole. d'Auvergne, ch. ii. 
f Scrope's Central France, p.' 60., and plate. 


<*. XIX.] 




^n crater, whence a powerful stream of lava has 

^sued, and flowed into the valley of the Sioule. The 
ly er has since excavated a ravine through the lava 
an d subjacent gneiss, to the depth of 400 feet. 

On the upper part of the precipice forming the left 

1( *e of this ravine, we see a great mass of black and 

e d scoriaceous lava ; below this a thin bed of gravel, 

Vl( iently an ancient river-bed, now at an elevation of 

*ty feet above the channel of the Sioule. The gravel 

§ a in rests upon gneiss, which has been eroded to the 

e pth of 50 feet.* It is quite evident in this case, 

l ^at, while the basalt was gradually undermined and 

Car ried away by the force of running water, the cone 

Whence the lava issued escaped destruction, because it 

st °od upon a platform of gneiss several hundred feet 

*"ove the level of the valley in which the force of 

inning water was exerted. 

At is needless to multiply examples, or the Vivarais 

0l *ld supply many others equally striking. Among 

a &y I may instance the cone of Jaujac, and its lava 

Ur ^ent, which is a counterpart of that near Pranal 



st mentioned.^ 


avas and alluviums of different ages. — We have 

av e flowed at the bottom of the Val del Bove, at the 

eer * that on the flanks of Etna, since the commence- 
et *t of the present century, several currents of lava 

° ot of precipices formed of more ancient lavas and 

u ** s * So we find in Auvergne that some streams of 

e *ted matter have flowed in valleys, the sides of 

lll ch consist partly of older lavas. These are often 


^ See Lyell and Murchison on the 

di *i. New Phil. Journ., July, 1829. 

t Serope's Central France, plate 14. 

K 2 

Excavation of Valleys, 





[Book IV. 

seen capping the hills in broad sheets, resting some- 
times on granite, sometimes on freshwater strata. 

Many of the earlier lavas of Auvergne flowed out 
upon the platform of granite before all the existing 
valleys had been excavated; others again spread them- 
selves in broad sheets over the horizontal lacustrine 
deposit, when these had been covered with gravel 
probably soon after the drainage of the lakes. Great 
vicissitudes in the physical geography of the country 
must have taken place since the flowing of these an* 

m * 

cient lavas ; and it is evident that the changes were 
gradual and successive, caused probably by the united 
agency of running water and subterranean movements* 
We frequently observe one mass of lava capping a 
hill, and a second at a lower elevation, forming a ter* 

race on the side of a valley ; or sometimes occupying 
the bed of a river. 

It is a most interesting fact, that in these cases beds 
of gravel almost invariably underlie the successive 
currents of lava, as in Catalonia before described 
(pp. 95. 98.). Occasionally, when the highest plat- 
form of lava is seven hundred or eight hundred feet 
above the lowest, we cannot fail to be struck with the 

Fig. 1 55. 


jBcd ofJR 


Lavas of Auvergne resting on alluviums of different ages. 

» i 



Wonderful alterations effected in the drainage of the 
country since the first current flowed ; for the most 
e Wated alluviums must originally have been accumu- 
lat ed on the lowest levels of the then existing surface. 
^ s some geologists have referred almost all the super- 
nal gravels to one era, and have supposed them to 
" e the result of one sudden catastrophe, the pheno- 
mena of Auvergne here alluded to are very important. 
*V flows of volcanic matter have, in fact, preserved 
P 0r tions of the surface in the state in which they ex- 
ited at successive periods ; so that it is impossible to 
Coi *found together the alluviums of different ages, 
^he reader will see at once by reference to the wood. 
c Ut (pig. 155.V that a considerable interval of time 
^st have occurred between the formation of the up- 
permost bed of gravel and that next below it ; during 
^hich interval the uppermost lava was poured out, and 
a v alley excavated, at the bottom of which the second 
, e d of gravel accumulated. In like manner the pour- 
ln g out of a second current of lava and a further 
Opening of the valley, took place between the date 
°f the second gravel and that of the modern alluvium 
^hich now fills the channel of the river.* 

When rivers are dispossessed of their channels by 
av a, they usually flow between the mass of lava and 
° n e side of the original valley. They there eat out a 
^ssage, partly through the volcanic and partly through 
^e older formation; but as the soft tertiary marls 


* For localities in Central France where lavas or sheets of 
asalt repose on alluviums at different elevations above the present 
v all e y Sj an( j f or the i n f erences deducible from such facts, consult 

the works of MM. Le Grand d'Aussi, Montlosier, Ramond, 
Scr ope, Bertrand de Doue, Croizet, Jobert, and Bouillet. 

K 3 





i ! 







in Auvergne give way more readily than the basalt 
it is usually at the expense of the marls that the en- 
larging and deepening of the new valley is effected ; 
so that all the remaining lava is then left on one side 
in the manner represented in the above woodcut. 

It might have been 



expected, from the analogy of modern changes in vol" 
canic countries, that we should find in Auvergne some 
signs of ancient fissures caused by earthquakes. Ac- 
cordingly M. Fournet has observed in the course of 
excavations made for mining in the valley of the Sioule? 
near Clermont, some curious and decisive proofs of the 
former existence of open rents which must have coW 
municated with the surface, and have been filled froi* 1 
above with alluvium, after the commencement and 
before the end of the period of volcanic eruptions. # 
appears that a metaliferous vein traversing gneiss (**> 
other words, a mass or dike of matter, partly metalH c 
and partly not, filling an old fissure in the gneiss) had 
been dislocated by later convulsions, so that a ne^ 
rent was formed in it which reached the surface* 
Sand and gravel like that of a river-bed were then 
washed in, together with pieces of wood, which are 
now found fossil with the gravel, in a good state of pre- 
servation. The rounded pebbles are partly of granite 
rocks, partly of basaltic and augitic lava, showing that 
the last filling up of the fissure occurred after some 
lavas had flowed over the adjacent country. But W° 
of the most modern lava streams near Pont Gibau^ 
have passed over the top of the dike, and they must 
evidently have been poured out after it was filled with 

* See Fournet, Traite de Geog., D'Aubuisson, torn. iii. p. 544- 


Ch - XIX.] 




The only organic 

rer *iains found as yet in the ancient alluviums appear 



^fte discovered in the gravel underlying the newest 
avas, — those which either occupy the channels of the 
listing rivers, or are very slightly elevated above 
^em. I think it not improbable that even these may 


Miocene date, although the conjecture will ap- 
extremely rash to some who are aware that the 

c °ttes and craters whence the lavas issue are often as 
^sh in their aspect as the majority of the cones of 

^e forest zone of Etna. 

The brim of the crater of the Puy de Pariou, near 
Vermont, is so sharp, and has been so little blunted 
h time, that it scarcely affords room to stand upon. 
This and other cones in an equally remarkable state of 
integrity have stood, I conceive, uninjured, not in spite 
of their loose porous nature, as might at first be na- 
sally supposed, but in consequence of it. No rills 
Ca n collect where all the rain is instantly absorbed by 
^e sand and scoriae, as was shown to be the case on 




s Pout breaking directly upon the Puy de Pariou could 
Ca **ry away a portion of the hill, so long as it is not 
re nt or engulphed by earthquakes. 

Attempt to divide volcanos into ante-diluvian 
Post-diluvian. — The opinions above expressed are en- 
tirely at variance with the doctrines of those writers 
^ho have endeavoured to arrange all the volcanic cones 
°f Europe under two divisions, those of ante-diluvian 
^d those of post-diluvian origin. To the ante-diluvian 
C W they attribute such hills of sand and scoriae as 
e *hibit on their surface evident signs of aqueous de- 
lation; to the post-diluvian, such as betray no marks 

K 4} 












of having been exposed to such aqueous action. Ac- 
cording to this classification, almost all the minor cones 
of Central France must be called post-diluvian; al- 
though, if we receive this term in its ordinary accept- 
ation, as denoting posteriority of date to the Noachian 
deluge, we are forced to suppose that all the volcanic 
eruptions occurred within a period of little more than 
twenty centuries, or between the era of the flood 
which happened about four thousand years ago, an 
the earliest historical records handed down to us re- 
specting the former state of Central France. D r# 
Daubeny has justly observed, that had any of these 
French volcanos been in a state of activity in the ag e 
of Julius Caesar, that general, who encamped upon the 
plains of Auvergne, and laid siege to its principal city 
(Gergovia, near Clermont), could hardly have failed 
to notice them. Had there been even any record of 
their existence in the time of Pliny or Sidonius Ap°*' 

linaris, the one would scarcely have omitted to make 
mention of it in his Natural History, nor the other to 
introduce some allusion to it among the descriptions 
of this his native province. This poet's residence was 
on the borders of the Lake Aidat, which owed its very 
existence to the damming up of a river by one of the 
most modern lava-currents.* 

The ruins of several Roman bridges, and of the 
Roman baths at Royat, confirm the conclusion that no 
sensible alteration has taken place in the physical geo- 
graphy of the district, not even in the chasms exca- 
vated through the newest lavas since ages historically 
remote. We have no data at present for presuming 
that any one of the Auvergne cones has been pro- 


Daubeny on Volcanos, p. 14. 



IS .Foreland. 



S. Foreland 





c tke South East t 



Exhibiting t/ieDemidatwn 

he WE A 

1 Tertiary 

Chalk and 


ower Green 


UL ngs id 

Ch - XIX.] 



<Wd within the last four or five thousand years ; and 

*e same may be said of those of Velay ; and, until 

** e bones of men or articles of human workmanship 

re found buried under some of their lavas, instead of 

ne remains of extinct animals, which alone have 



erto been met with, we are justified in regarding 
as probable that the latest of the volcanic eruptions 
a y have occurred during the Miocene period. 


Supposed effects of the Flood. 

They who have used the terms ante-diluvian and 
P° s t-diluvian, in the manner above adverted to, pro- 
Cee d on the assumption that there are clear and une- 
^ivocal marks of the passage of a general flood over 
al * parts of the surface of the globe. It had long been 
a Question among the learned, even before the com- 
mencement of geological researches, whether the de- 
u §e of the Scriptures was universal in reference to the 
hole surface of the globe, or only so with respect to 
^at portion of it which was then inhabited by man. 
} the latter interpretation be admissible, it will appear 
^ 0t ^ other parts of this work that there are two 
as ses of phenomena in the configuration of the earth's 
u *face, which might enable us to account for such an 
Ve nt. First, extensive lakes elevated above the level 
°* the ocean; secondly, large tracts of dry land de- 
ceased below that level. When there is an immense 
a ^e, having its surface, like Lake Superior, raised six 
Undred feet above the level of the sea, the water may 
e suddenly let loose by the rending or sinking down 
the barrier during earthquakes, and thereby a region 
e *tensive as the vallev of the 




K 5 



\l i 







by a population of several millions, might be deluged 
On the other hand, if there be any country placed 
beneath the mean level of the ocean, as some h& ve 
supposed to be the case with part of Asiaf, *^ e 
depressed region must be entirely laid under water? 
if the tract which separates it from the ocean be 6 s ' 
sured or depressed to a certain depth. Humboldt 
inferred, from the observations of Parrot, that a g reat 
cavity existed in Western Asia, eighteen thousand 
square leagues in area, and occupied by a consideraW 
population. J The lowest parts, surrounding the C&>" 
pian Sea, were said to be about 350 feet below ^ e 
level of the Euxine, — here, therefore, the diluvia 

waters might overflow the summits of hills rising 



feet above the level of the plain ; and if depression 
still more profound existed in any former time lJ1 
Asia, the tops of still loftier mountains may ha^ e 
been covered by a flood. 


* Vol. I. p. 133. f Vol, III. p. 126. 

| Fragmens Asiatiques, Paris, 1831. 

§ Since the above passage was first written, Professor Pari" 
of Dorpat, has published his " Reise zum Ararat," in which & 
doubts, nay, appears wholly to have disproved, the fact so l 0lly 
believed on bis authority, of a difference of level between ^ 
Black Sea and the Caspian. The opinion was originally adop te 
on the authority of barometrical measurements, made by him a11 
M. Engelhard t in 1811. M. Parrot, however, on revisiting ^ e 
country in 1829 and 1830, was led to suspect the correctness ° 
his former observations on several grounds, one of which only 
shall now quote. Russian engineers had ascertained, by accur* te 

measurements, that the Don, at the place called Katschalii^ 
where it is only sixty wersts distant from the Wolga, is 130 P arlS 
feet higher than the latter river, and that the Don flows with m u ° a 
greater rapidity to the Black Sea than the Wolga does to tft 
Caspian ; consequently, if there be a difference of level of the t*° 
seas, it must be considerably less than 1 30 feet. Parrot according 1 ;' 


Ch - XIX.] 



But the great majority of the older commentators 
av e held the deluge, according to the brief account of 


e event given by Moses, to have consisted of a rise 

Waters over the whole earth, by which the summits 

the loftiest mountains on the globe were submerged, 

* any have indulged in speculations concerning the 

s fruments employed to bring about the grand cata- 

ysfti ; and there has been a great division of opinion 

to the effects which it might be expected to have 

Produced on the surface of the earth. According to 
116 school, of which De Luc formerly, and in our 
^tt times Dr. Buckland, have been zealous supporters, 
^ e passage of the flood worked a considerable alter- 

atl °n in the external configuration of our continents. 
y Dr. Buckland the deluge has been represented as 

Vl ng determined to ascertain the true state of the case, made a 
r *es of levellings from the mouth of the Wolga to Zarytzin, 
wersts up its course, and from the mouth of the Don to the 
e distance. As the result of these observations, he made the 
0t *th of the Don to be between three and four feet lower than 
at of the Wolga ! Baron Humboldt, who with other geographers 
^ given full credit to the former statement of Parrot, refused to 
^it the validity of these new results, unless the professor was 
e pared to show that his former observations were less worthy of 

0lv &dence. In reply to this, Parrot, in an Appendix, admits 
at their barometrical instruments used in 1811 were imperfect, 
at errors had crept into his calculations, that he was suffering 

ror ** ill health, &c. &c. 

Notwithstanding this recantation, M. Erman, of Berlin, in his 

Reise um die erde," &c. 1828-29-30., infers from independent 

^rvations that the Caspian is lower than the Black Sea by 42- 8 

Ses j or about 280 feet; and Meyer and Lenz, in a paper read 




° the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburgh in 1835, mention 
at Mr. Goebel, by his barometrical measurements in 1833, found 

* dim 

erence of 50 feet. 

K 6 





[Book 1^' 

a violent and transient rush of waters which tore up 
the soil to a great depth, excavated valleys, gave rise 
to immense beds of shingle, carried fragments of rock 
and gravel from one point to another ; and, during its 
advance and retreat, strewed the valleys, and even the 
tops of many hills, with alluvium.* 

But I agree with Dr. Fleming, that in the narrative 
of Moses there are no terms employed that indicate 
the impetuous rushing of the waters, either as they 
rose or when they retired, upon the restraining of tne 



the contrary, the olive-branch, brought back by the 
dove, seems as clear an indication to us that the veg e * 
tation was not destroyed, as it was then to Noah that 
the dry land was about to reappear. 


I have been led with great reluctance into this 
digression, in the hope of relieving the minds of some 
readers from groundless apprehension respecting the 
bearing of many of the views advocated in this work 
They have been in the habit of regarding the diluvia 
theory above controverted as alone capable of affording 
an explanation of geological phenomena in accordance 
with Scripture, and they may have felt disapprobation 
at an attempt to prove, in a former chapter, that the 
minor volcanos on the flanks of Etna may, some of 
them, be more than 10,000 years old.J How, they 
would immediately ask, could they have escaped the 
denuding force of a diluvial rush of waters ? The same 


* Buckland, Reliquia? Diluvianae. These opinions, however? 
have been candidly renounced in a note in his Bridgewater Treatise- 

f Rev. Dr. Fleming, on the Geological Deluge, Edin. P hil# 
Journ., vol. xiv. p. 205.; and remarks by myself in the Quarter!? 
Review, Oct. 1827, No. lxxii. p. 481. 

| Vol. III. p. 430. 

Ch. xix.] 



Ejection may have presented itself when I quoted, 
^ J th respect, the opinion of a distinguished botanist, 

at some living specimens of the Baobab tree of 
Africa, or the Taxodium of Mexico, may be 5000 years 

**• The reader may also have been astonished at 
J*e high antiquity assigned to the greater part of the 
European alluviums, and the many different ages to 

hl ch I have referred them f , as he may have been 

u ght to consider the whole as the result of one recent 

^d simultaneous inundation. 

Professor Sedgwick is inclined to adopt the hypo- 

e sis of M. Elie de Beaumont, that the sudden ele- 


Va tion of mountain-chains "has been followed again 
atl d again by mighty waves desolating whole regions 
°*the earth %\" a phenomenon which he thinks has 
^ken away all anterior incredibility from the fact of 

a r ecent deluge." _ 

"ut I cannot admit that there are sufficient geolo- 

£ lc &l data for inferring such instantaneous upheavings 
* submerged land as might be capable of causing a 
°°d over a whole continent at once. I may also ob- 

" erv e, that the reasoning above alluded to seems to 

P r °ceed entirely on the assumption that the flood of 
<>ah was brought about by natural causes, just as 
°*tte writers have contended that a volcanic eruption 
as the instrument employed to destroy Sodom and 



°*tiorrah. If we believe the flood to have been a 

et *iporary suspension of the ordinary laws of the 

*ttural world, requiring a miraculous intervention of 

lv ine power, then it is evident that the credibility of 

* See Vol. III. p. 428. 

t Vol. IV. p. 45. f Vol. III. p. 431. 

§ Sedgwick, Anniv. Address to the Geol. Soc, Feb. 18th, 







such an event cannot be enhanced by any series ot in- 
undations, however analogous, of which the geology* 
may imagine that he has discovered the proofs. 

For my own part, I have always considered the 
flood, when its universality in the strictest sense of the 
term is insisted upon, as a preternatural event far be- 
yond the reach of philosophical inquiry, whether as to 
the causes employed to produce it, or the effects most 
likely to result from it- At the same time, it is clear 
that they who are desirous of pointing out the coin- 
cidence of geological phenomena with the occurrence 
of such a general catastrophe, must neglect no one ot 



least of all so remarkable a fact as that the olive re- 
mained standing while the waters were abating. 

Recapitulation. — I shall now briefly recapitulate 
some of the principal conclusions to which we have 
been led by an examination of the volcanic districts of 
Central France. 

1st. Some of the volcanic eruptions of Auvergne 
took place during the Eocene period; others at an 
era long subequent, probably during the Miocene 

2dly. There are no proofs as yet discovered that 
the most recent of the volcanos of Auvergne and Velay 
are subsequent to the Miocene period, ihe integrity 
of many cones and craters not opposing any sound 
objection to the opinion that they may be of very 
great antiquity. 

3dly. There are alluviums in Auvergne of very 
different ages, some of them belonging to the Miocene 
period. Many of these have been covered by lava- 
currents which have been poured out in succession 
while the excavation of valleys was in progress. 

Ch * XIX.] 




e lay, and the Vivarais, which have never been sub- 
J ec ted to the action of a violent rush of waters capable 
Modifying considerably the surface of the earth. 




^ted as universal, and as having exercised a violent 

eri uding force, all these cones, several hundred in 
nu mber, must be post-diluvian, 
othly. But since the beginning of the historical era, 
the invasion of Gaul by Julius Caesar, the volcanic 

c tion in Auvergne has been dormant; and there is 
^°thing to countenance the idea that, between the date 
Us Ually assigned to the Mosaic deluge and the earliest 
tra ditional and historical records of Central France 
( a period of little more than twenty centuries), all or 
atl y one of the more entire cones of loose scoriae were 
t} *own 
Lastly. It is the opinion of some writers, that the 

ar th's surface underwent no great modification at the 
er * of the Mosa 

Potation of the Scriptural narrative does not warrant 

? *n expecting to find any geological monuments of 

^ e catastrophe ; an opinion which would be consistent 

tth the preservation of these volcanic cones, however 

*§h their antiquity. 








eocene formations — continued. 

Basin of the Cotentin, or Valognes — Rennes — Basin of the 
Netherlands — Aix, in Provence — Fossil insects — Vicente 
Tertiary strata of England — Basins of London and Ha^P* 
shire — Different groups — Plastic clay and sand — London 
clay (p„ 214.) — Bagshot sand — Freshwater strata of the l sle 
of Wight — Palasotherium and other fossils of Binstead— Eng' 
lish Eocene strata conformable to chalk — Outliers on tbe 
elevated parts of the chalk (p. 218.). 

In addition to the Eocene formations treated of in the 
last three chapters, there are others in the north oi 
Europe, the geographical position of which is de- 
lineated on the annexed map.* 

Basin of the 

The strata i» 

the environs of Valognes, in the department of 1* 



noyers has given an elaborate description. It is occa- 
sionally covered with a compact freshwater limestone 
alternating with freshwater marls. In these Eocene 
strata more than 300 species of fossil shells have been 
discovered, almost all identical with species of * ne 

* This map is copied from one given by M. Desnoyers, Mei»* 
de la Soc. d'Hisr. Nat. de Paris, 1 825, pi. 9. ; compiled partly 
from that author's observations, and partly from Mr. Webster' 3 
map, Geol. Trans., First Series, vol. ii. plate 10. 

Ch - XX. l 




n s basin. Superimposed upon the Eocene strata of 
m is a newer marine deposit, extending over a 

thi s basi 





Primary rocks and 

W%%\ Eocene formations. 

a older than the carbonife- 
° Us series. 


f r • The space left blank is occupied by secondary formations 
the old red sandstone to the chalk inclusive. 


t , lte d area, the fossils of which agree with those of 

. * a luns of the Loire.* Here, therefore, the geolo- 

of has an opportunity of observing the superposition 

■k ^e Miocene deposits upon those of the age of the 

ari * basin. 


e nnes Several small patches, also, of marine 

. ata > have been found by M. Desnoyers, in the 
p o^bourhood of Rennes, which are characterized by 
g ° ei *e fossils, and repose on ancient rocks, as will be 
een in the map. 

* D 

esnoyers, Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, 1825. 









Basin of Belgium, or the Netherlands.— The greats 
part of the tertiary formations of the Low Countries 
consist of clay and sand, much resembling those of & e 
basin of London, afterwards to be described ; and th* 
fossil shells are of the same species. 

Aix in Provence — -The tertiary strata of Ai* an 
Fuveau, in Provence, are of great thickness and extend 
the lower members being remarkable for contain^ 
coal grit and beds of compact limestone, such as in 
England are found only in ancient secondary group 1 " 
Yet these strata are for the most part of freshwa^ r 
origin, and contain several species of Eocene shell 5 ' 
together with many which are peculiar to this bas jr1 ' 
It will require a fuller comparison than has yet b^ 
made of the fossil remains of Aix and Fuveau, befc re 
we can determine with accuracy the relative age ° 
this formation. Some of the plants seem to agree ^ 
those of the Paris basin, while many of the inseC ts 
have been supposed identical with species now living' 



These insects have been almost exclusively procure 
from a thin bed of grey calcareous marl, which pas^J 
into an argillaceous limestone found in the quarries ° f 
gypsum near Aix. The rock in which they are iP 
bedded is so thinly laminated, that there are sometir^ 5 
more than seventy layers in the thickness of an i^' 
The insects are for the most part in an extraordin 


~ — — ^+ — ■■■ ■■* ^^ *** %* J-^ V* Mm ft* M.JLJL till V/^Tk. C J- Ct/ \J -** *-**•*- 

state of preservation, and an impression of their &f 
is seen both on the upper and under lamina?, as in 



M. Marcel 

enumerates sixty-two genera, belonging chiefly to tb e 
orders Diptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera. On * e ' 

* M. Marcel de Serres, Geog;. des Ter. Tertiaires du Midi 


la France, 


Ch « xx. 




jewing a collection brought from Aix, Mr. Curtis 
^serves that they are all of European forms, and most 
them referable to existing genera * With the 



e exception of an Hydrobius, none of the species 

a quatic. The antennae, tarsi, and trophi are gene- 
7 very obscure, or distorted ; yet in a few the 
a ^s are visible, and the sculpture, and even some 
§ r ee of local colouring, are preserved. The nerves 
the wings, in almost all the Dipt era, are perfectly 
hnct, and even the pubescence on the head of one 
them. Several of the beetles have the wings ex- 
uded beyond the elytra, as if they had made an effort 
es cape by flying, or had fallen into the water while 
0tl the wing.f 
dentine. — On the Southern flank of the Alps to 



fcorth of Vicenza, in Italy, a limestone occurs con- 
nin g shells of Eocene species, and in the basaltic 






Basins of London and Hampshire. 


e reader will see in the small map above given 

*§• 156. p. 209.), the position of the two districts 

a % called the basins of London and Hampshire, 

^hich the Eocene formations of England are con- 

e( h These tracts are bounded by rising grounds 

. ^posed of chalk, except where the sea intervenes. 

^ a t the chalk passes beneath the tertiary strata, we 

11 ttot only infer from geological data, but can prove 




^urchison and Lyell. Ed. New Phil. Journ., Oct. 1829. 
' Curtis, ibid., where figures of some of the insects are given. 
* S *e H st of species collected by M. Boue, and named by M. 
esh ayes, Bull, de la Soc. Geol. de France, tomeiii. p. 91. '• 
















by numerous artificial sections at points where w 
have been sunk, or borings made through the over- 
lying beds. The Eocene deposits are chiefly marine 
and have generally been divided into three groups : 
1st, the Plastic clay and sand, which is the lo^es 1 
group; 2dly, the London clay; and, 3dly, the Bagsh ot 
sand. Of all these the mineral composition is very 
simple, for they consist almost entirely of clay, san<*» 
and shingle, the great mass of clay being in the middle 
and the upper and lower members of the series bei*$ 
more arenaceous. 

Plastic clay and sand. — The lowest formation, vM<^ 
sometimes attains a thickness of from four hundred W 
five hundred feet, consists principally of an indent 
number of beds of sand, shingle, clay, and loam, irr e ' 
gularly alternating, some of the clay being used '" 
potteries, in reference to which the name of Plast^ 
clay has been given to the whole formation. The be** 8 
of shingle are composed of perfectly rolled chalk flin ts ' 
with here and there small pebbles of quartz. Heap* 
of these materials appear sometimes to have remair> e<1 
for a long time covered by a tranquil sea. Dr. Bu^' 
land mentions that he observed a large pebble in p art 
of this formation at Bromley, to which five full-gro^ 
oyster-shells were affixed, in such a manner as to sho^ 
that they had commenced their first growth upon i£ 
and remained attached through life.* 

In some of the associated clays and sand, perfe<* 
marine shells are met with, which are of the sa& e 
species as those of the London clay. The line oi 
separation, indeed, between this superincumbent blu e 
clay and the Plastic clay and sand is quite arbitrary* 
as any geologist may be convinced who examines the 

* Geol. Trans., First Series, vol. iv. p. 300. 


Ch - XX. 






e ebrated section in Alum Bay, in the Isle of 

er e a distinct alternation of the two groups is ob- 
p e rVa ^ le ' eac h marked with their most characteristic 
^ culiarities.* In the midst of the sands of the lower 

Co* 68 - a - maSS ° f clay occurs two hundred feet thick, 
of ntainin § septaria, and replete with the usual fossils 

the neighbourhood of London.f 

he arenaceous beds are chiefly laid open on the 
foil neS °f the basins of London and Hampshire, in 
^ °Wing which we discover at many places great 

s of perfectly rounded flints. Of this description, 

tn e southern borders of the basin of London, are 

,7 h il]s of Comb 

Hurst and the Addington hills, 
form a ridge stretching from Blackheath to 

, °ydon. Here they have much the appearance of 
t n( * s of sand and shingle formed near the shores of a 
o . lar y sea; but whether they were really of littoral 
8 1X * cannot be determined, for want of a sufficient 
. ^ber of sections, which might enable us to compare 

t r tertiar y strata at the edges with those in the cen- 
a ' Parts of each basin. 

^e have ample opportunities in the basin of Paris 

Hamming steep cliffs of hard rock, which bound 

i y of the valleys, and innumerable excavations 

e been made for building-stone, limestone, and 

v , P Su m ; but when we attempt to obtain a connected 

^ T ° f atly considerable part of the tertiary series 

to o basin of London > we are almost entirely limited 
Q single line of coast-section ; for in the interior 



Serj "° e Mr ' Webster ' s Memoir, Geol. Trans., vol. ii., First 
les > and his Letters in Sir H. Englefield's Isle of Wight. 

See Mr, Webster's Sections, plate 11. Geol. Trans., vol. ii., 
st Series. 












the regular beds are much concealed by an allu v j al 
covering of flint gravel spread alike over the summit 
and gentle slopes of the hills, and over the bottoms oi 
the valleys. 

Organic remains are extremely scarce in the Pla stlC 
clay ; but when any shells occur, they are of Eocen e 
species. Vegetable impressions and fossil wood &* 


sometimes met with, and even beds of lignite; 
none of the species of plants have, I believe, as y 
been ascertained. 

London clay — This formation consists of a \fa& $ 
or blackish clay, sometimes passing into a calcareo^ 

marl, rarely into a solid rock. Its thickness is vetf 


great, sometimes exceeding five hundred feet, 
contains many layers of ovate or flattish masses ° 
argillaceous limestone, which, in their interior, & e . 
generally traversed in various directions by crack 

partially or wholly filled by calcareous spar. TheS e 
masses, called septaria, are sometimes contintf^ 
through a thickness of two hundred feet.f 

A great number of the marine shells of this cW 
have been identified with those of the Paris basin ; & 
it is quite evident that the strata of these two basi° s 
belong to the same epoch. 

No remains of terrestrial mammalia have as yet \>e& 

found in this clay ; but the occurrence of bones a n< * 

, skeletons of crocodiles and turtles prove, as Mr. Conf 

beare justly remarks, the existence of neighbouring 

, dry land. The shores, at least, of some islands wefj 

\ accessible, whither these creatures may have resorted 

to lay their eggs. In like manner, we may infer the coV 

* Con. and Phil. Outlines of Geol., p. 33 
f Outlines of Geol., p. 27. 

Ch - XX.1 




^suity of land from the immense number of ligneous 
c ed " Ve ssels of plants, some of them resembling the 
^ Oc oa-nut, and other spices of tropical regions, which 

J*e been found fossil in great profusion in the Isle of 
PPey. Such is the abundance of these fruits, that 

, e yhave been supposed to belong to several hundred 

ls ^ct species of plants. 


^ffshot sand. 

The third and uppermost group, 

«"'y termed the Bagshot sand, rests conformably 

%tT ^ G ' tj0ndon cla y' and consists of siliceous sand 
Sa ndstone, devoid of organic remains, with some 

f deposits of marl associated. From these marls a 
. Marine shells have been obtained which are in an 
P er fect state, but appear to belong to Eocene species 
Or ^mon to the Paris basin.* 

re shwater strata of the Hampshw 

o ^ rt Wn part of the Isle of Wight, and part of the 
^P°site coast of Hampshire, freshwater strata occur 
lllpr on the London clay. They are composed 

In the 

ci %; 

of calcareous and argillaceous marls, inter- 

ed with some thick beds of siliceous sand, and 

„._ — j „_„. 

^arls are often green, and bear a considerable 
v> ^blance to the green marls of Auvergne and the 

,> basin. ~ 


The shells and gyrogonites also agree 
cally with some of those most common in the 


^ nc h deposits. Mr. Webster, wno nrst aescrii 
j * r eshwater formation of Hampshire, divided 
v e . ari u Pper and lower series, separated by inter- 
Ce n 8 ^eds of marine origin. There are undoubtedly 
an , tain intercalated strata, both in the Isle of Wight 
c oast of Hampshire, marked by a slight inter- 

Warburton, Geol. Trans., vol. i., Second Series. 








mixture of marine and freshwater shells, sufficient to 
imply a temporary return of the sea, before and afte r 
which the waters of the lake, or rather, perhaps, soto e 
large river, prevailed.* The united thickness of * be 
freshwater and intercalated upper marine beds, &' 
posed in a vertical precipice in Headen Hill, in tbe 


series appearing about half way up in the cliff. 

Eocene mammift 

Very perfect 


mains of tortoises and the teeth of crocodiles h& e 


been procured from the freshwater strata ; but a & 
more interesting discovery has recently been m aC * e ' 
The bones of mammalia, corresponding to those ° 
the celebrated gypsum of Paris, have been disinter^ 



ancient quarries near this town a limestone, beloV$' 
ing to the lower freshwater formation, is worked # r 
building. Solid beds alternate with marls, wherein a 
tooth of an Anoplotherium, and two teeth of & e 
genus Palaeotherium, were found. These remains w^ re 
accompanied not only by several other fragments ° 

a 1 1 n TT* 11 /" * * **. • ill r%flt* 


injured state), but also by th 
Ruminantia, apparently cloi 

Moschus.f Mr. T. Allan o & « _ 

years before found the tooth of an Anoplotherium * 
the same spot. 



These newer strata of the Isle of Wight be& 
certain degree of resemblance to some of the % xe ^ 


* See Memoirs of Mr. Webster, Geol. Trans., vol.ii.* 
Series; vol. i. parti., Second Series; and Englefield's Is le 

Professor Sedgwick, Ann. of Phil., 1822; and I>> 


Geol. Trans., vol. ii., Second Series. 
f Pratt, Trans, of Geol. Soc, vol. iii. partiii. p. 451 



r act 


ft our 


Jjaris and limestones in the Paris basin ; yet, as a whole, 
ormations can be more dissimilar in mineral cha- 
er than the Eocene deposits of England and Paris. 

s lv l ~ ° Wn island the tertiar y strata are more exclu- 
Ser - marbe ; and h rai S ht be said th at the Parisian 
!es differs chiefly from that of London in the very 

^ints in which it agrees with the formations of Au- 

o/l 116 ' CantaI ' and Velav - The tertiary formations 

^ ijngland are, in fact, almost exclusively of mecha- 

s origin, and their composition bespeaks the ab- 

I h ° e °^ those m i nera ' an d thermal waters to which 

av e attributed the origin of the compact and sili- 

°Us limestones, the gypsum, and beds of pure flint, 

^ttion to the Paris basin and Central France. 


u7l glisli tertiary strata conformable 

! British Eocene strata are nearly conformable to 

chalk on which they rest, being horizontal where 

^ strata of the chalk are horizontal, and vertical 

e >* they are vertical. On the other hand, there 

^ evident signs that the surface of the chalk had, 

^any places, been furrowed by the action of the 

8^ and Currents ' before the Pla stic clay and its 

cll ^ een of deep indentations on the surface of the 
*K into which sand, together with rolled and 

K ar 
^ 8e appearances may be referred to the action of 

^oc^ Whei l the Chalk began t0 emer ge during the 
Coi) Cene . Period, and they by no means warrant the 

s .^ c usion that the chalk had undergone any con- 

s were superimposed. In the quarries near Ro- 
ster and Gravesend, for instance, fine examples 

' -O *»* "'«■" iVAiiGU. cum 

f pieces of chalk-flint, have been swept.* But 

q eraki i- n ° — 

ciDie change of position before the tertiary strata 

re superimposed. 

v ol. 

Con. and Phil., Outlines of.GeoI., p. 62 












In this respect there is a marked difference between 
the reciprocal relations of our secondary and tertiary 
rocks, and those which exist between the same groups 
throughout the greater part of the" Continent, espe- 
cially in the neighbourhood of mountain-chains. Near 
the base, for example, of the Alps, Apennines, an 
Pyrenees, we find the newer formations reposing u°' 
conformably upon the truncated edges of the older 
beds; and it is clear that, in many cases, the older 
strata had been subjected to a complicated series &■ 
movements before the more modern set was formed- 
The newer beds rise only to a certain height on the 
flanks of the mountains which usually tower abo^e 
them, and are recognized at once by the geologist a s 
having been already converted into land when the 
tertiary deposits were still forming in the sea. The 
ancient borders, also, of that sea can often be define** 
with certainty, and the outline of some of its bays an (1 
sea-cliffs traced. 

In England, although undoubtedly the neater pe r ' 
tion of the tertiary strata is confined to certain spaced 
we find outlying patches here and there at great dis- 
tances beyond the general limits, and at great height 
upon the chalk which separates the basins of London 
and Hampshire .* I have seen masses of clay extend- 
ing in this manner to near the edge of the western 
escarpment of the chalk of Wiltshire, and Mr. Mantel 
has pointed out the same to me in the South Do^nS- 
Near the escarpment at Lewes, for example, there » s 
a fissure in the chalk filled with sand, and with a fer- 
ruginous breccia, such as usually marks the lo* er 
members of the Plastic clay formation. From the 
occurrence of these tertiary outliers Dr. Buckland in- 

* Dr. Buckland, Geol. Trans., Second Series, vol. ii. p. ^ 5 ' 







s, and the plains of Andover and Basingstoke in 

rred, " that the basins of London and Hants were 
gmally united together in one continuous deposit 

Cl *OSS t.h<3 nrmr ;«#.^«*r«^: ~1 II. „I? 0_1!_1 Til-?.. :_ 

Wii t 

ant s ; and that the greater integrity in which the 

T tiary strata are preserved within the basins has re- 

te d from the protection which their comparatively 

^ position has afforded them from the ravages of 

Qllu vial denudation."* 

a gree so far with this conclusion as to believe that 


e basins of London and Hampshire were not sepa- 
e d until part of the tertiary strata were deposited ; 
1 1 do not think it probable that the tertiary beds 
extended continuously over those spaces where 


e v er 

e °utliers above mentioned occur, nor that the com- 
bative thinness of those deposits in the higher chalk 
^ Entries should be attributed chiefly to the greater 
§ r ee of denudation which they have there suffered. 



^r, Buckland, Geol. Trans., Second Series, vol. ii. p. 126. 

■ I 

h 2 










Manner in which the English tertiary strata may have" origin* 48 


r ^^ 

Denudation of secondary strata during their deposition 
Valley of the "Weald — Secondary rocks of the Weald divisi^ e 
into five groups — North and South Downs — Section acr° sS 
the valley of the Weald — Anticlinal axis — Chalk escarpm eIltS 
once sea-cliffs (p. 226. ) — Rise and denudation of the stra ta 
gradual — Parallel ridges and valleys formed by harder an a 
softer beds — No ruins of the chalk on the central district « f 
the Weald (p. 234.) — Double system of valleys, the longi t0 ' 
dinal and the transverse (p. 237. ). 


In explanation of the phenorne Jl3 

described in the last chapter, I shall now endeavour t° 
lay before the reader a view of the series of event 8 
which may have produced the leading geological an<* 
geographical features of the south-east of England- * 
conceive that the chalk, together with many subjacent 
rocks, may have remained undisturbed and in horizon^ 1 
stratification until after the commencement, of & e 
Eocene period. When at length the chalk was up* 
heaved and exposed to the action of the waves and cur- 
rents, it was rent and shattered, so that the subjacent 
secondary strata were soon after exposed to denudation 
The waste of all these rocks, composed chiefly of sand- 
stone and clay, supplied materials for the tertiary 


Ch - XXI, 




s ands and clays ; while the chalk was the source of 
inty shingle, and of the calcareous matter which we 
n d intermixed with the Eocene clays. The tracts 
° w separating the basins of London and Hampshire 
er e those first elevated, and which contributed by 
eir gradual decay to the production of the newer 
r ata. These last were accumulated in deep submarine 
°'Ws, formed probably by the subsidence of certain 
P ai% ts of the chalk, which sank while the adjoining 
acts were rising. 

denudation of the Valley of the Weald. — In order to 

^derstand this theory, it will be necessary that the 

* e ader should be acquainted with the phenomena of 

^ttudation exhibited by the chalk and some of the 

°^er secondary rocks in parts of England, most nearly 

c °ntiguous to the basins of London and Hampshire. 

1 will be sufficient to consider one of the denuded 

ls tricts, as the appearances observable in others are 

str ictly analogous ; I shall, therefore, direct attention 

what may be called the Valley of the Weald> or 

l he region intervening between the North and South 




The district alluded to is delineated in the 

Coloured map, given in Plate XV., which has been 
c hiefly taken from Mr. Greenough's Map of England ; 
atl d it will be there seen that the southern portion of 

** e basin of London, and the north-eastern limits of that 
°* Hampshire, are separated by a tract of secondary 

° c ks, between forty and fifty miles in breadth, com- 
posing within it the whole of Sussex, and parts of the 
c °Unties of Kent, Surrey, and Hampshire. 

There can be no doubt that the tertiary deposits of 
tlle Hampshire basin formerly extended much farther 
alo &g our southern coast towards Beachy Head, for 

l 3 




I ! 





patches are still found near Newhaven, and at other 

points, as will be seen by the map. These are no^ 

wasting away, and will in time disappear, as the sea & 

constantly encroaching and un dermining the subjacent 

The secondary rocks, depicted on the map, may 
divided into five groups : 



Chalk and upper green-sand. 

This group 


the uppermost of the series ; it includes the 
white chalk with and without flints, and an hi' 

ferior deposit, called, provincially, " Firestone 
and by English geologists, the " Upper green- 
sand." It sometimes consists of loose siliceous 
sand, containing grains of silicate of iron, b ut 
often of firm beds of sandstone and chert. 

2. Blue clay or calcareous marl, called, provincially' 


3. Lower green-sand, a very complex group, con- 

sisting of grey, yellowish, and greenish sands I 
ferruginous sand and sandstone ; clay, chert> 
and siliceous limestone. 


4. Weald clay, composed for the most part of clay 

without intermixture of calcareous matter, h ut 
sometimes including thin beds of sand and 
shelly limestone. 

5. Hastings sands, composed chiefly of sand, sand- 
stone, clay, and calcareous grit, passing in t0 


The first three formations above enumerated are of 
marine origin ; the last two, Nos. 4. and 5., contain 

* For an account of these strata in the south-east of Engl*"* 
see Mantell's Geology of Sussex, and Dr. Fitton's Geology ° f 

Hastings, where the memoirs of all the writers on this part 


England are referred to. 



Ch - XXI.] 



almost exclusively the remains of freshwater and am- 
phibious animals. But it is not my intention to enlarge, 
at present, upon the organic remains of these form- 
ations, as the rocks are merely adverted to in order 
l hat I may describe the changes of position which they 
«ave undergone, and the denudation to which they 
We been exposed since the commencement of the 
Eocene period, — mutations which, if the theory about 
to be explained be well founded, belong strictly to the 

^story of tertiary phenomena. 

By a glance at the map, the reader may trace at 
0r *ce the superficial area occupied by each of the five 
t0r mations above mentioned. 

On the west will be 

s een a large expanse of chalk, from which two branches 
ar e sent off ; one through the hills of Surrey and Kent 
to Dover, forming the ridge called the North Downs ; 
a &d the other through Sussex to the sea at Beachy 
**ead, constituting the South Downs. The space com- 
posed between the North and South Downs, or, " the 
Galley of the Weald," consists of the formations Nos. 
2 > 3, 4, 5. of the above table. It will be observed that 
the chalk terminates abruptly, and with a well-defined 
^e towards the country occupied by those older 
str ata. Within that line is a narrow band, coloured 
hhae, formed by the gault ; and within this again, is 
the Lower green-sand, next the Weald clay; and then, 
"> the centre of the district, a ridge formed by the 
"astings sands. 


yfthe Valley of the Weald 

It has been as- 

certained by careful investigation, that if a line be 
<Wn from any part of the North to the "South Downs, 
^hich shall pass through the central group (No. 5.), 
t«e beds will be found arranged in the order described 


(Fig. 157.) 

L 4 



















*C ^ 




fc. J 

































to O 








03 .CU 




0) CO 




03 &P 


5 O 


e O 

< O 

• CO 











§ 8 

g o> 








o g 









« U 

s go 

CO G> 

c3 £ 








3 * Z. 

CO ^ 



G 'o3 

5 s 





<V ^ 

QJ p4 



^3 a ^ 


co P^ 

S r$ 



^ 03 




O 6 

" % 






• A 

& O 






fc w 



t* 03 


J3 A 

^ 3- 


«m .?* 





Ch - XXI.] 



The reader is referred at present to the dark lines 
of the section, as the fainter lines represent portions 
°* rock supposed to have been carried away by denu- 

At each end of the diagram the tertiary strata, a, 
ar e exhibited reposing on the chalk. In the centre 

(No. 5.) 

lc hnal axis, on each side of which the other form- 

tl ons are arranged with an opposite dip. It has been 

Pessary, however, in order to give a clear view of 

y e different formations, to exaggerate the propor- 

tl °nal height of each in comparison to its horizontal 

ext ent; and a true scale is therefore subjoined in 

Mother diagram (Fig. 158.), in order to correct the 

err oneous impression which' might otherwise be made 

° n the reader's mind. In this section the distance 

between the North and South Downs is represented 

exceed forty miles ; for the Valley of the Weald is 

er e intersected in its longest diameter, in the direc- 

l0r * of a line between Lewes and Maidstone. 

*ft attempting to account for the manner in which 
^ e five secondary groups above mentioned may- have 


e en brought into their present position, the following 
ypothesis has been very generally adopted :— Suppose 
** e five formations to lie in horizontal stratification 
1 the bottom of the sea ; then let a movement from 
elow press them upwards into the form of a flattened 
0tl *e, and let the crown of this dome be afterwards 
Cu t off, so that the incision should penetrate to the 
0Mr est of the five groups. The different beds would 
^ e n be exposed on the surface, in the manner ex- 
ited in the map, PL XV. * 

See illustrations of this theory by Dr. Fitton, Geol. Sketch 

of JJ 


L 5 






It will appear, from former parts of this work, that 
the amount of elevation here supposed to have taken 
place is not greater than we can prove to have oc- 
curred in other regions within geological periods of n° 
great duration. On the other hand, the quantity ^ 
denudation or removal by water of vast masses which 
are assumed to have once reached continuously f rom 
the North to the South Downs is so enormous, that the 
reader may at first be startled by the boldness of the 
hypothesis. But he will find the difficulty to vanish 
when once sufficient time is allowed for the gradual 
and successive rise of the strata, during which the 
waves and currents of the ocean might slowly accofl 1 ' 
plish an operation, which no sudden diluvial rush °* 
waters could possibly have effected. 

Escarpments of the chalk once sea-cliffs. — In order t° 
make the reader acquainted with the physical struc- 
ture of the Valley of the Weald, I shall suppose hi# 
first to travel southwards from the London basin. O n 
leaving the tertiary strata he will first ascend a gently 
inclined plane, composed of the upper flinty portion oi 
the chalk, and then find himself on the summit of * 
declivity consisting, for the most part, of different 
members of the chalk formation ; below which the 
upper green-sand, and sometimes also the gault, crop 
out.* This steep declivity is called by geologists " &e 
escarpment of the chalk," which overhangs a valle}' 
excavated chiefly out of the argillaceous or marly beA- 
termed Gault (No. 2.). The escarpment is continuous 
along the southern termination of the North Down s > 
and may be traced from the sea at Folkstone, west- 

* This term, borrowed from our miners, is used to express the 
coming up to the surface of one stratum from beneath another. 







































ward to Guildford and the neigbourhood of Peters- 
field, and from thence to the termination of the South 

■Downs at Beachy 
Head. In this pre- 





■8 . 

Co s 




slope the strata % te 
cut off abruptly? 
and it is evident 
that they must 
originally have &* 
tended farther- I 11 


the accompany^ 
wood-cut, (Fig* 
159.), part of the 
escarpment of the 
South Downs lS 







sented, where th e 
denudation at the 
base of the decli- 
vity has been som e ' 
what more extefl' 
sive than usual, & 
consequence of the 
upper and lo^ er 
green-sand being 
formed of very incoherent materials, the upper, indeed 
being extremely thin and almost wanting. 

The geologist cannot fail to recognize in this vie^ 
the exact likeness of a sea-cliiF; and if he turns and 
looks in an opposite direction, or eastward, towards 
Beachy Head (see Fig. 160.), he will see the same l& e 
of height prolonged. Even those who are not accus* 
tomed to speculate on the former changes which the 

Ch - XXI. 




*ace has undergone may fancy the broad and level 


to resemble the flat sands which were laid dry by 

^ceding tide, and the different projecting masses 

c halk to be the headlands of a coast which separated 
th * diffi 



erent bays from each other. 

•outer terrace of firestone. — I have said that the 

Pper green-sand (" firestone," or "malm-rock" as it 

0r netimes called) is almost absent in the tract here 
al Wed to. 


It is, in fact, seen at Beachy Head to thin 

, t0 an inconsiderable stratum of loose green-sand ; 
farther to the westward it is of great thickness, 

contains hard beds of blue chert and limestone. 

ere ? accordingly, we find that it produces a corre- 
^flding influence on the scenery of the country ; for 

r Uns out like a step beyond the foot of the chalk- 

~ s > and constitutes a lower terrace, varying in breadth 
, *** a quarter of a mile to three miles, and following 

e 8 muosities of the chalk escarpment. * 

Fig. 161. 

^ Chalk with flints. 


b. Chalk without flints. 



* Upp er green-sand, or firestone. d. Gault. 

' is impossible to desire a more satisfactory proof 
* the escarpment is due to the excavating power of 

er during the rise of the strata ; for I have shown 
*£ m y account of the coast of Sicily, in what manner 
e encroachments of the sea tend to efface that suc- 


s Mr. Murchison, Geol. Sketch of Sussex, &c, Geol. Trans 
c °nd Series, vol. ii. p. 98. 









• [Book 



cession of terraces which must otherwise result frofl 1 
the . successive rises of a coast preyed upon by 
waves.* During the interval between two elevato 1 */ 
movements, the lower terrace will usually be de- 
stroyed, wherever it is composed of incoherent ma te " 
rials ; whereas the sea will not have time entirely t0 
sweep away another part of the same terrace, or lo* ef 
platform, which happens to be composed of rocks oi * 
harder texture, and capable of offering a firmer re***' 
ance to the erosive action of water. 

Valleys where softer strata, ridges where harder c r °t 
It is evident that the gault No. 2. (see the M^P/ 
could not have opposed any effectual resistance to t fl 
denuding force of the waves ; its outcrop, therefa re ' 
is marked by a valley, the breadth of which, is <$& 
increased by the loose incoherent nature of the upp er ' 
most beds of the lower green-sand, which lie next t0 
it, and which have often been removed with eq ua 

This formation (the lower green-sand) has b eeI * 

sometimes entirely smoothed off like the gault ; but 

in those districts where chert, limestone, and oth e 



solid materials enter largely into its composition 
forms a range of hills parallel to the chalk, which so& e ' 
times rival the escarpment of the chalk itself in heig bt ' 
or even surpass it, as in Leith Hill. This ridge oft e * 
presents a steep escarpment towards the Weald cW 
which crops out from under it. (See the strong ^ e$ 
in Fig. 157. p. 224.) 

The clay last mentioned forms, for the most part 

broad valley, separating the lower green-sand from ^ e 
Hastings sands, or Forest ridge; but where subordin*^ 

* See Vol. III. p. 440. and wood-cut Fig, 107 

* * 

Ch >XXl. 





or sandstone of a firmer texture occur, the uni- 
*&ity of the plain is broken by waving; irregularities 

and hillocks.* ' 

H* 1 * the 




or Forest ridge, the strata 

e been considerably disturbed, and are • greatly 

ctured and shifted. One fault is known where the 

lc al shift of a bed of calcareous grit is no less than 


y fatl 

oms.f It must not be supposed that the 
th ° ^ ax ^ s ? which is described as running through 




dually represented in geological sections. There 
]t 5 °n the contrary, a series of anticlinal and syn- 
fc a * t lines, which form ridges and troughs running 
ar V parallel to each other. 

°f th 

*ch of the picturesque character of the scenery 
x s district arises from the depth of the narrow 


f e ys and ridges to which the sharp bends 
ctures of the strata have given rise ; but it is also 
Part to be attributed to the excavating power ex- 

I e d by water, especially on the interstratified argil- 

us beds. 

la ce 

tK r ° m ^ le a ^ ove description it will appear that, in 
j. tr act intervening between the North and South 



^ n s, there are a series of parallel valleys and ridges ; 
% v alleys appearing evidently to have been formed 

t / nci Pally by the removal of softer materials, while 
^ ri( %es are due to the resistance offered by firmer 
s to the destroying action of water. 



Let us 

n consider how far these phenomena agree with the 


Martin, Geol. of Western Sussex. 
gs ' P. 31. 

Fitton, Geol. of Has- 

t P. 


itton, Ibid. p. 55. 

or explanation of these terms ; see Glossary, Vol. I. 


" ;| 









changes which we should naturally expect to oc&fl 
during the rise of the secondary strata. Suppose the 
line of the most violent movements to have coincide 
with what is now the central ridge of the Weald valley 5 
in that case the first land which emerged must h& e 
been situated where the Forest ridge is now placed 
Here a number of reefs may have existed, and island 
of chalk, which may have been gradually devoured W 
the ocean in the same manner as Heligoland and oth er 









. » k 






°pean islands have disappeared in modern times, 
s elated in the second book.* 

Ppose the ridge or dome first elevated to have 



so rent and shattered on its summit as to give 




easy access to the waves, until at length the 

(Fig. 162.) 

e removed. Two strips of land might then remain 

each side of a channel,, in the same manner as 

°Pposite coasts of France and England, composed 

ehalk, present ranges of white cliffs facing each 

A powerful current might then rush, like that 

now ebbs and flows through the Straits of Dover, 



might scoop out a channel in the gault. We must 


*n mind that the intermittent action of earth 

s Ur 

Ke s would accompany this denuding process, fis- 
* ln g rocks, throwing down cliffs, and bringing up, 
*** time to time, new stratified masses, and thus 
k at ly accelerating the rate of waste. If the lower 
v of chalk on one side of the channel should be 
e r than on the other, it would cause an under ter- 
se ^ - aS re P resented in the diagram (Fig. 162.), re- 
Wing that presented by the upper green-sand in 

Sa i S °^ ^ ussex anc * Hampshire. When at length the 
of t Was entirely swept away from the central parts 
^ th e channel, the lower green-sand (3. Fig. 163.) 

W* 1 ^ e laid bare ' and P ortions °f lt would become 
q during the continuance of the upheaving earth- 

o ke »- Meanwhile the chalk cliffs would recede far- 

] a r ° m one another, whereby four parallel strips of 

5 °r perhaps rows of islands, would be caused, 
o y a continuance of these operations the edges of 

ar gillaceous strata, No. 2. (Fig. 163.), would be 

• Vol. II. p. 7. 









exposed to farther erosion by the waves ; and a P ortI °!| 
of the clay, No. 4., would be also removed, and as 
gradually rose, would be swept off from part of ^ 
subjacent group, No. 5. This last would then & lt * 
turn be laid bare, and afterwards become land by sub ' 
sequent elevation. 

Why no ruins of chalk on central district 



theory of the successive emergence and denudation 


groups, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5., we may account for an * 

^ vial phenomenon w» l 
*£ seems inexplicable 




I V 



» *■! 





^ The summits ~ c 










chalk downs are cove 1 
every where with ** 
gravel, which is °* 
entirely wanting on 
surface of the clay 

t S the foot of the 


3 <£ 


g escarpment, 




& traces of chalk flint h* 




ever been found in 





C3 r-» 

P4 O 

w T3 






o c 
o .-g 

S ^ alluvium of the cen 
*5 district, or Forest i* 1 ^ 
It is rare, indeed, to 


any wreck of the <# ^ 
even at the distant 

C$ OS 





two or three miles 

c foe 

L5 O J tE *^ e escar P men ^ s ° 

.... North and South Do* * S 


— . (^ CO ^ 

a fact attested by 

road- surveyors 

whoh a 

diligently sought for such materials. To this g en 
rule, however, an exception occurs near Barco* 





Ch - XXL 

°ut three miles to the north of Lewes, a place which 

Vl sited with Mr. Mantell, to whom I am indebted 

r ^e accompanying section (Fig. 164.). It will be 

n that the valley at the foot of the escarpment ex- 

t , s > ln this case, not only over the gault, but over 

e " lower green-sand" to the Weald clay. On this 

y & thick bed of flints, evidently derived from 

^aste of chalk, remains in the position above 



lle n I say that there is no detritus of the chalk 
^s flints on the central ridge of the Weald, I may 

e that I have sought in vain for a vestige of such 
a S^ents; and Mr. Mantell, who has had greater 




Pportunities of minute investigation, assures me that 

has never been able to detect any. Now, whether 

er *ibrace or reject the theory of the former con- 

Ul ty of the chalk and other groups over the whole 

c e intervening between the North and South Downs, 

certainly cannot imagine that any transient and 

^Ultiious rush of waters could have swept over this 

tK r * tl ^' w hich should not have left some fragments of 

.. c halk and its flints in the deep valleys of the Forest 

l(J Se 
i • Auckland, we should expect to find vast heaps of 

p ke n flints drifted frequently into the valleys of the 

n, u lt and Weald clay, instead of being generally con- 

e( * to the summit of the chalk downs. . 

Indeed, if we adopt the diluvial hypothesis of 



Un the other hand, it is quite conceivable that the 
a gency of oceanic currents may have cleared 


,, j> m the course of ages, the matter which fell into 

e s ea from wasting cliffs. But in order that this ex- 

t , n Wion should be satisfactory we must suppose that 

v e r ise of the land in the south-east of England was 

y gradual, and the subterranean movements for the 








most part of moderate intensity. During the last cefl' 
tury earthquakes have occasionally thrown down a 
once whole lines of sea-cliffs, for several miles con' 
tinuously ; but if this had happened repeatedly during 
the waste of the ancient escarpments of the chalk n°*' 



companied by the sudden rise and conversion of la'S 

1 • I 



with the ruins of those wasted rocks, and the sea c° l] 
not possibly have had time to clear the whole a^' 
The reader will recollect the account before given ° 
the manner in which the sea has advanced, within 
last century, upon the Norfolk coast at Sherringhatf 1 ' 


Fig. 165. 


.C m 


Section of cliffs west of Sherringham. 

a. Crag. 

b. Ferruginous flint breccia on the surface of the chalk. 

c. Chalk with flints. 

The beach, at the foot of the cliff, is composed ° 
bare chalk with flints, as is the bed of the sea « e * r 
the shore. No one would suspect, from the appearand* 3 
of the beach at low water, that a few years ago b e<JS 
of solid chalk, together with sand and loam o( tI,e 
superincumbent crag, formed land on the very S P° 
where the waves are now rolling ; still less that the se 

Vol. I. p. 405, 


Cl >. Xxi. 





e formations extended, within the last fifty years, 
a considerable distance from the present shore, 
l a space where the sea has now excavated a 
clla nnel twenty feet deep. 

R s m this recent instance the ocean has cleared 

a y part of the chalk, and its capping of crag, so the 

iary sea ma y have swept away not only the chalk 

founding the valley of the Weald, but the layer of 
^en flints on its surface, which was probably a 
Uie alluvium of the Eocene period. Hence these 
ts might naturally occur on the downs, and be 


ln g in the valleys below. 
*1 the reader will refer to the preceding diagrams 




'S 8 * 162. and 163. p. 232.), and reflect not only on 

'" e successive states of the country there delineated, 

0n all the intermediate conditions which the dis- 

*uust have passed through during the process of 

( uual elevation and denudation before supposed, he 

, Understand why no wreck of the chalk (No. 1.) 

Uld occur at great distances from the chalk escarp- 

** ts ; for it is evident that when the ruins of the 


ruins would subsequently be carried away when 

p P e miost bed (No- 1. Fig. 162.) had been thrown 
, n upon the surface of the bed immediately below, 

s inferior stratum itself was destroyed. And in pro- 

. tlQ n to the number and thickness of the groups, 

s Removed in succession, is the probability lessened 

° Ur finding any remnants of the highest group 

ew ed over the bared surface of the lowest. 

* T ansverse valleys. — There is another peculiarity in 

e geographical features of the south-east of England, 

. lc h must not be overlooked when we are consider- 

§ the flpfinn r»f tho r1^nnrlir»<r pqucac. By reference 

*e map (Plate XV.), the reader will perceive that 






the drainage of the country is not effected by wate r * 
courses following the great valleys excavated out o 
the argillaceous strata (Nos. 2. and 4.), but by vall^ s 
which run in a transverse direction, passing through 
the chalk to the basin of the Thames on the one si** 
and to the English channel on the other. 

In this manner the chain of the North Downs lS 
broken by the rivers Wey, Mole, Darent, Med**/' 
and Stour; the South Downs by the Arun, Ad ur? 

Ouse, and Cuckmere.* 

If these transverse hollows could be filled up? a 

the rivers, observes Mr. Conybeare, would be fo** ce 
to take an easterly course, and to empty themsel^ 
into the sea by Romney Marsh and Pevensey levels 
Mr. Martin has suggested that the great cross fi 1 ^ 
tures of the chalk, which have become river chanfl el ' 
have a remarkable correspondence on each side of $ 
valley of the Weald ; in several instances the gorges & 
the North and South Downs appearing to be direcw 
opposed to each other. Thus, for example, the de#f 
of the Wey, in the North Downs, and of the Arun? in 
the South, seem to coincide in direction ; and, in J 1 * 
manner, the Ouse corresponds to the Darent, and $ 

Medway. J 


Although these coincidences may, perhaps, be *& v 
dental, it is by no means improbable, as hinted by ^ 
author above mentioned, that the great amount of &' 
vation towards the centre of the Weald district g a 
rise to transverse fissures. And as the longitudinal **}' 


leys were connected with that linear movement 


caused the anticlinal lines running east and west 




Conybeare, Outlines of Geol., p. 81. f Ibid., p 


$ Geol. of Western Sussex, p. 61. 







i nT 1 

i I rj 



• i> 






iw ; v\ 




i-™.' f '■ 












ls;v; .i 





I 1 

m ;m 





' lltll 






















1 n 











i : 



» ; 





















the cross fissures might have been occasioned by the 
intensity of the upheaving force towards the centre oi 
the line, whereby the effect of a double axis of elev*' 
tion was in some measure produced. 

In order to give a clearer idea of the manner & 
which the chalk-hills are intersected by these transversa 
valleys, I subjoin a sketch (Fig. 166.) of the gorg c 
of the river Adur, taken from the summit of the cha^ 
downs, at a point in the bridle-way leading from & e 
towns of Bramber and Steyning to Shoreham. If tlie 
reader will refer again to the view given in a forifl er 
wood-cut (Fig. 159. p. 227.), he will there see the e^ ci 
point where the gorge, of which I am now speaki^ 
interrupts the chalk escarpment. A projecting h$> 
at the point a, hides the town of Steyning, near vM c ^ 
the valley commences where the Adur passes directly 
to the sea at Old Shoreham. The river flows through 
a nearly level plain, as do most of the others whi^ 
intersect the hills of Surrey, Kent, and Sussex; ^ 
it is evident that these openings, so far at least & 
they are due to aqueous erosion, have not been p r °' 
duced by the rivers, many of which, like the Ou* e 
near Lewes, have filled up arms of the sea, instead ot 
deepening the hollows which they traverse. 

In regard to the origin of the transverse ravin 


Fig. 167. 

Supposed section of Transverse Valley. 


there can be no doubt that they are connected wi 
lines of fracture, and perhaps, in some places, there 





^y be an anticlinal dip on both sides of the valley, 
as suggested by Mr. Martin.* But this notion requires 
c °nfirmation. 

Ahe ravine, called the Coomb, near Lewes, affords 
dutiful example of the manner in which narrow 



P e nings in the chalk may have been connected with 
tfts and dislocations in the strata. This coomb is 

* Geol. of Western Sussex, p, 64. Plate III. fig. 3 
V °L. IV. M 



ii j i 








seen on the eastern side of the valley of the Ousft 
in the suburbs of the town of Lewes. The steep 
declivities on each side are covered with green tun? 
as is the bottom, which is perfectly dry. No outward 
signs of disturbance are visible ; and the connexi° n 
of the hollow with subterranean movements would 
not have been suspected by the geologist, had not the 
evidence of great convulsions been clearly expo se 
in the escarpment of the valley of the Ouse, and in 
the numerous chalk pits worked at the termination ° f 
the Coomb. By aid of these we discover that the 
ravine coincides precisely with a line of fault, on o^ e 
side of which the chalk with flints, a, appears at th e 
summit of the hill, while it is thrown down to the \>°^ 
torn on the other. I examined this spot in comp^ 

with Mr. Mantell, to whom I am indebted for t* 1 
accompanying section. 

Fig. 169. 

Fault in the cliff-hills near Lewes. 

a. Chalk with flints. 

b. Lower chalk.* 

The fracture here alluded to is one of those whi cl1 
run east and west, and of which there are many 


the Weald district, parallel to the central axis of & e 
Forest ridge. 

In whatever manner the transverse gorges orig lJ} ' 
ated, they must evidently have formed ready chann^ 
of communication between the submarine longitudiP a 


* For farther information, see MantelTs Geol. of S. E 
England, p. 352. 


Ch - XXI. 








^ys and those deep parts of the sea wherein the 
r tiary strata may have accumulated. If the strips 

and which first rose had been unbroken, and there 
ha d b een 


no free passage through the cross fractures, 
e currents would not so easily have drifted away 

e Materials detached from the wasting cliffs, and it 

° u ld have been more difficult to understand how the 

e ck of the denuded strata could have been so en- 

% swept away from the base of the escarpments. 

** the next chapter I shall resume the consideration 

'hese 'subjects, especially the proofs of the former 

C ° n tinuity of the chalk of the North and South Downs, 

to* ^ e Probable connexion of the denudation of the 


. ■ 


V fl 

M 2 

















The alternative of the proposition that the chalk of the North a 
South Downs was once continuous, considered — Dr. # u 

land on Valleys of Elevation (p. 246.) — If rise and de^ 


dation of secondary rocks gradual, so also the deposition 
tertiary strata (p. 254.) — Composition of the latter such 
would result from wreck of denuded secondary rocks 

Central parts of the Lo 

as high as Weald — Why 

Isle of Wight — Eocene alluviums (p. 26S.) 
valleys — Recapitulation* 

m ana iiampsmre Dasins **— 
Curved and vertical strata i» 

Formation ° 


Extent of denudation in the Valley of the Weald. 


would be highly rash," observes Mr. Conybeare, sp e 


ing of the denudation of the Weald, " to assume 
the chalk at any period actually covered the v? 



space in which the inferior strata are now expo se 
although the truncated form of its escarpment e 
dently shows it to have once extended much fart* 1 
than at present 


I believe that few geologists who have consider 
the extent of country supposed to have been denu# > ' 
and who have explored the hills and valleys of 
central or Forest ridge, without being able to disco 
the slightest vestige of chalk in the alluvium f> w , 
fail to participate, at first, in the doubts here exp* esS 

* Outlines, p. 144 

f See' above ; p« 254 





as to the original continuity of the upper secondary 
formations over the anticlinal axis of the Weald. For 

lv own part, I never traversed the wide space which 
Se parates the North and South Downs, without de- 

iring to escape from the conclusions advocated in the 
ast chapter ; and yet I have been invariably brought 

ac k again to the opinion, that the chalk was origin- 

*v continuous, on a more deliberate review of the 
w hole phenomena. 

It may be useful to consider the only other alter- 
native of the hypothesis before explained. If the 
Marine groups, Nos. 1, 2, 3., were not originally con- 
Fig. 170. 



Chalk and Upper 

•Lower green-sand. 

4. Weald clay. 



5. Hastings sands 


ous, it is necessary to imagine that they each 

err ninated at some point between their present out- 
§oings and the secondary strata of the Forest ridge. 
*hus we might suppose them to have thinned out one 
f*ter the other, as in the above diagram, and never to 
^ av e covered the entire area occupied by the fresh- 
water strata, Nos. 4. and 5. 

It must be granted, that had such been the original 
^position of the different groups, they might, as they 
§ r adually emerged from the sea, have become denuded 
lri the manner explained in the last chapter, so that the 
c °Untry might equally have assumed its present con- 
figuration. But although I know of no invincible ob- 
jection to such an hypothesis, there are certainly no 

m 3 








appearances which favour it. If the strata Nos. 4- 
and 5. had been unconformable to the lower green- 
sand No. 3.,' then, indeed, we might have imagined 
that the older groups had been disturbed by a series of 
movements antecedently to the deposition of No. 3.5 
and, in that case, some parts of them might be sup- 
posed to have emerged or formed shoals in the ancient 
sea, interrupting the continuity of the newer marine 
deposits. But the group No. 4. is conformable to No. &• 
and the only change which has been observed to take 
place at the junction is an occasional intermixture o* 
the Weald clay with the superior marine sand, such % s 
might have been caused by a slight superficial move- 
ment in the waters when the sea first overflowed the 
freshwater strata. 

On the other hand, the green-sand and chalk, % s 
they approach the central axis of the Weald, are fl°* 
found to contain littoral shells, or any wreck of the 
freshwater strata, such as might indicate the exist- 
ence of an island with its shores or wasting cliffy 
Had any such signs been discovered, we might have 
supposed the geography of the region to have once 
borne some resemblance to that exhibited in the di&" 
gram, Fig. 170. 

Dr. BucUand on Valleys of Elevation. — We & xe 
indebted to Dr. Buckland for an able memoir in ill uS * 
tration of several districts of similar form and structure 
to the Weald, which occur at no great distance in the 

south of England. His paper is intitled, 


On the 

Formation of the Valley of Kingsclere and other Val- 
leys, by the Elevation of the Strata which inclose 


Geol. Trans, Second Series, vol, h\ p, 119* 



Ch - XXII.] 



The valley of Kingsclere, a few miles south of New- 
bur y, in Berkshire, is about five miles long and two in 
breadth. The upper and lower chalk (see Fig. 173.*) 
ar *d the upper green-sand dip in opposite directions 
* r om an anticlinal axis which passes through the mid- 
^ e of the valley along the line a, 6, of the ground-plan 




















• *-* 






^ v 



t »H 





* 1™^ 








• F— 4 






! I 




In the wood-cut (Fig. 172.) the scale of heights 

* Copied by permission from Dr. Buckland's Plate XVI I., 
6e ol. Trans. Second Series, vol. ii. 

M 4? 




■I I 







more nearly approaches to that of nature, although the 
altitudes, in proportion to the horizontal extent, are 
even in this, perhaps, somewhat in excess. On each 
side of the valley we find escarpments of chalk, the 
strata of which dip in opposite directions, in the north- 
ern escarpment to the north, and in the southern to 
the south. At the eastern and western extremities 
of the valley, the two escarpments become confluent) 
precisely in the same manner as do those of the North 
and South Downs, at the eastern end of the Weald 
district, near Petersfield. And as, a few miles east of 
the town last mentioned (see Map, Plate XV.) the fire- 
stone, or upper green-sand, is laid open in the sharp 
angle between the escarpment of the Alton Hills and 
the western termination of the South Downs*; so h 1 
the valley of Kingsclere the same formation is seen to 
crop out from beneath the chalk. 

The reader might imagine, on regarding the section 
(Fig. 173.), where, for the sake of elucidating thegeo- 

Fig. 1 73. 

Section across the Valley of Kingsclere from north to south. 

1 . Chal k with flints. 


2. Lower chalk without flints. 

Upper green-sand, or firestone, containing beds of chert 


logical phenomena, the heights are exaggerated i» 
proportion to the horizontal extent, that the solution oi 


* See Mr. Murchison's Map, Plate XIV., Geol. Trans- 
Second Series, vol. ii, 

A > 


Ch - XXII.] 



c °ntinuity of the strata bounding the valley of Kings- 
c tae had been simply due to elevation and fracture, 
^assisted by aqueous causes; but by reference to the 
tr Uer sca i e (Fig- 172.), it will immediately appear that 
a considerable mass of chalk must have been removed 

v denudation. 

If the anticlinal dip had been confined to the valley 
of Kingsclere, we might have supposed that the 
u pheaving force had acted on a mere point, forcing 
upwards the superincumbent strata into a small dome- 
s haped eminence, the crown of which had been sub- 

quently cut off; but Dr. Buckland traced the line 
of opposite dip far beyond the confluence of the chalk 
es carpments, and found that it was prolonged in 
a more north-west direction far beyond the point a 
(Fig. 171.). In following the line thus extended, the 
str ata are seen in numerous chalk-pits to have an op- 
posite dip on either side of a central axis, from which 
w e may clearly infer the linear direction of the move- 

Many of the valleys having a similar conformation 
to that of Kingsclere, run east and west, like the 



Several of these 


c ^cumscribed by an escarpment whose component 
sti *ata dip outwards from an anticlinal line running 
al °ng the central axis of the valley. One of these, dis- 
tai *t about seven miles to the north-east of Weymouth, 


Nearly elliptical in shape, and in size does not much 
e *ceed the Coliseum at Rome. Their drainage is ge- 
Orally effected in a manner analogous to the drainage 
of the Weald, by an aperture in one of their lateral 
es carpments, and not at either extremity of their longer 

u 5 


il It 








[Book tf. 

axis, as would have happened had they been simp 1 )' 
excavated by the sweeping force of rapid water.* 
« It will be seen," continues Dr. Buckland, " if we fol- 




that, at no great distance from these small elliptic* 1 
valleys of elevation, there occur several longer and 
larger valleys, forming deep notches, as it were, in the 
lofty edge of the chalk. These are of similar struc- 
ture to the, smaller valleys we have been considering* 
and consist of green- sand, inclosed by chalk at one ex- 
tremity, and flanked by two escarpments of the sainfr 
facing each other with an opposite dip ; but they differ 
in the circumstance of their other and broader extre- 
mity being without any such inclosure, and gradually 
widening till it is lost in the expanse of the adjacent 


" The cases I now allude to are the Vale of Pe vV " 



r ; and the Valley of the Naddeft 

extending from Shaftesbury to Barford, near Salisbury: 

in which last not only the strata of green-sand ar e 

brought to the surface, but also the still lower foT&' 

ations of Purbeck and Portland beds, and of Kimm e ' 
ridge clay. 

« It might at first sight appear that these valley s 
are nothing more than simple valleys of denudation ' 
but the fact of the strata composing their escarpments 
having an opposite and outward dip from the axis of 
the valley, and this often at a high angle, as nea r 
Fonthill and Barford, in the Vale of the Nadder. 
and at Oare, near the base of Martinsell Hill, in the 

* Dr. Buckland, Geol. Trans., Second Series, vol. ii. p. l& m 

Ch - XXII.] 






Vale of Pewsey, obliges us to refer their inclination 
to some antecedent violence, analogous to that to 
w hich I have attributed the position of the strata in 
^e inclosed valleys near Kingsclere, Ham, and Bur- 
gage. Nor is it probable that without some pre-exist- 
ln g fracture or opening in the lofty line of the great 
c halk escarpment, which is here presented to the 
^orth-west, the power of water alone would have 
forced open three such deep valleys as those in ques- 
tl <>n, without causing them to maintain a more equable 
^eadth, instead of narrowing till they end in a point 
ir * the body of the chalk. 

Now, in the Weald, the strata of the North Downs 
ar e inclined to the north at an angle of from 10° to 15°, 
0r even 45°, in the narrow ridge of the Hog's Back, 
w est of Guildford, in Surrey; while those in the South 
^Wns dip to the south at a slight angle. It is super- 
fluous to dwell on the analogy which, in this respect, 
the two escarpments bear to those which flank the 
Alleys above alluded to ; and in regard to the greater 
^stance which separates the hills of Surrey from those 
of Sussex, the difficulty may be reduced simply to a 

Question of time. 
If the rise of the land was accomplished by 

^definite number of minor convulsions, or by a slow 
ar *d insensible upheaving like that now taking place in 
Sweden, the power of the ocean would be fully ade- 
quate to perform the work of denudation in the lapse 
°f many ages. If, on the other hand, we embrace the 
Vpothesis of paroxysmal elevation; or, in other w r ords, 
f u ppose a submarine tract to have been converted 
ln stantaneously into high land, we may seek in vain 


! 1 1 

Br. Buckland, Geol. Trans. Second Series, vol. ii. p. 12S„ 

M 6 











[Book I"V 


for any known cause capable of sweeping away even 
those portions of chalk and other rocks which, all are 
agreed, must once have formed the prolongation of 
the existing escarpments. It is common in such cases 
to call in one imaginary cause to support another; and 
as the upheaving force operated with sudden violence 
so a vast diluvial wave is introduced to carry away? 
with almost equal celerity, the mountain mass of strata 
assumed to have been stripped off. 

Some geologists have endeavoured to account f° r 
the structure of the districts described as " valleys °* 
elevation," by the aid of Von Buch's theory °* 
"elevation craters," in which case they can dispense 
both with time and denudation. It would be super- 
fluous to repeat what has been already said of the 
hypothetical agency here referred to * ; but it mrf 
be well to consider whether the upheaving of si»^ 
dome-shaped masses, such as those described by 
Dr. Buckland, implies the development at a con- 
siderable depth of volcanic forces acting with great 
violence on limited areas, or mere points of the earth's 


A theory suggested by Dr. Fitton appears to me 
more probable. Suppose a series of horizontal strata? 
composed in great part of sand and soft clay, to repo* e 
on a foundation of older and more solid rocks present- 
ing an uneven surface, varied by hills, valleys, and 
ridges, like many parts of the land and bed of the sea* 
If a force acting from beneath should then elevate the 
whole mass, the protuberances of the subjacent rock* 

be forced up against the more compressible 

The effect of the pressure 


strata which covered them. 


Vol, II. p. 152. 









Ch - XXII.] 



m %ht be the same as that which happens on a small 
s cale in a bound book, when a minute inequality or 
^ob in the paper of some page is propagated through 
a great number of others, imparting its shape to all, 
without piercing through them. * The observations 
°f Dolomieu on the manner in which the more yielding 
te Uiary strata of Calabria were displaced by the granite 
^ring the earthquake of 1783, lends some countenance 



In the last chapter I pointed out the phenomena 
*hich seem to indicate that the elevation and denud- 
ation of land in the south-east of England were 

S^dual. t The same ar g uments are in a S reat de g re e 
a Pplicable to the basins of Hampshire and the Isle of 


Wight ; but Mr. Conybeare has contended that the 

Ve rticality of the strata in the Isle of Wight and in 
^urbeck compels us to admit that the movement 
there was so violent, that the vertical strata, which 
have been traced through a district nearly sixty miles 
111 length, were brought into their present position by a 

Sl ngle convulsion. 

Xt may well be asked what ground is there for as- 
suring that a single effort of the subterranean force, 
r ather than reiterated movements, produced that sharp 
flexure of which the vertical strata of the Isle of Wight 
a *e supposed to form a part, the remainder of the arc 
having been carried away by denudation ? § 

It is not improbable that the Cutch earthquake 
^ 1819, before alluded to, may have produced an 
lr *eipient curve, running in a linear direction through 


* Dr. Fitton, Geol. Trans., Second Series, vol. iv. p. 244. 

+ See above, Vol. II. p. 215. 

| Page 231. 

§ See Webster, EnglcSeld's Isle of Wight, Plate XLII. fig. 1 



- ■» 





a tract at least sixty miles in length. * The strata 
were upraised in the Ullah Bund, and depressed 
below the level of the sea in the adjoining tract, 
where the fort of Sindree was submerged. (See ?M e 
V.) It would be impossible, if the next earthquake 
should raise the Bund still higher, and sink to a lower 
xlepth the adjoining tract, to discriminate, by any 
geological investigations, the different effects of the 
two earthquakes, unless a minute survey of the effect 
of the first shock had been made and put on record- 
In this manner we may suppose the strata to be ben* 
again and again, in the course of future ages, until 


parts of them become perpendicular. 

To some it may appear that there is a unity °* 
effect in the line of deranged strata in the Isles o* 
Wight and Purbeck, as also in the central axis of ^ e 
Weald, which is inconsistent with the supposition °* 
a great number of separate movements recurring afte r 
long intervals of time. But we know that earthquake* 5 
are repeated throughout a long series of ages, in the 

spots, like volcanic eruptions. The oldest lavas 
of Etna were poured out many thousands, perhap 5 
myriads of years, before the newest, and yet they 
have produced a symmetrical mountain ; and if rive^ 
of melted matter thus continue to flow in the satn e 
direction, and towards the same points, for an * n ' 
definite lapse of ages, what difficulty is there in con- 
ceiving that the subterranean volcanic force, occasioning 
the rise or fall of certain parts of the earth's crfl** 
may, by reiterated movements, produce the most p ef ' 

n ... _ -x. P l^ ^ 

If denudation of secondary rocks gradual, so also de- 
position of tertiary. — It follows, then, from the fects 

* See Vol. II. p. 194., and Vol. III. p. 253. 









Ch - XXII. 





e *atnined in this and the preceding chapter, that 
subsequently to the deposition of the chalk a large 
re gion composed of secondary strata has been denuded 
ail d that the lapse of many ages must have been 
Squired for the entire removal of the materials from 
*he denuded district. 

It is no less evident that the transported matter 
11:) u$t have been deposited by degrees somewhere else. 
^ r e there any tracts in the south-east of England, 
^here we find derivative strata composed of a mixture 
°f such mineral ingredients as would result from the 
^gradation of the secondary groups Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 
^ ? The tertiary strata of the London and Hamp- 
shire basins answer well to the conditions required by 
Su ch an origin, for they consist of alternations of va- 
ri ously coloured sands and clays, as do the secondary 
str ata from the group No. 5. to No. 2. inclusive. Some 

* e *tiary green-sand, which occurs in parts of the 
Plastic clay formation in the basins of London and 
slants, cannot be distinguished mineralogically from 
a large part of that which is found in the secondary 
* 0r mations below the chalk. 

If it be asked, where do we find the ruins of the 

^hite chalk among our Eocene strata? — the answer is, 

ars t, that the flint pebbles which are associated in such 

Irr miense abundance with the sands of the plastic clay, 

are derived evidently from the destruction of chalk, 

an d contain the same fossils : secondly, that as to the 

°it, white, calcareous matrix, we may suppose it to 

av e been easily reduced to fine sediment, and to have 

c °*Uributed, when in a state of perfect solution, to 

° rr n the shells of Eocene testacea ; or when mixed 

Wlt h the waste of the argillaceous groups, Nos. 2. and 4., 

^hich have been peculiarly exposed to denudation, it 








may have entered into the composition of the London 
clay, which contains no slight proportion of calcareous 
matter. In the crag of Norfolk, undoubtedly, we find 
great heaps of broken pieces of white chalk, with 
slightly worn and angular flints ; but, in this case, we 
may infer that the attrition was not continued for a 
long time ; whereas, the large accumulations of p er * 
fectly rolled shingle, which are interstratified with our 
Eocene formations, prove that they were acted upon 
for a protracted period by the waves. We have many 
opportunities of witnessing the entire demolition of th e 
chalk on our southern coast, as at Seaford, for example 
in Sussex, where large masses are, year after year, de- 
tached from the cliffs, and soon disappear, leaving no* 
thing behind but a great bank of flint shingle.* 

It may also be remarked that the white chalk in 
the north of England, as in Yorkshire, for example? lS 
much harder than the corresponding formation in the 
southern counties, where it is now so soft that we mtf 
imagine it to have been in the state of mud when 
submerged beneath the waters of the sea. An origin^ 1 
difference of this kind in the degree of induration m#y 
explain the fact, that in certain districts gravel com' 
posed of chalk-flint occurs without any pebbles of white 
chalk, while in other regions rounded boulders of white 
chalk are plentifully intermixed with pebbles of flint* 

The similarity, then, of the mineral ingredients o* 
the Eocene secondary strata affords alone some p re * 
sumption in favour of this newer group having been 
derived from the wreck of the older series. But it lS 
also natural to expect, that when the formations of th e 
Weald were emerging, there would be some contiguous 

* Vol. I. p. 424. 



Cl1 - XXII. 




P ar ts of the sea sufficiently deep to receive the drift 

Fig. 174. 

We may suppose, that while the waves and cur- 
'^ts were excavating the longitudinal valleys, D 
at) d C (Fig. 174.), " the deposits a were thrown down 
to the bottom of the contiguous deep water E, the 


* e diment being drifted through transverse fissures, 
be fore explained. 

In this case, the rise of the form- 

at ions Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. may have been going on 
c °Qtemporaneously with the excavation of the valleys 
C and D, and with the accumulation of the strata a, 
^ere must be innumerable points on our own coast 
^here the sea is of great depth near to islands and 
tiff's now exposed to rapid waste, and in all these the 
denuding and reproductive processes must be going on 
111 the immediate proximity of each other. 
Enalish Eocene 

n Wed secondary districts. — Those geologists who have 
{^therto regarded the rise and denudation of the lands 
111 the south-east of England as events altogether pos- 
terior in date to the deposition of the London clay, 
**U object to the foregoing reasoning, that not only 
Cer tain outlying patches of tertiary strata, but even 
tlle central parts of the London and Hampshire basins, 
a ttai n very considerable altitudes above the level of 
tlle sea. Thus the London clay at Highbeach, in 
^ Ss ex, reaches the height of 750 feet ; an elevation 
deeding that of large districts of the chalk and other 


1 i 







denuded secondary rocks. But these facts do not, 
think, militate against the theory above proposed 
since I have endeavoured to show that there must 
have been a Jong-continued series of elevatory move- 
ments in a region where both the degradation and 
reproduction of strata were in progress. 

In order to explain this view, I shall assume that, 
in the region A (Fig. 175.), the chalk and associate 



strata are raised and converted into land ; while in tn e 
adjoining district, B, a contiguous part of the sam e 
beds remains submerged beneath the sea. During 
the elevation in A, the mass c c is gradually remove* 1 
by denudation, and its ruins drifted to B, formic 
the tertiary deposit d. The force of water has th* 8 
exerted an antagonist power ; so that, in spite of ^ e 
upheaving movement, the general outline of the soH d 
surface, or the relative levels of its various parts, &* 
not greatly altered ; for the uppermost part of th e 
newer deposit d rises nearly as high as the remaining 
summits of the denuded country A. After all these 
changes and levelling operations, an elevation to the 
amount of eight hundred feet in both the regions A 
and B, would cause the secondary rocks of A to ac- 
quire much the same height above the level of *h e 
sea, as the tertiary beds would attain in B. 

The estimate of Mr. Martin is not, perhaps, ex- 
aggerated, when he computes the probable thick» eSS 





strata removed from the highest part of the Forest 
ge to be about 1900 feet : so that, if we restore to 
^ r owborough Hill, in Sussex, the beds of Weald clay, 
°^er green-sand, gault, and chalk, which have been 
Amoved by denudation, that 'hill, instead of rising 
to the height of eight hundred feet, would be more 
l W trebled in altitude, and be about 2700 feet high.* 

fc ^ould then tower far above the highest outliers 
°^ tertiary strata which are scattered over our chalk ; 

0r Inkpen Hill, in Berkshire, the greatest elevation 
of chalk in England, rises only 1011 feet above the 

lev el of the sea. 

Some geologists, who have thought it necessary to 
Su Ppose all the strata of the London and Hampshire 
^sins to have been once continuous, have estimated 
tl) e united thickness of the three marine Eocene groups 
Wore described, as amounting to 1300 feet, and have 
^en bold enough to imagine a mass of this height to 
^ av e been once superimposed upon the chalk which 
f ° r merly covered the axis of the Weald.f Hence they 
Wer e led to infer that Crowborough Hill was once 
^° u r thousand feet high, and was then cut down from 
° u r thousand to eight hundred feet by diluvial action. 
&ut by adopting the view above explained, that the 
°cene deposits originated while the chalk and other 
Se °ondary rocks were rising from the sea and wasting 
* Wa y, we shall find it unnecessary to suppose any re- 
moval of formations newer than the chalk, from th 



of the Isle of 

A line of ver 

lc ^l and inclined strata, running east and west, or 



Phil. Mag. and Annals, No. 26., New Series, p. 117 

f Martin, ibid. 

■i? wi ! 








beck, and through Dorsetshire, and has been observed 
by Dr. Fitton to reappear in France, north of Boulogne- 
The same strata which are elevated in the Weald 
valley are upheaved on this line also ; and in the Is^ 
of Wight, all the tertiary strata appear to have pa 1 " 
taken in the same movement.* 

From the horizontality of the freshwater series » n 
Alum Bay, as contrasted with the vertical position & 
the marine tertiary beds, Mr. Webster was at first led 
very naturally to conclude, that the marine had under- 
gone great derangement before the deposition of th e 
freshwater strata. It appears, however, from the sub' 


it observations of Professor Sedgwick f 
appearances are deceptive; and that at 


Wight, part of ^ e 
freshwater series is vertical, like the marine. Hefl ce 
it is now ascertained that, as the chalk is horizontal a* 



is vertical in the centre of that island, so the Eocene 
strata are horizontal in the north of the island, and 
vertical in the centre. 

An important corollary is deduced from the dis- 
covery above mentioned; namely, that the convulsion 
which brought the Isle of Wight group into their V xe ' 
sent position were, in a great part if not entirely, s ub ' 
sequent to the deposition of the freshwater beds, ° r 
upper members of the Eocene formation. They &$ 

* See Mr. Webster's section, Geol. Trans., vol. ii. ^ 
Series, Plate XI, 

f Anniv. Address to the Geol. Soc., Feb. 1831, p. 9. ? t0 ' 
fessor Sedgwick informs me that his observations, made in 1 8g7 
have recently been confirmed by Professor Henslow. 





c h. XXII. 





owever, have been contemporaneous with those move- 
ments which raised the central parts of the London 
ari( l Hampshire basins to their present height. Re- 
aring again to the diagram, Fig. 175. p. 258., we may 
lln agine the series of elevatory movements in the S. E. 
°f England to be divided into two parts : first, that 
w hich casused the elevation and denudation of the 
Antral axis of the Weald in A ; secondly, that which 
gifted the denuded surface E, together with the 
te *tiary formations d, to their actual height. Now, 
^s last set of movements may have occured before 
^e close of the Eocene period, and may have pro- 
ceed that curve in the stratified rocks of the Isle 
°f Wight, in which the freshwater beds there have 


At the same time great movements of elevation 

av e been experienced in the south of England, at 

^riods decidedly post-Eocene; as, for example, those 

y which the crag strata attained their present posi- 

lQl * in Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex. The formation 

als o called by Mr. Mantell the Elephant Bed, at the 

°°t of the chalk cliffs at Brighton, is not merely a 

J^us of calcareous rubble collected at the base of an 

lr *land cliff, but exhibits every appearance of having 

ee n spread out in successive horizontal layers by 

The deposit alluded to skirts the shores between 
r %hton and Rottingdean, and another mass appa- 
* etl tly of the same age occurs at Dover. The pheno- 
mena appear to me to suggest the following conclu 

r in motion. 

sions : 

First, the south-eastern part of England had 

Squired its actual configuration when the ancient 
cll alk cliff A a was formed, the beach of sand and 
^ngle b having then been thrown up at the base of 

:' ' 








the cliff. Afterwards the whole coast, or at least that 
part of it where the elephant bed now extends, s 


Fig. 176, 

A. Chalk with layers of flint dipping slightly to the south. 
h. Ancient beach, consisting of fine sand, from one to four 


thick, covered by shingle from five to eight feet thick 
pebbles of chalk-flint, granite, and other rocks, with br<* en 


shells, &c. 
t. Elephant bed, about fifty feet thick, consisting of layer* 
white chalk rubble, with broken chalk flints, in which feP° 
are found bones of ox, deer, horse, and mammoth.* 

sided to the depth of fifty or sixty feet, and duri|# 
the period of submergence successive layers of wh lte 
calcareous rubble c were accumulated, so as to co* ei 
the ancient beach b. Subsequently, the coast ^ 




* MantelPs Geol. of S. E. of England, p. 32. 

f See MantelFs Geol. of S. E. of England, p. 32. Aft j* 
re-examining the elephant bed in 1834, I was no longer in d<? u 
of its having been a regular subaqueous deposit. 






ocene alluviums. 

The discovery, before men- 
ded, of the genera Palaeotherium and Anoplotherium 
^instead, associated with fossil shells of well-known 
°cene species, is interesting, as showing that England, 
r father the space now occupied by part of our island, 
w ell as the country of the Paris basin, and Auvergne, 

° c ene period, by a class of land animals of a very 
P ec uliar type, 
^t we have never found a single fragment of the 
0tl es of any of these quadrupeds in our alluviums or 

ant al, and Velay, were all inhabited, during the 


<*ve bre 

ccias. In these formations we find the bones 

. ^e mastodon and mammoth, of the rhinoceros, 

^popotamus, lion, hyaena, bear, and other quadru- 

j^ s > all of extinct species. Where, then, are the 

err estrial alluviums of that surface which was inha- 

te d by the Paleothere and its congeners ? 

At is difficult to answer this question ; but it seems 

ear that a peculiar and rare combination of favour- 



e circumstances is required to preserve mammifer- 
or> indeed, any remains in terrestrial alluviums, in 


^cient quantity to afford the geologist the means of 

l gning the date of such deposits. For this reason 

are scarcely able, at present, to form any conjec- 

J- e a s to the relative ages of the numerous alluviums 

lc h cover the surface of Scotland ; a country which 

°bably became land long before the commencement 

Ln e tertiary epochs. 

Excavation of valleys. 

eii referred chiefly to the ocean. 

It will be seen that the 
•vation of the valleys in the S. E. of England has 

w ^hose geologists who contend that the valleys in 
§*and are not due to what they term " modern 
Se s," are in the habit of appealing to the fact, that 

: i ! 








the rivers in the interior of England are working 
sensible alterations, and could never in their presen 
state, not even in millions of years, have excavate 
the valleys through which they now flow. A &$ e 
theory seems to be involved even in the term " modern 
causes," as if it could be assumed that there wer 
ancient causes, differing from those which are no^ 
operation. But if we substitute the phrase " exists 
causes,"-* we shall find that the argument now contr 

verted amounts to little more than this, — " that in 
country free from subterranean movements, the act* 
of running water is so trifling, that it could ne 
hollow out, in any lapse of ages, a deep system 
valleys, and, therefore, no known combination of e* 1 
ing causes could ever have given rise to our prese 



valleys ! 



The advocates of these doctrines, in their anx 
to point out the supposed absurdity of attributing 
ordinary causes those inequalities of hill and & ? 
which now diversify the earth's surface, have too oft 
kept entirely out of view the many recorded examp 
of elevations and subsidences of land during ea r 
quakes ; the frequent Assuring of mountains and op 
ing of chasms ; the temporary damming up of rivers 
landslips, followed by their sudden and impet u ° 
escape ; the deflexion of streams from their orig lJ} 
courses ; and, more important, perhaps, than all tb e \ 
the denuding power of the ocean, during the rise 
continents from the deep* Few of the ordinary caUS , 
of change, whether igneous or aqueous, can be 
served to act with their full intensity in any one p la 
at the same time : hence it is easy to persuade *n 
who have not reflected long and profoundly ° n 

working of the numerous igneous and aqueous ag e 

Ch - XXII] 



*tt they are entirely inadequate to bring about any 

lrtl Portant fluctuations in the configuration of the 
e arth's surface. 

Recapitulation. — I shall now briefly recapitulate 
s °*ne of the principal conclusions to which I have 
^rived respecting the geology of the south-east of 
^ n gland, in reference to the nature and origin of the 

— the two 

Preceding chapters. 

1. In the first place, it appears that the tertiary 
str ata rest exclusively upon the chalk, and consist, 
Wl th some trifling exceptions, of alternations of clay 
at Ui sand. 

2. The organic remains agree with those of the 
*«ris basin ; but the mineral character of the English 
te *tiary deposits is extremely different, those rocks in 
Particular which are common to the Paris basin and 
^ntral France being wanting, or extremely rare in 



3. The English Eocene deposits are generally con- 
0r ttiable to the chalk, being horizontal where the beds 

°* chalk are horizontal, and vertical where they are 
Ver tical ; so that both series of rocks appear to have 
Participated in nearly the same movements. 

4. It is not possible to define the limits of the 
Jteient borders of the tertiary sea in the south-east of 
"7 n gland, in the same manner as can be frequently 

0r *e in those countries where the secondary rocks are 
^conformable to the tertiary. 

5 - Although the tertiary deposits are chiefly confined 

^ the tracts called the basins of London and Hamp- 

lre > insulated patches of them are, nevertheless, 

. Ul *d on some of the highest summits of the chalk 

Evening between these basins. 

v ol. iv. 


111 II; 







6. These outliers, however, do not necessarily pro^ 
that the great mass of tertiary strata was once conti- 



nuous between the basins of London and Hampshire 
and over other parts of the south-east of England W> w 
occupied by secondary rocks. 

7. On the contrary, it is probable that these secon 
ary districts were gradually elevated and denuded 
when the basins of London and Hampshire were s$* 
submarine, and while they were gradually becoflifo£ 
filled up with tertiary sand and clay. 

8. If, in illustration of this theory, we examine o$ e 
of the districts thus supposed to have been denuded 

decided proofe 
that an immense mass of chalk and other secondly 
formations has been removed by the force of water. 

9. We may infer, from the existence in the We^ 




of large valleys along the outcrop of the softer be& 
and of parallel chains of hills where harder rocks co& e 


up to the surface, that water was the removing cause 5 
and from the shape of the escarpments presented W 
the harder rocks, and the distribution of alluvium? we 
may also conclude that the denudation was success^ 

and gradual during the rise of the strata. 


10. The materials carried away from the denu 
districts were probably conveyed into the depths of^ e 
contiguous sea, through channels produced by & oS$ 
fractures which have since become river-channels, ^ 
which now intersect the chalk in a direction at rig* 1 * 
angles to the general axis of elevation of the country* 

11. The analogous structure of the valley of K^ s 
clere, and of other valleys which run east and ^ est) 
like the valley of the Weald, but are much narrower? 
accords with the hypothesis, that they were all p r °' 




Ch - XXII.] 



fluced by the denuding power of water co-operating 
Wl th elevatory movements. 

12. The mineral composition of the materials thus 
apposed to have been removed in immense abundance 
fr °m the valley of the Weald, are such as would, by 
^gradation, form the English Eocene strata. 

13. The movements which threw the chalk and the 
te niary strata of the Isles of Wight and Purbeck into 
a vertical position, were subsequent to the formation 
°f the Eocene freshwater strata of the Isle of Wight, 
but may possibly have occurred during the Eocene 

H. But some movements of land in the south of 
** n gland must have been posterior to the deposition of 
the crag ; and the ancient beach, together with the 

elephant bed" at Brighton, seem to imply a subsi- 
dence and elevation of comparatively modern date. 

15. The masses of secondary rock which have been 
e **ioved by denudation from the central axis of the 

^eald would, if restored, rise to more than double the 
!* ei ght now attained by any patches of tertiary strata 
in England. 

16. If, therefore, the Eocene strata do not appear to 
c cupy a much lower level than the secondary rocks 
r om the destruction of which they have been formed, 

x s, perhaps, because the highest summits of the 
ec ondary formations have been cut off during the rise 
the land, and thrown into those troughs where we 
n °^ find the tertiary deposits. 

n 2 

! \ 





Ancient and modern classification of fossiliferous strata 

The di* 

ations commonly called secondary and transition 

- Sketch of th e 

visions usually adopted not of equivalent value 

principal groups — Cretaceous group (p. 271.) — No sp 

e cies 

common to the secondary and tertiary rocks — Chasm betwe 
the Eocene and Maestricht beds — Duration of seconds ; 
periods — Wealden strata — Their relation to the marine group 
above and below — Portland " dirt bed" — Oolitic g r ° up 
(p. 287.) — Lias — New red sandstone — Zechstein — Carbo^ 
iferous group — Old red sandstone — Transition formations^ 
Rock called Greywacke\ 

It was stated in a former chapter that the first r ud 
attempt to classify rocks in chronological order ^ a 
that according to which they were arranged in f° u 
groups called primitive, transition, secondary, and t e 
tiary — the transition and secondary comprising all tfl 
stratified fossiliferous formations older than the terti&v' 
These ancient divisions, although not yet obsol^ ' 
have gradually become less and less fitted to repress 
the present state of our knowledge. It was n&? el 
supposed that each of the four sections were of equ lV 
lent importance, or, in other words, that they e&c 
comprised a series of monuments relating to ^ 
portions of the ancient history of the earth. It wa . [ 
however, imagined that they followed each other 


Ch - XXIII.] 




re gular chronological order, and that the primary were 
Wways older than the transition; that the transition 
w ere more ancient than the secondary, and the second- 
ly than the tertiary strata. That this opinion, though 
generally correct, is not strictly true in regard to the 
ei *tire series called "primary," whether stratified or 
^stratified, will appear in the sequel.* 

The fossiliferous strata have been variously grouped, 
a ccording to the comparative value which different 
geologists have attached to different characters ; some 
having been guided chiefly by the thickness, geogra- 
phical extent, and mineralogical composition of par-, 
ticular sets of strata ; others, by their organic remains. 
AH, however, seem now agreed that it is by a com- 
bination of these characters that we must endeavour 
to decide which sets of strata should be entitled to 
r &nk as principal or independent groups. The fol- 
lowing is an outline of the arrangement adopted in 
this work, which will be more fully explained by the 
Tables at the end of this and the 27th chapter : 


1. Tertiary, or supracretaceous f 

2. Cretaceous 



3. Wealden 

4. Oolite, upper, middle, and lower 

5. Lias - 

6. New red sandstone and muschelkalk 

7. Magnesian limestone and zechstein 

8. Carboniferous - 

9. Old red sandstone - - 

r Secondary 


Chap xxvii. 

t For tertiary, Mr. De la Beche has used the term " supracre- 
ta ceous," a name implying that the strata so called are superior 
ln Position to the chalk. 

N 3 








10. Ludlow rocks 

11. Wenlock limestone 
J 2. Caradoc sandstones 

13. Llandeilo flags 

14. Fossiliferous Greywacke 

1 Upper 


1 Lower 

J Silurian* 


The third group, however, of the above list, or the 
Wealden formation, although locally of great thickness 
in the south-east of England, is so partial a deposit 
that some geologists think it should be merged in the 
oolite, others in the cretaceous system; to both °f 
which propositions there are objections, as will after- 
wards appear. The fifth group, or lias, would by roan? 
be included in the oolites. The old red sandstone has 
usually been classed as the lower part of the carboni- 
ferous series ; but the fossils recently found in it are 
so distinct from those of the coal, and, on the other 
hand, from those of the underlying Ludlow rocks, that 
it seems fairly entitled, on these grounds as well as 
from its great thickness in parts of England and Scot- 
land, to stand as a separate section. 

Among other objections to the above classificatio n 
it may be said that the tertiary group, comprehending 
all the deposits from the Eocene strata to the NeW er 
Pliocene inclusive, is of greater importance than ma ? 
of the other divisons. It may also be suggested that 
the oolitic formation might admit of three subdivisions* 
each as much entitled to rank as an independent for&* 
ation as the lias. The following would, perhaps, be » 
nearer approximation to an arrangement in which the 
leading divisions would be of equivalent value, as esti- 
mated by the successive changes in organic life impli e(J 
by the imbedded fossil remains and by the geographic 1 
extent and thickness of the strata : 

* For explanation of the term " Silurian/' see p. 29$. 

Ch - XXIII.] 

*• Plioce 








11. New red sandstone and 






Magnesian limestone 

Maestricht and Chalk. 


Green sand. 


Carboniferous formatk 




Old red sandstone. 

Upper Oolite. 



Ludlow rocks. 

Middle Oolite. 


Wenlock limestone. 

Lower Oolite. 


Caradoc sandstone. \ 



Llandeilo flags. 


19. Fossiliferous Grevwacke*. 

It is not my intention to enter at present upon a 
^tailed description of the fossiliferous formations older 
^an the tertiary, the elucidation of which might well 
^cupy another volume. The observations about to be 
°Sered have chiefly for their object to show how far the 
r ules of interpretation adopted for the tertiary form- 
at ions are applicable to the phenomena of the older 

* * 

^dimentary rocks. - 

PRINCIPAL GROUPS. {Descending Series.) 


Strata from the Chalk ofMc 

tricht to the Lower Green-sand inclusive. — F, Table I. 

p. 302. 


The principal subdivisions of this group, as it occurs 
^England and in several countries of the North of 
Europe, will be found on consulting Table I. Group F. 
*hey are six in number, namely; — 1. the Maestricht 
beds, — 2. the chalk with flints, — 3. the chalk without 


4. the upper green-sand, — 5. the gault, 

P* the lower green-sand. The newest of these deposits 

is well 

Mount, M 


of " England and France. It is a soft yellowish stone, 
**ot very unlike chalk, and " includes siliceous masses, 

n 4 



[Book IV 

which are much more rare than those of the chalk, of 
greater bulk, and not composed of black flint, but of 
chert and calcedony."* 

It is characterized by a peculiar assemblage °f 
organic remains, perfectly distinct from those of the 
tertiary period. M. Deshayes, after a careful compa- 
rison, and after making drawings of more than two 
hundred species of the Maestricht shells, has been 
unable to identify any one of them with the numerous 
tertiary fossils in his collection. On the other hand 
there are several shells which are decidedly common 
to the calcareous beds of Maestricht and the white 
chalk ; as, for example, the twelve following species, o* 
which the names have been communicated to me by 
M. Deshayes : — Catillus Cuvieri (Fig. 177.) (sp e * 

Fig. 177 


Catillus Cuvieri. Syn. Inoceramus Cuvieri, Sow. Chalk withfl int$ ' 



P. Hoperi (Fig. 179.), Pecten fragilissimus, Ostrea ve* 

), O. carinata (Fig. 182.) 

Fig. 178 

Fig. 179. 


Crania Par isiensis, 

inferior or attached 



spinosum. $ 

Fitton, Proceedings of Geol. Soc. 1830. 

Ch « XXIII. 




Pa Hsiensis (Fig. 178.), Terebratula octoplicata (Fig 

Pio-. 1QI !?• ,r,~ 

g- 181. 

Fig. 182 


Ostrea carinata, 
characteristic of Upper Green-sand. 

°3.), T. carnea (Fig. 185.), T.pumilus (Magas, Sow.) 

Fl *g 185 

Fig. 184. Fig. 185. 



ar - of T. pUcatili*-) 

Terebratula pumilus. 
{Magas pumilus, Sow.) 






^ely into the white chalk of the French geologists, 

^ mto their " chloride, or green-sand," which corre- 

P°nds with the upper green-sand of the English geolo- 

s st s. The following five species of shells have been 

c °gnized by M. Deshayes as common to the Maes- 

l cht beds and the upper green-sand of France : — 

a giostoma spinosum (Fig. 180.), Ostrea vesicularis 

Fig. 1 86 

Ostrea vesicularis {Gryphcca globosa, Sow.) 

N 5 



[Book & 


Fig. 187, 


Fig. 188 

a. Belemnites mucronatzis. 
o. Same, internal structure 

Fig. 1 89, 

Baculites Faujasii. 

Baculites anceps\ Chalk. 

(Fig. 186.), O. carinata (Fig. 182.), Belemnites mucr^ 
natus (Fig. 1S7»)> and Baculites Faujasii (Fig. 188-/; 
Count Munster has shown me, among the f° sSl 
which he himself collected at Maestricht, three spe# e 

of ammonite, among which is A. Rhotomag 


Fig. 190 


(Defrance) ; also a specie 3 
Hamite, and Hippurites D 6 ^ 
moulinsi (Golf). The s 


Ammonites Rhotomagensis, all of 

eminent naturalist has d& c 
vered no less than forty s ? . 
cies of microscopic for* 35 
nifera in the same forma* 1 

species distinct * r , 

new genera 

any known either as recent or tertiary, and many 

There is also an ammonite, obta in # 
from the Maestricht limestone by Dr. Fitton, no^ 
the museum of the Geological Society of LoB au t , 
The occurrence of these ammonites and specif 
kindred genera, such as the Baculite and Hamite 
also the Belemnite, is important, as showing that 
subdivision (No. 1.) now under consideration sn° 
be classed as the newest member of the second 

, rather than as a link between it and the 
tiary. No shell hitherto found, even in the oldes 


Ch ' XXIII. 





°eene tertiary formations, minutely as these have 

ee n investigated, could be mistaken, either for the 
at ^tnonite or belemnite, the nearest approach to the 
ar **monite being the nautilus, and the tertiary fossil 

hich comes nearest to the belemnite being the 
Ke loptera of the London and Paris basins (Fig, 191.). 

%. 191. 


We can scarcely expect, therefore, 
to discover in existing tropical seas 
any living representatives of those m 
curious cephalopoda, ammonites and 
belemnites, which evidently swarmed 
in the ocean when the cretaceous 
and many preceding groups of strata 

^Wera beiemnitoidea, were formed. They even seem to 

°^» and Parts basins, have become entirely extinct, at 


e ^st in European latitudes, before the commencement 

°^ the Eocene period. 

The rock commonly known as chalk preserves its 
^culiar mineral character throughout a considerable 
ai " e a in Europe, but it is rarely of such thickness as in 
^y parts of the south-east of England, where hori- 
? °itally stratified masses about one thousand feet 
l ^ck 3 are composed of it. Its upper member in this 
c °Untry is usually called the " Chalk with flints ; " but 
a We this mass there is in some places another de- 
Nit of white chalk without flints, which was found, by 

ting at Diss, in Norfolk, to attain a thickness of 

lQ feet. 

* The chalk stretches over a large part of 


° Ur island, and recurs in the north of Ireland, is found 

!? Denmark and the south of Sweden, and even in 

°W and part of Russia. In France it surrounds 

^ underlies the strata of the Paris basin before de- 

* Proceedings of Geol. Soc, vol. ii. p. 93 

N 6 








[Book &• 

(see Map, Fig. 156. p. 209.) 

stretches northward into Belgium and the north of 
Germany, and southward to the basin of the Gironde- 
I have seen it, still retaining nearly all the same cha- 
racters, between Bordeaux and Dax ; but it change* 
its aspect greatly on the flanks of the Pyrenees, where 
its identity can only be established by the similarity 
of its fossil remains. Even the white chalk, however? 
varies considerably in its texture, in proportion as * e 
depart from the great central deposit of Europe. & 1 
some parts, for example, of the south of France, lt 
becomes oolitic. Here also it contains, together wit* 1 
shells which abound in the north, many other specie^ 
peculiar to more southern districts, especially of & e 
genera spherulite, hippurite, and nummulite.* 

Fig. 192. 



a, Hippurites bioculata, Lamk. 



The other divisions of the cretaceous group, Nos-^ 
5, and 6., consist of sands and clays, which have d s ° 
a wide geographical range. The position of the g^ ult 
**d lower green-sand, relatively to the formations ot 

the white and flinty chalk before alluded to, has bee* 1 
elucidated in diagram Fig. 157. p. 224. The fo$$ S 

Fig. 193. 

Fig. 194. 



a. Terebratula lyra. 7 TT Pecten 5 c ?\ n n& 

b. Same, seen in profile, j U PP er green-sand. v er a nd 10 , 

green-s^ 1 

Dufrenoy, Bulletin de la Soc. Geol. de France, torn. i. P- * 

Ch - xxm. 





Fig. 195. 


Q> Turrilites costatus, Gault. 

6. Same, shewing the indurated border of the partition of the chambers. 

°f the inferior arenaceous and argillaceous groups are 
u Pon the whole very different from those of the chalk 
Wore described, but there are many species common 
to these two great divisions. 

The testacea obtained from the entire cretaceous 
Astern amount to about one thousand ; and if, for the 
Sa ke of classification, we refer every set of strata in 
Europe which are characterized by these organic re- 
gains to one period, we immediately comprehend in 
11 rocks of every variety of mineral composition, yet 
^hich always occupy a determinate place in the order 
°* superposition intervening between the tertiary strata 
ari d those of the Oolitic period. 

In the cretaceous group, thus distinguished, we 
^hold in the Pyrenees and in Spain compact and 
Cr ystalline marbles, masses of gypsum and salt, pud- 
^ n gstones, red sandstone, thin shales and grits, con- 
fining impressions of marine plants, and other rocks, 
to which there is nothing analogous in formations of 
^e same age in northern Europe. 




° c curs, composed of compact and lithographic lime- 
stones of great thickness ; also of granular limestones, 
Wlt h jasper ; and in some districts, as in Messenia, a 
Puddingstone with a siliceous cement more than 1600 
fe et in thickness.* 

* Bull, de la Soc. G£ol. de France, torn. iii. p. 149. 






It is evident, observe these geologists, from the great 
range of the hippurite and nummulite limestone, a rock 
belonging to the same era, that the South of Europe was 
occupied at the period of the cretaceous depositions 
by an immense sea, which extended from the Atlantic 
Ocean into Asia, and comprehended the South °* 
France, together with Spain, Sicily, part of Italy, and 
the Austrian Alps, Dalmatia, Albania, a portion ot 

the Troad. 


The plants found in the chalk of England and France 
are chiefly marine. Some wood has been occasionally 
met with, both in the chalky rock and its flints, having 
the appearance of being drifted, and commonly marked 
with the perforations of boring shells, such as the 
Teredo and Fistulana.* In Sweden, M. Nilsson has 


found beds of lignite associated with our common 
chalk fossils f; so that we may conclude that forests 
grew on the lands of this period, wherever these may 
have been placed ; but as yet their site is mere matter 
of conjecture. 

The testacea, zoophytes, Crustacea, and fishes, are 
marine, and no bones of mammiferous quadruped 5 
or birds have yet been discovered ; but in the Maes* 
tricht beds large turtles have been found, and a 
gigantic reptile, the Mosasaurus, or fossil Monitor, of 
Maestricht, some of the vertebrae of which app ear 
also in the English chalk. :£ The osteological charac- 
ters of this oviparous quadruped prove it to have been 
intermediate between the living Monitors and Iguanas ; 
and, from the size of the head, vertebrae, and othe r 

* Mantell, 6eol. of S. E. of England, p. 96. 

t Petrificata Suecana, 1827. 

f See MantelPs Geol. of S. E. of England. 





hones, it is supposed to have been twenty-four feet in 

In reviewing the facts above enumerated, I may first 

C &U attention to the important circumstance that no 
species of fossil shell has yet been found common to 
the secondary and tertiary formations ; a fact stated on 




Posed by some geologists to be intermediate between 
the secondary and tertiary formations. On the other 
hand some of the most characteristic species of 
Cfosau occur in the green-sand beneath the chalk, at 


Mons, in Belgium, and at some 


Neighbouring places which I have visited. Count 
funster also informs me, that the zoophytes which 
he possesses from the Gosau beds differ specifically 
fr om any which he knows as tertiary. I mention this 
h* the hope that the identifications which have been 
^ade of Gosau and tertiary species may be re-examined 
w «h scrupulous care, for, if confirmed, they would be of 
the greatest theoretical interest. 

This marked discordance in the organic remains of 
the two series is not confined to the testacea, but 
e *tends, so far as a careful comparison has yet been 
instituted, to all the other departments of the animal 
kingdom, and to the fossil plants. Dr. Agassiz, whose 
§ r eat work on fossil fish is now in progress of publi- 
cation, has discovered no species of fish common to 
the secondary and tertiary rocks. 

There appears, then, to be a greater chasm between 
the organic remains of the Eocene and Maestricht 
^ e ds, than between the Eocene and Recent strata; 

* there are some living shells in the Eocene form- 
ations, while there are no Eocene fossils in the newest 



1 : 






secondary group. It is not improbable that a longe r 
interval of time may be indicated by this greater 
dissimilarity in fossil remains. In the 3d and 4th 
chapters I endeavoured to point out that we have no 
right to expect, even when we have investigated a 
greater extent of the earth's surface, that we shall be 
able to bring to light an unbroken chronological series 
of monuments from the remotest eras to the present ; 
but, as we have already discovered a long succession 
of deposits of different ages, between the tertiary 
groups first known and the recent formations, so we 
may, perhaps, hereafter detect an equal, or even 
greater, series intermediate between the Maestricht 
and Eocene strata. 

The different subdivisions of the cretaceous group 
(No. 1.), extending from the chalk of Maestricht to 
the lower green-sand inclusive, may, perhaps, relate 
to a lapse of ages as immense as the united tertiary 
periods, of which the eventful history has been 
sketched in this work. Such a conjecture, at least? 
seems warranted, if we can form any estimate of the 
quantity of time, by comparing the amount of vicis* 

situde in animal life which has occurred during lts 

2. The Wealden, or the Strata from the Weald Clay & 
the Purbeck Limestone inclusive.— G, Table I. p. $$" 

It will be seen by the Table I. p. 302., that in the 
South of England this group may be divided into three 



the Purbeck beds, which are all characterized by the 
remains of freshwater animals ; whereas the cretaceous 
strata which are superimposed unon the Wealden, >° 

Ch ' XXIH. 






e south-east of England, contain fossils of marine 

The position of these beds has been indicated in 

a gram Fig. 157. page 224., and the map (Plate XV.) 
w, tt show the superficial area occupied by them in 
^ en t, Sussex, Surrey, and Hampshire. It must not 
e supposed, however, that they terminate at the 
Points where they happen to be covered by the creta- 
Ce °us system. The same group has been ascertained 

extend from west to east (from Lulv 



n gHsh miles; and from north-west to south-east 
(from Whitchurch to Beauvais), 220 miles ; the depth 
0r total thickness of the beds, where greatest, being 
a bout 2000 feet.f The general appearance of the 
c ' a ys and sands, and of the subordinate beds of lime- 
st °ne, grit, and shale, and of the imbedded shells, 
* ec alls so precisely that of many tertiary formations of 

re shwater origin, that it is only after having deter- 
^ ln -ed the species of organic remains that we recognize 
a discordance in character as great as might have been 
atl ticipated when strata above and below the chalk 

er e compared. 

The vegetable remains belong, some of them, to 

Wtoits which appear to have held an intermediate place 

stween the Equiseta and Palms, as the Clathraria 



descent ferns, the species being very peculiar, and 
!* ot known in any other deposit, whether of higher or 

l *tfe 


ior antiquity. J 

The term Wealden was suggested by Mr. Martin, and will 
*°Und of great convenience, 
t Pitton's Geol. of Hastings, p. 58. 
t Mantell, Geol. of S. E. of England, chap. xi. 


' -I ■ 





The shells of the Wealden are almost exclusively 
fluviatile ; and, as is usual in assemblages of freshwater 
testacea, a few species only are found, while the if 
dividuals are very numerous, sometimes forming the 
principal component of entire beds of limestone. Shell* 
of the Cypris, also, a freshwater animal, befo re 
mentioned as occurring in the lacustrine deposits oi 
Auvergne, are profusely distributed throughout W e 
Wealden. Of this genus several species have bee» 

discovered, named and figured by Dr. Fitton. 




Fig. 196. 

Fig. 197. 

Fig. 1 98. 



Cypris Valdensis, Fitton. 
(C.faba, Min. Con. 485.) 

Cypris tuber^ atff 



Some fish, also, of forms resembling known fluvia^ 
genera, have been met with; but the remains ° t 
reptiles present the most remarkable feature in ^ ]lS 
group. Some of these belong to turtles, such as ^ 
Trionyx, a genus now occurring in freshwater in tr °" 
pical regions: others are referable to the genus V&P 9 
Of Saurian lizards there are at least five genera; & e 
Crocodile, Plesiosaur, Megalosaur, Iguanodon, an 
Hylaeosaur. The Iguanodon, of which the rem^ 
were first discovered by Mr. Mantell,was an herbi* ' 
rous reptile, and was regarded by Cuvier as more & 
traordinary than any with which he was acquaint^' 
for the teeth, though bearing a great analogy to tlie 

See Trans, of Geol. Soc, vol. iv., Second Series, now io 




Ch - XXIH. 




i* ••» — — 


Modern Iguanas which now frequent the tropical 



^ing and important differences. It appears that 
e y have been worn by mastication ; whereas the 
listing herbivorous reptiles clip and gnaw off the 
Setable productions on which they feed, but do not 
e w them. Their teeth, when worn, present an ap- 
^arance of having been chipped off, and never, like 
* e fossil teeth of the Iguanodon, have a flat ground 
SUf face, resembling the grinders of herbivorous mam* 
^li a> * p rom the large bones, found in great num- 
r s near these teeth, and fairly presumed to belong 

!° the same animal, it is computed that the entire 
etl gth of this reptile could not have been less than 
Sev entyfeet. 




in no part has any fragment of the skeleton of a 
^tniferous quadruped been obtained. With this 
e * c eption, to which I shall presently revert, the strata 
I the Wealden present such characters as we might 
°°k for in the deposits of the deltas now forming at 
e mouths of large rivers in tropical climates. 
. The Wealden, as was before explained, is covered 

^ the marine cretaceous system, and reposes upon 
a *oth 

e P°sit ; namely, the uppermost member of the Oolite, 

°* group H, Table I. p. 303. 

i This intercalation of a great freshwater formation 

^tw een tWQ ot h ers f marine origin is a remarkable 

er, which is, in like manner, a purely marine 

ct > and attests, in a striking manner, the great extent 
former revolutions in the position of sea and land. 
n those sections where the junction of the freshwater 
cretaceous system is seen, the beds of the lower 



Mantell, Geol. of S. E. of England, p. 277 


■ I ■ 





green-sand have been observed to repose conformably 


There is »° 

IT , j~^v/**v i t vuxu way. «j.x*w*~ 

indication of disturbance : " To all appearance tb* 
change from the deposition of the freshwater remai^ 
to that of the marine shells may have been effect 
simply by a tranquil submersion of the land to a grea^ 

of tb* 

depth beneath the surface of the waters." * 

At the point of contact of the inft 
Wealden or « Purbeck beds," with the more ancte n * 
marine system, a very curious phenomenon is observe" • 
the freshwater calcareous strata repose, both in P° ft ' 
land and Purbeck, upon the oolitic limestone, call e 
the Portland stone, which abounds with Amnionic 8 ' 
Trigoniae, and other marine shells. Between the tflr0 
formations there intervenes " a layer, about a foot 
thickness, of what appears to have been an and e 
vegetable soil ; it is of a dark brown colour, contain 
large proportion of earthy lignite, and, like the xao^ 
soil on the surface of the island, many water-^° rJl 


stones. This layer is called the < dirt-bed ' by 
quarrymen ; and in, and upon it, are a great nui»b e ' 



of silicified trunks of coniferous trees, and plants a 
to the recent cycas and zamia. Many of the sten^ 
the trees, as well as the plants, are still erect, as 




petrified while growing undisturbed in their »a 
forest ; the trees having their roots in the soil, ^ 
their trunks extending into the superincumbent fitr** 




Traces of this vegetable earth, occupying the s 

* Dr. Fitton, Geol. of Hastings, p. 28. 

f Mantell, Geol. of S. E. of England, p. 336. — See 
papers by Mr. Webster, Dr. Buckland, and Mr. De la $ e ' ' 
Geol. Trans., Second Series, vol. ii. Mr. Webster was, I » elieV ' 
the first to notice the erect position of the stems. 







e '&tive situation, have been observed by Dr. Fitton in 
^ e cliffs of the Boulonnois, on the opposite coast of 
* r ance. * Dr. Buckland and " ^ ' " ' a 



So ascertained that many of the stumps of trees re- 
gain erect, with their roots attached to the black soil 
? n ^hich they grew, their upper part being imbedded 
111 the limestone ; from which they infer, " that the 


% l ***e dry land, and covered by a forest, and probably 

* a climate such as to admit the growth of the modern 
Za *maandCycas."f 

It seems a legitimate deduction from the data above 
^Plained, that the marine formations of an antece- 

ace of the subjacent Portland stone was for some 



oolite) had become land 


0l tth of England, and the opposite coast of France ; 

^ that this land then sank down, with its forests, and 

, ec &me submerged beneath the waters of a great river, 

. st as the region around Sindree, in Cutch, subsided 

11 1819 ? and was permanently laid under water, being 

^ 0ri e time occupied by the fresh water of the Indus. J 

^country may then have continued to subside, until 

Sickness of one or two thousand feet of fluviatile 

e ^iment had been gradually accumulated; and this 

e Posit, or delta, by a continuation of the same de- 

J* e ssing operations, may, in its turn, have become 


Ur *ed deep beneath the sea in which the chalk was 

r med. 


^ shall not enter farther into these speculations at 



Connected by its fossil remains with the overlying or 

Geol. of Hastings. 

Geol. Proceedings, vol. i. p. 9. 
t Proceedings of Geol. Soc, April, 1830. 
* See Vol. II. p. 196., and Vol. III. p. 254., and Plate V. 



" -'. 



subjacent formations. First, we may ask whether the* 
are any species of fossil animals or plants common 
the freshwater group and to the oolitic system. I a 
aware of one example only, the Megalosaurus Bitf 
landi; for the teeth and bones of this great saur* 

occur in the btonesheld oolite and the Hastings s*** 
the remains in both cases having been referred J 
Cuvier to the same species. There are also s 0lP 
generic forms both of reptiles and fish common to 
Oolite and Wealden, and not yet discovered in the cha 
Vertebrae, for example, of the Plesiosaurus are ** 

in the Wealden ; and the Lepidotus, a genus 

confined to the oolite and lias, but have been also fi> u 

very characteristic of the Wealden, is unknown in * , 
cretaceous group, while it is abundant in the oo» 

On the other hand, the same Iguanodon M a 

... . rt .* . .1 TIT J\Ap&1 



telli, which is so conspicuous a fossil in the Wea 
has recently been discovered near Maidstone 
overlying Kentish rag, a marine limestone of 





lower green-sand. From this fact we may infer 
some of the saurians which inhabited the country 

A W& 

that great river, which by its sediment produced 
Wealden strata, continued to live when part of 
country had become submerged beneath the sea. * 
in our own times, we may suppose the bones of * a * 
alligators to be frequently entombed in recent fr e r 

water strata in the delta of the Ganges. But if p 
that delta should sink down so as to be covered by 
sea, marine formations might begin to accumulate in 
same space where freshwater beds had previously & 
formed ; and yet the Ganges might still pour do^n 
turbid waters in the same direction, and carry * 
carcasses of the same species of alligator to the sea? 






hl ch case their bones might be included in marine 
^ell as in subjacent freshwater strata. 
Near Beauvais, in France, there is a small valley of 
v ation and denudation, closely resembling in struc- 
Ure that of the Weald, and called the country of Bray, 
w here the green-sand crops out from beneath the chalk, 
^d where strata, for the most part like those of the 
^ e alden, appear beneath the green-sand. One mem- 
f r of the series, a fine whitish sand, contains impres- 
ts of ferns, considered by M. Adolphe Brongniart 
^ s identical with Lonchopteris Mantelli, a plant found 
re quently in the Weal den. I examined part of the 
^'ey of Bray in company with M. Graves, in 1833, 
^ I observed that the sand last mentioned, with its 

Stable remains, was intercalated between two sets 

f Marine strata, containing trigonise, and referred, by 

r erich geologists, to the lower green-sand. In the 
ar **e country of Bray, and associated with the same 
Nation, is a limestone resembling the Purbeck mar- 
.. e > and containing a Paludina which seems specifically 
ic,e ntical with that of Purbeck. 
*here are some few species, therefore, of the Weal- 
etl common on the one hand to the overlying Creta- 
ns group, and on the other to the subjacent oolite ; 
^ the connection hitherto established is so slight 
at the era of the freshwater deposit may have been 
Parated by a wide interval of time from the periods 
^ the animals either of the oolitic or cretaceous 
^iods predominated. 







3. Oolite, or Jura Limestone Formation. — H, Table if 

p. 303. 

The different subdivisions which have been made W' 




the classification of the rocks of this group in Eng 
are enumerated in Table I. p. 303. It consists 
limestone, clay, marl, and sand ; which, considered l 
the aggregate, retain the same lithological characte 

Germany. It is not to be expected that we sho u 
be able to follow the different members of the Eng' 1 

throughout a considerable part of England, France, ^ 


or* 6 

series throughout Europe, as they vary greatly? 
in mineral and organic characters, in their cO 
throughout different parts of our own island ; but? . 
the fossils of the higher, middle, and lower parts 
the series are not the same, it may be possible? * 

their aid, to establish subordinate groups of % 

Among the fossils known to have a wide rang 6 


Europe, and peculiar to the upper division, 

I tftf 

mention Gryphcea virgula, as occurring in France, ne 

Fig. 199. 

Fig. 200. 

virgula. A 

Oxford, and elsetfh^ 
(Fig. 199.), and 0*" 
deltoidea (Fig. 20°^ 
common in part ot 

Ostrea deltoidea. 

upper Oohte or * 
/ meridge clay, thro«g» 
out England and , 
north of France, a 

found also in Scotland, at Brora. 

The coral rag of England, and analogous zoophy tl f 
limestones of the oolitic period in different parts 
Europe, bear a resemblance to the coralline formati° p 
now in progress in the seas of warmer latitudes. 

°h. XXIII.] 

p ig. 201. 



A member of the oolite of the Jura, 
corresponding to part of the English 
coral rag (H. 3. Table L p. 303.), has 
been called « Nerinsean limestone " 


) by M 

~ w — **j 

much resembling the Cerithium in ex- 

ternal form. 


201.) of one from the coral rag shows 
the curious form of the hollow part of 
each whorl, and also the perforation 

Section of Nerincea , „ „ 

hieroglyphics which passes up the middle of the co- 

Coral raer. . 


Fig. 202. 


Cast of Dicer as arietina. 
Coral rag. 

A division of the oolite in the 
Alps, referred by most geologists 
to the coral rag, has been often 
named " Diceras limestone," or 
Calcaire a Dicerates," from its 
containing abundantly a bivalve 
shell (Fig. 202.) of a genus allied to 
the Chama. 

In the lithographic limestone of Solenhofen, belong- 
In g to one of the upper members of the series, a great 
Va riety of organic remains is found. Among these I 
have seen in the museum of Count Munster no less 
tn an seven species of flying lizards, or Pterodactyls, six 
Brians, three tortoises, sixty species offish, forty-six 
of Crustacea, and twenty-six of insects. The number 
ot testacea is comparatively small, as also of plants, 
hich are all marine. Count 

^7 species of animal and vegetable remains from the 
^°lenhofen slate when I saw his collection in 1833. 



e extreme fineness of the sediment has, in this 

Stance, allowed impressions of some of the most 

V OL. IV. 

1 u ; ! 









delicate and soft parts of various animals to be \>* e ' 
served ; as of the belemnite and several insects. 

In the Stonesfield slate (see Table), the remains of 
reptiles have been found associated with marine shells? 
and with them the jaws of at least two species of smal 1 
mammiferous quadrupeds of a genus allied to the 
Didelphys, or Opossum. * It is very remarkable, that 
these fossils afford the only exception yet known to 
the apparent absence of all terrestrial mammalia fro** 1 
the islands and continents which existed anteriorly t0 

the Eocene period. 

Among the characteristic shells of the oolite I may 

instance Terebratula spinosa (Fig. 203.), Pholadom^ 

fidicula (Fig. 204.), and Belemnites hastatus, (Fig.205-> 

Fig. 203. 


Fig. 204. 

Terebratula spinosa. 
Inferior Oolite. 

a. Pholadomy a fidicula. Inferior Oolite. 

b. Heart-shaped anterior termination of the sctflM' 


Fig. 205. 

Belemnites hastalus 

4. Lias. I., Table I., p. 304. 

The English provincial name of Lias has been vet; 
generally adopted for a formation of argillaceous \i& e 
stone, marl, and clay, usually found in conformao 
stratification to the rocks of the oolite group before d e * 
scribed. Some geologists regard the lias as the \o^ eS 
member of the oolite group, several species of orgafl 

* For figures of these, see above, Vol. I. pp. 237, 238. 





remains being common to it apd to the inferior oolite. 
If we draw a line between these formations, the sepa- 
ration will be somewhat arbitrary, but may be, never- 
theless, convenient ; as both the oolite group and the 
Has will still cgmprehend a great thickness of strata, 
characterized, when viewed on the great scale by 
a ssemblages of distinct fossils. The lias retains a uni- 
form mineralogical character throughout a great part of 
England, France, and Germany; and this circumstance 
^ay facilitate the attempt to ascertain the contempo- 
raneous existence of a sufficiently numerous set of fos- 
Sl l plants and animals to enable us to determine the 
e quivalent groups of distant countries. 

A principal member of this formation has been 
sometimes called on the Continent " Calcaire a gry- 
Pfytes," or " Gryphyte limestone/' from the great 
abundance of a species of shell of a genus allied to 

Fig. 206. 

Fig. 207. 

&r$pheea incurva, Sow. 
&yn. G. arcuata, Lam* 

the oyster 

Nautilus truncatus. Lias. 

(See Fig. 206.) 

The remains of reptiles, those of saurians in par- 
ocular, are very common in the liassic rocks in several 
Parts of England, especially of the genera Ichthyo- 
Sa urus, Plesiosaurus, and Crocodile. 

The fish are, for the most part, of the same genera 

as in the oolite. (See Figs. 208, 209.). 




o 2 








Hybodus reticulatus. Lias, Lyme Regis. 

a. Part of the fin, commonly called Ichthyodorulite. 

b. Tooth of the same. 

Fig. 209. 



Acrodus nobilis, tooth ; commonly called fossil Leach. 

Lias, Lyme Regis, and Germany. 



Muschelkalk of the Germans) 



The deposits which are referable to the interval 
which separated the lias from the great coal formation 
may be divided into two principal groups : first, the 
New Red Sandstone ; secondly, the Magnesian Lime- 
stone. The New Red Sandstone of England, accom- 
panied by beds of gypsum and rock salt, is almost 
entirely destitute of organic remains ; but the Muscn* 
elkalk of Germany, which is referable to the same 
period, and has no precise equivalent among the Engh s 
strata, contains many fossils of species distinct fro** 1 



Fig. 210. 

a. Avicula socialis. b. Side view of same. 

Characteristic of the Muschelkalk. 

those of the lias, or subjacent magnesian limestone. 


Ch. XXIII.] 

MaGNESIAN limestone 




posed in Bavaria and Wurtemburg, between two others; 
the overlying " Keuper," or variegated marls, with 
which it alternates at the junction, and the red mottled 
sandstone (" bunter sandstein") on which it rests. 
The plants found by Count Munster in this last, and 
in the " Keuper," are so similar, as to induce that geo- 
logist to regard all the three groups thus connected 
as belonging to one period ; and in confirmation of the 
same opinion, M. Agassiz finds the same species offish 
to be common to the three groups. 

6. Magnesian Limestone (Zeckstein of the Germans). 

L., Tab. I., p. 305. 

This formation consists in England for the most 
part of a yellowish limestone, in which a small number 
only of organic remains are preserved, but these are 
deferable to peculiar and characteristic species. 

So also in the zechstein of the Germans, a limestone 
of this period, and in its accompanying copper slate, 
the same or very similar fossils occur. At 
^ Upper Saxony, for example, fish are found of the 
extinct genus Palaeothryssum, only known in strata of 
this group. Dr. Agassiz informs me that he has not 
as yet been able to identify any species from Mansfeld 
with any one of those found in England, but the genus 
. appears characteristic of the era under consideration. 

^ Carboniferous Group > comprising the Coal-measures, 
and ike Mountain Limestone. M., Tab. I., p. 305. 

The rocks of this group consist of limestone, shale, 
sandstone, and conglomerate ; interstratified with which 
a re large beds of coal, a substance now universally 
admitted to be of vegetable origin. Several hundred 

o 3 







' \ 




[Book 1^ 


species of plants have been found in the shales and 
sandstones associated with the coal, and all are, witfe 
few exceptions, of species differing widely from those 
which mark the vegetation of other eras. Some re- 
marks have been offered in the first book *, respecting 
the known geographical extent of the coal formation 
and the tropical character of its flora, and of the shell* 
and corals of the carboniferous or mountain lime* 
stone.f I there adduced arguments for inferring that 
the lands in northern latitudes consisted, for the most 
part, at that remote era, of small islands ; and men- 
tioned the absence of large saurian remains, the insula 
character of the flora, and the deposition of the strata? 
as favouring that opinion. 

But although the higher latitudes of the northern 
hemisphere probably formed at that time a great archi* 
pelago, they must have contained some islands of sufr 
cient magnitude to allow of the existence of rivers? 
and estuaries, where freshwater strata were accumu- 
lated. A freshwater limestone has been discovered 
and described by Dr. Hibbert at Burdiehouse near 
Edinburgh, as lying beneath marine strata of the car* 
boniferous group. Instead of containing fossil coral* 
lines or encrinites, like the mountain-limestone, the 
formation in question contains land plants in great 
abundance, and minute entomostraca supposed to b e 
allied to the genus Cypris and several fish.^ 

Mr. Hutton states that, in part of the coal-field of 
Northumberland and Durham, fossil shells of a specie 
of Unio occur in considerable abundance in a shale 


containing plants of the carboniferous period, and over- 

* Vol. I. pp.201, to 203. 

+ Vol. I. p. 158. 

\ Hibbert, Trans. R. S. Edinb. vol. xiii., and L. Horner, 
Edinb. New Phil. Journ. April 1836. 

Ch. XXIII.3 




lying a bed of coal. The coal has 
from beneath the shells, which have been already 
proved to extend over an area five thousand feet 
square. The shelly stratum is about eighteen inches 
thick ; and the animals have evidently died at various 
ages, the shells being of every size. This accumu- 
lation of bivalves of one species, and of this form, 
seems clearly to indicate the continuance on the spot 
of a body of fresh water, such as might be found in 

the estuary of a river.* 

In the Shropshire coal-field near Bridgnorth, and in 
other places, Mr. Murchison has shown that the upper 
coal-measures contain a subordinate bed of limestone, 
which he has termed lacustrine, as a small species of 
shell, supposed to be a Planorbis, is plentifully im- 

bedded in it.f 

The fossils of the mountain limestone, above al- 
luded to, are marine, and contain, among other genera 
of shells not discovered in newer deposits, the Ortho- 
cera (see Fig. 211.), a chambered univalve, sometimes 
many feet in length. 

Fig. 211. 

Fig. 212. 

Orthoceras laterals 9 Phillips. 
Mountain limestone. . 

0. giganteum, Sow" 
Section shewing the siphuncle 

, Old Red Sandstone. N., Table I., p. 306. 

Beneath the coal-series in the northern part of 
Fifeshire in Scotland, and the southern half of Forfar- 

* Fossil Flora, by Lindley and Hutton, No. 10. 
f Proceedings of Geol. Soc, No. 38. p. 119. 

O 4 





[Book IV. 

shire, a formation occurs of great thickness, composed 
of red marl, conglomerate, red and white sandstone, 
and shales of various colours, for the most part devoid 

In some of the shales, however, 

of organic remains. 

impressions of plants, apparently marine, have been 
met with; and in the flaggy sandstones containing a 
slight admixture of carbonate of lime, the scales and 
other remains of fish are not unfrequent. They belong 
to a genus named by Dr. Agassiz « Cephalaspis," or 
" buckler-headed," from the extraordinary shield which 
covers the head. (See Fig. 213.) This peculiar form 

Fig. 213. 

Cephalaspis Lyellii, Agass. Length 6f inches. 


This figure is from a specimen now in my collection, which I procured 
at Glammis in Forfarshire. The species, which Br. Agassi* has 
named after me, will be described in his work on Fossil Fish. 

of fish, which is quite unknown in the coal-strata, 
seems characteristic of the old red sandstone generally; 
for it is found in Herefordshire and other counties of 
England and Wales, where the old red sandstone is 
largely developed. All the animal and vegetable 
remains hitherto discovered in this series are dis- 

tinct from those of the overlying coal, or subjacent 

transition strata. 

Ch, XXIII.] 



9. Transition, or Greywacke Formations. O. & P., 

Table L, p. 306. 

Continental and English authors have not always 
been agreed where the line of separation sl\ould be 
drawn between the secondary and transition form- 
ations. Some of them, for example, have included the 
carboniferous group in the secondary, others in the 
transition system. But in England the old red sand- 
stone has been generally considered as the lowest 
member of the secondary series. 

The name of transition was first given by Werner to 
certain sedimentary deposits consisting, in the Hartz 
and many parts of Germany, of arenaceous and brec- 
ciated rocks which alternate with argillaceous schist, 
and are sometimes associated with coralline and shelly 
limestones. These were supposed to have been the 
earliest formed strata when the ocean first became 
habitable by aquatic beings. Although the principal 
Members of this group, where it is largely developed, 
are evidently of mechanical origin, they often alter- 
nate with beds of quartz and argillaceous schist, not 
distinguishable mineralogically from crystalline rocks 

is primitive. Hence, as was before 
stated, the term transition was adopted to express the 
theory that, at this period, the causes which had given 
r i$e to crystalline formations were still in action ; while 
those which produced stratified sedimentary rocks, 
deluding organic remains, were also beginning to 


The characteristic group called in German " Grau- 

w acke," an old miner's term, is an aggregate of small 






a &d argillaceous schist, cemented together by argil- 

o 5 



■ . ■ 

a fr 






[Book IV. 



laceous matter. But far too much importance has 
been attached to this kind of rock, as if it were p e- 
culiar to a certain epoch in the earth's history, whereas 
it is only an accidental variety of argillaceous sand* 
stone, probably in some cases altered by heat. There 
are parts of England and Sweden where fossiliferous 
strata more ancient than the old red sandstone a fe 
largely developed, and yet where no rocks answering 
mineralogically to the Grey wacke of the Germans # re 


The first great step towards a general table of super* 
position of the British fossiliferous groups below the 
old red sandstone, each distinguished by certain m 1 " 
neral characters and organic remains, has recently 
been made by Mr. Murchison, and his arrangement 
has been adopted in Table I., p. 306. 

Mr. Murchison has had an opportunity of tracing 
the succession of deposits in a regular descending 
series, from the old red sandstone with which they a re 
in part covered, to the subjacent and unconformable 
greywacke rocks of South Wales. As far as his &' 
amination has hitherto proceeded, all the species °* 
zoophytes and shells differ from those of the carbon 1 * 
ferous limestone ; while the fossils of his four great 
subdivisions are distinct from each other.* 

He has proposed the term " Silurian," as a general 
name for this whole system of rocks, derived fro** 1 
" Silures," the principal tribe of Celts or ancient B ri " 
tons, who occupied part of Wales and the bordering 
counties of England, where these ancient fossil ifero^s 
strata are most distinctly exhibited. The Ludlo^ 
rocks and the Wenlock limestone may he classed & s 
the Upper Silurian group, being the deposits whic* 1 

* Proceedings of Geol. Soc. London, No. 34. 1834. 



Ch. XXIII.] 



are immediately below the old red sandstone ; while 


Lower Silurian group. Below all these there are othe r 


to the Silurian strata. 

Among the fossils of the Silurian formations, zoo- 
phytes and crinoidea are the most numerous ; and some 
of the limestones, which are in great part composed of 
them, agree in their general character with those now 
b progress in seas where stone-corals are abundant. 


>ite (see 

Fig. 214. 

Fig. 215. 

Calymene Blwmenbachii, Asaphus Buchii. 

^rongniart, PI. 1. fig- 1. commonly called Brongniart, PI. 2. fig. 2.. A. 

" Dudley trilobite " Lower Silurian. 

Upper Silurian rocks. 

taceous animal, of which no species is known in form* 
ations newer than the mountain limestone, is also 
characteristic of the rocks of this period; so also the 
Orthocera, a chambered univalve, found also in the 
carboniferous limestone (see Fig. 211. p. 295.), but 
hitherto in no newer deposit. On the other hand, 
some of the shells belong to recent genera, as the 
Terebratula, of which there is a great variety. The 
only vertebrated remains hitherto found are a few 
bones of fishes. The shells and zoophytes of these 


formations have been studied in Germany by Count 
Munster, Professor Goldfuss, and M. Steininger. In 
Nassau, M. Stift has endeavoured to classify the dif- 
ferent subdivisions of the same series chiefly by refer- 
ence to their mineralogical characters. 


o 6 




[Book IV. 

also, who has recently published a geological map of 
the south of Sweden, as well as Professor Wahlenberg 
and the late M. Dalman, have described and figured 
many fossil productions from these strata in Sweden. 

With this " Silurian " group I shall conclude ; for it 
does not appear that any antecedent periods can yet 
be established on the evidence of a distinct assemblage 
of fossil remains. Traces of organization do undoubt- 
edly occur in rocks of still higher antiquity, for some 
of which Professor Sedgwick has proposed the name 
of " Cambrian ; " but they can scarcely be referred to 
a distinct geological period, until we have obtained 
more data for determining the specific characters of # 
considerable number of fossils. 

The annexed table will explain the order of super- 
position of the successive groups of fossiliferous strata 
hitherto established in Europe ; it should be remem- 
bered, however, that it is in a small part of western 
Europe only that almost all this series of monuments 

has been discovered. 




ring the Order of Superposition, or Chronological Suc- 
Ce ssion, of the principal European Groups of Sedimentary 
at *d Fossiliferous Strata. 

This Table is also referred to in the Glossary. 

Names of the principal Members and Mineral 
Nature of the Formation, in Countries where it 
has been most studied. 


Some of the Localities 

where the Form- 
ation occurs. 








The deposits of this period are for the most part concealed under 

existing lakes and seas. 

Consolidated sandy and gravelly beds (a), 
travertin limestones (b), calcareous sand- 
stones with broken shells (c), coral lime- 
stone, consisting of corals, shells, &c. (d), 
compact limestone (e). 

a. Delta of the 

6. Tivoli, and other 
parts of Italy. 

c. Shore of Island 
of Guadaloupe. 

d. Coral reefs in 
Pacific, &c. 

e. Bermudas. 

Limestone, sands, 
clays, sandstones, 
conglomerates, marls, 
with gypsum ; con- 
taining marine fos- 
sils (a). 

Sands, clays, sand- 
stones, lignites, &c. ; 
containing land and 
freshwater fossils (b). 

a. Sicily, Ischia. 

b. Colle in Tus 



Subapennine marly 
Subapennine yellow 
sand, English "crag," 
and other deposits, 
as in B., containing 
marine fossils (a). 

Similar deposits to 
B. ; containing land 
and freshwater fos- 
sils (6). 

Faluns of the Loire, 
and other deposits 
varying in mineral 
composition, as those 
in B. and C, con- 
taining marine fos- 
sils (a). 

Similar deposits to 
B. and C. ; contain- 
ing land and fresh- 
water fossils (6). 

a Subapennine 
formations, Per- 





b. Near Sienna, &c. 

a. Touraine, Bor- 
deaux, Valley of 
Bormida, Super- 
ga near Turin, 
Basin of Vienna. 

b. Saucats, twelve 
miles south of 

' I 











W *3 

cu § 


fc I 

z .§ 


5 s 


§ 8 
















S* o 




Names of the principal Members and Mineral 
Nature of the Formation, in Countries where 
it has been most studied. 

SomeoftheLoca j,., 

where the 
ation occurs. 

Calcaire grossier 
(a), London clay, 
sands, sandstones, 
&c, with marine 
fossils (b). 

Calcaire siliceux — 
sandstones and con- 
glomerates, red marl, 

and white 
I marl 





with land and fresh- 

water fossils (c). 

a. ■ Paris basin- 

b. Paris, I/>*S 

and Hanip^f 

basins, l sle 
Wight. < s ]e 

c. Paris basin, > 


1. Maestricht Beds. — Soft 
yellowish- white limestone with 
siliceous masses, resembling 
chalk (marine). 

2. Chalk withjlints (marine). 

St. Peter's Mount 
Ciply, near Mons. 


3. Chalk without flints (ma- 


Upper green sand (ma- 
rine). — Marly stone, and sand 
with green particles ; layers of 
calcareous sandstone. 

5. Gault (marine). — Blue 
clay, with numerous fossils, 
passing into calcareous marl 
in the lower parts. 

6. Lower green sand (ma- 
rine). — Grey, yellowish, and 
greenish sands, ferruginous 
sands and sandstones, clays, 

cherts, and siliceous lime- 


North and South V ^ 
and parts of the in ter r e y, 
ing Weald of Kent, S* 

and Sussex. ~uv 

Yorkshire; North ot 


Beauvais, France- 


1. Weald Clay (freshwater). 
— Clay for the most part with- 
out intermixture of calcareous 
matter, sometimes including 
thin beds of sand and shelly 




1 , 2. Extensively deV 







*°* and 







6 1 

2 s 





• *■< 






TABLE L — continued. 

Names of the principal Members and 
Mineral Nature of the Formation, 
in Countries where it has been most 


Some of the Localities where the 

Formation occurs. 

2. Hastings sands (fresh* 
water). — Grey, yellow, and 
reddish-brown sands, sand- 
stones, clays, calcareous grits 
passing into limestone. 

loped in the central parts of 
)*Kent, Surrey, and Sussex. 
3. Isle of Purbeck, in 

3. Purbeck beds (freshwater). 
Various kinds of limestones 
and marls. 


] . Portland beds (marine). 
Coarse shelly limestone, fine- 
grained white limestone, com- 
pact limestone — all more or 
less of an oolitic structure; 
beds of cherts. 

2. Kimmeridge clay (marine). 
Blue and greyish-yellow 
slaty clay, containing gypsum, 
bituminous slate (Kimmeridge 

Isle of Portland, Tisbury 
in Wiltshire, Aylesbury. 


Near Kimmeridge on 
coast of Dorsetshire — Sun- 
ning Well, near Oxford. 

3. Coral rag( marine). - 
careous shelly freestones, 
largely oolitic; coarse lime- 
stone, full of corals; yellow 
sands ; calcareous siliceous 

4. Oxford clay (marine). ^ 
Dark blue tenacious clay, with 

bituminous shale, 

septaria, I 

sandy limestone 

rock), iron pyrites, gypsum 

Headington, near Oxford 
Farringdon, in Berkshire 
Calne and Steeple Ash- 
ton, in Wiltshire — Somer- 



New Malton, in Yorkshire 
Lincolnshire — Cam- 
bridgeshire — Huntingdon- 
shire, and midland counties 

— abundantly near Oxford 

— Somersetshire — Dorset- 

5. Cornbrash 

Grey or bluish rubbly lime- 
stone, separated by layers of 
clay. i 

Malmsbury, Atford,Wrax 
all, Chippenham. 



TABLE I. — continued. 

Periods and 











Names of the principal Members and 
Mineral Nature of the Formation, 
in Countries where it has been most 


Some of the Localities where 

Formation occurs. 



6. Forest marble (marine). 
Calcareo-siliceous sand and 
gritstone; thin fissile beds of 
limestone, with clay partings; 
coarse shelly limestone. 

Whichwood Forest, 
fordshire — Frome, s0 
east of Bath. 





7. Great oolite (marine). 
White and yellow oolitic cal- 
careous freestone, coarse shelly 
limestone, layers of clay. 

Oolitic limestone, with re- 
mains of land animals, birds, 
amphibia, plants, sea-shells(a). 

Bath— BurfordinOsf<> 

shire— Bradfordin Wil^ 
a. Stonesfi eld, near W° 

stock, Oxfordshire. 





8. Fuller's earth clay (ma- 
rine). — Clay containing 
some places fuller's earth. 

Near Bath 




9. Inferior oolite (marine). 
Soft freestone, sand with cal- 
careous concretions. 



Cotteswold Hills 
dry Hill, near Bristol 

Limestones of various qualities, clays, sands, and 
stone, containing the same fossils as those occurring 
series of the oolitic group of England, constitute the 
body of the Jura chain of mountains, and cover vast 

of country in Germany. 










Lias (marine). — Shale and 
sandy marl stone. 

Blue, white, and yellow 
earthy limestone, usually in 
thin beds, interstratified with 
clay, often slaty and bitumin- 

Lyme Regis in ^° l 

shire, and in many p af , j r e 

Somersetshire — Yo** s ^e 
— in Sutherlandshire? 

Hebrides, and North ot 
land. i { o 

In France, as at Metz* a** 
a considerable extent i n ^ 
many, as in the Swabian J 

1. Xeuper, or variegatedmarls. Neighbourhood of *° %p 

— Red, grey, green, blue, and mountains, and many P t- . 

white marls, sandstones, con- of Wurtemberg and ™ 

glomerates,and shells, contain- phaiia, Nuremberg, 
ing gypsum and rock-salt. 























TABLE I. — continued. 

Names of the principal Members and 
Mineral Nature of the Formation, 
in Countries where it has been most 


2. Muschelkalk (marine). 
Grey, blue, and blackish lime- 
stone, with alternating clay and 
marl, and with siliceous layers, 
and nodules. 

3. Variegated (Bunter) sand- 
stone. — Red, white, blue, and 
green siliceo-argillaceous sand- 
stone, often micaceous and con- 
taining gypsum and rock-salt. 

1. Magnesian limestone {a) 
(marine). — Marl-slate, shelly 
limestone, variegated marls, 
yellow magnesian limestone. 

Zechstein of Germany (b) 
limestone — marl-slate, con- 
taining copper ore, and im- 
pressions of fish. 

2. Red conglomerate. 
stones, conglomerates; 
and marls. 


1 . Coal 
water and 

San d- 

^^ ^^ marine). ^^^^^^ 
stones, grits, conglomerates, 
clays, with ironstone, shales, 
and limestone, inter stratified 

with beds of coal. 

2. Mountain limestone (ma- 
rine). — Grey, compact, and 
crystalline limestone, abound- 
ing in lead ore in North of 
England, and alternating with 
coal measures in Scotland. 

Some of the Localities where the 

Formation occurs. 

Extensively developed in 
Germany and France. 

Hitherto no beds in Eng- 
land have been identified with 
the formation. 




a. Nottinghamshire, Derby- 
shire, Yorkshire, Durham, 

b. Mansfeld in Thuringia. 

Neighbourhood of Exeter 

Northumberland, Durham, 
Yorkshire, Lancashire, Staf- 
fordshire, Somersetshire , 
South Wales, Valleys of the 
Forth and Clyde. 

District of Liege, West- 
phalia, Silesia, Bohemia, &c. 

Mendip Hills, Derbyshire, 
Yorkshire, Durham, North- 
umberland, Lanarkshire, 
Linlithgowshire, many parts 

of Ireland. 

North-west of Germany, 
Belgium, North of France. 




TABLE I. — continued. 


Periods and 








Names of the principal Members and 

Mineral Nature of the Formation, 

m Countries where it has been most 

















Some of the Localities wb^ 

Formation occurs. 


1. Old red sandstone — Coarse 
and fine siliceous sandstones 
and conglomerates of various 
colours, red predominating. 





Extensively develop^, 

Shropshire and H e <j u fli' 
shire, Brecknockshire* 

fries-shire, Forfarshire 

Silesia, Bohemia. 

I. Ludlow rocks (marine). — 
Argillaceous limestone, sandy 

2. Wenlock limestone (ma- 
rine). — Coralline limestone 
and argillaceous shale, with 
nodules of earthy limestone. 

Ludlow Castle, ShroP 
Aymestry and ^ 



Wenlock Edge, Sh^P s 
Dudley, Worcester^ ' 

3 . Caradoc sandstones ( m ar i ne ) . 
— Shelly limestone and mica- 
ceous sandstone, quartzose 
grits, and sandy limestones. 

Horderly, Shropsb 1 ^. 
May Hill, Gloucester? / 

East flank of W^L 

Caer Caradoc, Shrop s11 

4. Llandeilo flags (marine). 
— Calcareous flags, sandstone 
and schist. 

• Llandrindod, near ^: p 

Radnorshire. ^ W 


Fossiliferous greywacke, and rocks older than ^ e - c & 
rian, but in which no distinct assemblage of orgP^^ff 
mains have as yet been specifically determined. V* $P 
Sedgwick has proposed the name of " Cambrian" iot 













Secondary fresh- 

at land as well as sea existed at each successive period 
former continents placed where it is now sea 
^ater deposits, why rare (p. 313.)— Persistency of mineral com- 
Position, why apparently greatest in older rocks — Supposed uni- 
Ve rsality of red marl formations — Secondary rocks, why more 

Co &solidated why more fractured and disturbed (p. 318.) 

^condary volcanic rocks of many different ages. 

* the last chapter I stated that no detailed account of 
!^ e older fossiliferous formations would be attempted 
iri this work, and that I should confine myself almost 
e5c clu s i ve iy to the inquiry how far the rules of inter- 
station previously adopted for the tertiary groups 
^ght be applied to the phenomena of more ancient 
str ata. 'To this point the following remarks are chiefly 

ected : 



The existence of 

a **d as well as sea, at every geological period, is 
^tested by the remains of terrestrial plants imbedded 
ln the deposits of all ages, even the most remote. We 

^ fluviatile shells not unfrequently in the secondary 
St * at a, and here and there some freshwater form- 
ations; but the latter are less common than in the 
j^tiary series. For this fact the reader's mind has 

eeri prepared, by the views advanced in the third 








chapter respecting the different circumstances unde 
which the secondary and tertiary strata appear to ha* 
originated. The secondary, it was suggested, &*$ 
have been accumulated in an ocean like the Pac^ 
where coralline and shelly limestones are forming 5 ° r 
in a basin like the bed of the western Atlantic, ^ l ° l 
may have received, for ages, the turbid waters of g rea 
rivers, such as the Amazon and Orinoco, each dra* n ' 

ing a considerable extent of continent. The 

te rtiaf!/ 


deposits, on the other hand, very probably accumula te 
during the growth of a continent, by successive e^ e 
gence of new lands, and the uniting together of isla n ° ' 
During such changes, inland seas and lakes would 
caused, and their basins afterwards filled up with $ e 
ment, and then raised above the level of the waters* 

That the greater part of the space now occupied J 
the European continent was sea when some of * 
secondary rocks were produced, must be inferred f r ° 

the wide areas over which several of the marine g r ° u P 
are diffused ; but we need not suppose that the q uar 
tity of land was less in those remote ages, but rae re * 
that its position was very different. 

It has been shown that, immediately below the ch& 
and green-sand, a fluviatile formation, called the W^' 
den, occurs, which has been ascertained to extend fr° 
west to east about 200 English miles, and from n° r _J 

west to south-east about 220 miles, the depth or V& 
thickness of the beds, where greatest, being 



2000 feet. * 


These phenomena clearly indicate 
there was a constant supply in that region, for a 1°*™ 
period, of a considerable body of fresh water, such a 
might be supposed to have drained a continent, o r 

Fitton's Geology of Hastings, p. 58. 




ar ge island, containing within it a lofty chain of moun- 
ts. Dr. Fitton, in speaking of these appearances, 
^Us to our recollection that the delta of the newly 
^covered Quorra, or Niger, in Africa, stretches into 

e interior for more than 170 miles, and occupies, 
lt * s supposed, a space of more than 300 miles along 
tl)e coast ; thus forming a surface of more than 25,000 
^ u are miles, or equal to about one half of England. * 

fr asked where the continent was placed from the 
^ins of which the Wealden strata were derived, we 
^§ht be almost tempted to speculate on the former 
* xi stence of the Atlantis of Plato as true in geology, 
though fabulous as an historical event. We know 
^ at the present European lands have come into exist- 
eftc 'e almost entirely since the deposition of the chalk 

(se e 




u *ficed for the disappearance of a continent of equal 

^ a §mtude, situated farther to the west. 

^ut among the numerous fossils of the ancient delta 

the Wealden no remains of mammalia have been 

et ected ; whereas we should naturally expect, on 

Staining the deposits recently formed at the mouths 

0f the Quorra, Indus, or Ganges, to find, not only the 



^es of birds and of amphibious and land reptiles, but 
s ° those of the hippopotamus, and other mammalia 
^ich frequent the banks of rivers. 

Mr. Mantell 



a ^als and plants found fossil in the Wealden havi 

^ It: h the exception of the testacea and other aquatic 

ri ^ e s, been transported for a considerable distance, 

)e stems of the plants being, for the most part, torn 

Fitton, Geol. of Hastings, p. 58 , who cites Lander's Travels. 

t Geol. of S. E. of England, p. 232. 










and intermingled with pebbles of quartz, slate, a n 
jasper; while the bones of lizards, turtles, and fish,^' 
detached from the skeleton, and more or less brok en 
and rolled. But, admitting that these fossils * ere 
drifted for many a league, we might fairly expect that* 
at least, some fragments of mammiferous bones ^ ol} 
have reached the delta. 

It is certainly a startling proposition to suppose 


a continent covered with vegetation, which had jts 
forests of palms and tree-ferns, and its plants allied t0 
the Dracaena and Cycas, which was inhabited by W$ e 
saurians, and by birds, was, nevertheless, entire 1 ' 
devoid of land quadrupeds. If the proofs were c Qti ' 
fined to the Wealden, we might hesitate to lay m uC 
stress on mere negative evidence, since extensive °*' 
posits of the Eocene period, such as the London cM' 


have as yet yielded no mammiferous fossils, 
when we find the same general absence of marnm 

in strata of the Oolitic and Liassic eras, we can har<^ 
refuse to admit that the highest order of quadrup 
was very feebly represented in those ages, when 
small Didelphys of Stonesfield was entombed. &>** 
of the bones, indeed, collected by Dr. Buckland fr 00 
the oolitic series, have been pronounced by Cuvier t0 
be cetaceous; but that naturalist has himself remark 
how closely the vertebras of the larger reptiles re ' 
semble those of certain dolphins; so that it is h»g b ^ 
desirable that the fossils alluded to should be re ' 
examined with great care. * 

So far, then, as our present inquiries enable " s 
judge, there are strong indications that, during the 




* Mantell, Geol. of S. E. of England, p. 282. ; and see 
Vol. I. p. 232. 



. L 

V > 
















• / 






a large development of the reptilia, at the ex- 
s e> as it were, both of the cetaceous and terrestrial 


^ may be well, then, to inquire whether this differ- 
Ce in the state of animal life in the northern hemi- 
j*ere, at these remote periods, is irreconcileable with 
e Motion of the constancy and uniformity of the laws 
^ch govern the changes of the organic world. Would 
e almost entire suppression of one important class of 
er tebrated animals, and the larger development of 
pother, if fully established on farther investigation, 
l Vy that there are no fixed rules according to which 
^ e form, structure, and attributes of animals are 
aCc ommodated to the endless vicissitudes of the earth's 
^face ? Or are the rules, if any, made to endure for 
time only, new ones being substituted at each suc- 
e $si Ve period ? Or, is it conceivable that the distinct 
°°logical characters of certain secondary groups, as 
spared to others of the tertiary epoch, may depend 
11 Ws as uniform as those which, from one century 
Mother, appear to determine the growth of certain 
.^es of plants and animals in the arctic, and of others 

ltl tropical ""-* 




^ Australia, New Zealand, and many other parts of 

e southern hemisphere, where the indigenous land 

^drupeds are comparatively few and of small dimen- 

*° n s, the reptiles do not predominate in number or size. 

. e deposits formed at the mouth of an Australian 

IVer 5 within the tropics, might contain the bones of 

*% a few small marsupial animals, which, like those 

0f Stonesfield, might hereafter be discovered with diffi- 

? ll y by geologists ; but there would, at the same 

lrne > be no megalosauri and other fossil remains, show- 









I ■ 










ing that large saurians were plentiful on the land an 
in the waters when mammalia were scarce. 

No precise analogy, therefore, can here be fr un 
to the state of the animal kingdom supposed to h* v 
prevailed during the secondary periods when a h$ 
temperature pervaded European latitudes. But it AW 
be useful to consider whether any of the anomalies n° 

caused by climate in the relative number and l 
portance of different classes of the vertebrata may 11 
in some degree illustrate this topic. In the Arctic 
gions, for example, reptiles are small, and somettf* 1 
wholly wanting, where birds, large land quadrup e 
and cetacea abound. We meet with bears, wol v 

foxes, musk oxen, and deer, walrusses, seals, w 


and narwals, in regions of ice and snow, where 


smallest snakes, efts, and frogs are rarely if eV 


On what grand laws in the animal physiology 


remarkable phenomenon depends, cannot, in the p r 
sent state of science, be explained; nor could we p r 
diet whether any opposite condition of the atmosph e 
in respect to heat, moisture, and other circumstafl c J 
would bring about a state of animal life which & l o 
be called the converse of that above described ; a st* 
of things in. which large mammalia might abound? a 

reptiles disappear. We ought, however, to rec 




that a mean annual temperature like that now e> . 
perienced at the equator, co-existing with the uneq u ** 
days and nights of European latitudes, and with 
distinct distribution of sea and land, would imply ^ 
climate to which we have now no parallel. ^° 
sequently, the type of animal and vegetable existed 
required for such a climate might deviate as wi<* e J 
from that now established in any part of the globe? 




■do the Flora and Fauna of our tropical differ from 
*hose of our arctic regions. 

Secondary freshwater deposits, why rare. — If there 
w ere extensive tracts of land in the secondary period, 
^e may presume that there were lakes also ; yet I am 
n ot aware of any pure lacustrine formations inter- 
s tratified with rocks older than the chalk. Perhaps 
their general absence may be accounted for by the 
^doption of the theoretical views above set forth ; for 
** the present ocean coincides for the most part with 
the site of the ancient continent, the places occupied 
ty lakes must have been submerged. It should also 
he recollected, that the area covered by lakes, at any 
°**e time, is very insignificant in proportion to the 
°cean ; and, therefore, we may expect that, after the 
garth's surface has undergone considerable revolutions 
111 its physical geography, the lacustrine strata will be 
c °ftcealed, for the most part, under superimposed ma- 
* ll *e deposits. 

Persistency of mineral character. — In the same man- 
ne r as it is rare and difficult to find ancient lacustrine 
str ata, so also we can scarcely expect to discover newer 
Marine groups preserving the same lithological charac- 
ter s continuously throughout wide areas. The chalk 
**°w seen stretching for thousands of miles over difFer- 
er *t parts of Europe has become visible to us by the 
Effect, not of one, but of many distinct series of move- 


s. Time has been required, and a succession of 

geological periods, to raise it above the waves in so 
**any regions ; and if calcareous rocks of the Eocene 
r Miocene periods have been formed, preserving a 
°mogeneous mineral composition throughout equally 
^tensive regions, it may require convulsions as nume- 
1 as all those which have occurred since the origin 


vol. iv. 













of the chalk to tying them up within the sphere o 
human observation. Hence the rocks of more modern 
periods may appear of partial extent, as compared 
those of remoter eras, not because there was any 
original difference of circumstances throughout the 
globe when they were formed, but because there h^ 
not been sufficient time for the development of a gr<* 
series of subterranean volcanic operations since tbe» 

origin. t 

At the same time, the reader should be warned n 
to place implicit , reliance on the alleged persistent 
of the same mineral characters in secondary rocK^ 
When it was first ascertained that an order of s tf ^ 
cession' could be traced in the principal groups ^ 
strata above enumerated, names were given to ea<y 
derived from the mineral composition of the rocks ^ 
those parts of Germany, England, or France, wh e ^ 
they happened to be first studied. When it was a# e ^ 
wards acknowledged that the zoological and pbfi 
logical characters of the same formations were far &° 
persistent than their mineral peculiarities, the o ^ 
names were still retained, instead of being exchaog^ 
for others founded on more constant and esseI \ at 
characters. The student was given to understand * ^ 
the terms chalk, green-sand, oolite, red marl, coal, *^ 
others, were to be taken in a liberal and exten ^ 
sense ; that chalk was not always a cretaceous & ' e 
but in some places, as on the northern flanks o ■ 
Pyrenees, and in Catalonia, a saliferous red m 
Green-sand, it was said, was rarely green, and ^ 
quentlynot arenaceous, but represented in V 9 *® & 
the south of Europe by a hard dolomitic limeSt t ° ure 
In like manner, it was declared that the oolitic teS 

* See some remarks on this subject, Vol. I. P- ] 3 



^as rather an exception to the general rule in rocks of 
the oolitic period, and that no particle of carbonaceous 
Matter could often be detected in the true coal form- 
ation of many districts where it attains great thickness, 
^t must be obvious to every one, that inconvenience 
and erroneous prepossessions could hardly fail to arise 
* r om such a nomenclature ; and accordingly a fallacious 
**iode of reasoning has been widely propagated, chiefly 
by the influence of a language so singularly inappro- 

After the admission that the identity or discordance 
°f mineral character was by no means a sure test of 
agreement or disagreement in the age of rocks, it was 
s tiU thought, by many geologists, that if they found 
a rock at the antipodes agreeing precisely in mineral 
composition with another well known in Europe, they 
could fairly presume that both are of the same age, 

u Mil the contrary could be shown. 

Now, it is usually difficult or impossible to combat 
Sl *ch an assumption on geological grounds, so long as 
^e are imperfectly acquainted with the geology of a 


country, inasmuch as there are often no or- 

ganic remains in the foreign stratum; and even if 
*hese abound, and are specifically different from the 
*°ssils of the supposed European equivalent, it may be 
Ejected that we cannot expect the same species to 
have inhabited very distant quarters of the globe at 
^e same time. 

Supposed universality of red marl. — I shall select a 
% e *narkable example of the erroneous mode of general- 
l2:in g now alluded to. A group of red marl and sand- 
f to ne, sometimes containing salt and gypsum, is found 
n England interposed between the lias and the car- 

oniferous strata. For this reason, other red marls 

p 2 




• [BooklV- 

and sandstones, associated some of them with salt, an 
others with gypsum, and occurring not only in differen 
parts of Europe, but in Peru, India, the salt deserts o 
Asia, those of Africa, in a word, in every quarter o 
the globe, have been referred to one and the same 
period. The burden of proof is not supposed to res^ 
with those who insist on the identity of age of a 
these groups ; so that it is in vain to urge as an 
jection the improbability of the hypothesis whit* 
would imply that all the moving waters on the g^ e 
were once simultaneously charged with sediment ° 






a red colour. k 

The absurdity of pretending to identify, in age 
the red sandstones and marls in question, has at leng* 
been sufficiently exposed, by the discovery that, eve» 
in Europe, they belong decidedly to many differe^ 


sandstone and red marl, with which the rock-salt ° 

Cardona is associated, may be referred to the period 

our chalk and green-sand. I was led to this opin' 00 

when I visited Cardona in 1830, and before I was a^ a 









I have pointed out that in Auvergne there ** 

red marls and variegated sandstones, which are und 1 ^ 
tinguishable in mineral composition from the new r 
sandstone of English geologists, yet which were dep 



sited in the Eocene period : and, lastly, the gyP se ° h 
red marl of Aix, in Provence, formerly supposed to 
a marine secondary group, is now acknowledged to 
a tertiary freshwater formation. * 




the points where the analogy between the secon 
and tertiary formations has been supposed to fail? xs 

* Ann. des Sci. Nat., Avril, 1831, p. 449. 

°h. XXIV. ] 



greater degree of solidity observable in the secondary- 
series. Undoubtedly the older rocks, in general, are 
*fiore stony than the newer; and most of the tertiary 
s trata are more loose and incoherent in their texture 


than the secondary. Many exceptions, however, may 
be pointed out, especially in those calcareous and sili- 
ceous deposits which have been precipitated in great 
part from the waters of mineral springs, and have been 
originally compact. Of this description are a large 
proportion of the Parisian Eocene rocks, which are more 
stony than most of the English secondary groups. 

But strata in general have evidently been consoli- 
dated subsequently to their deposition by a slow lapidi- 
fying process. Thus loose sand and gravel are bound 
together by waters holding carbonate and oxide of 
iron, carbonate of lime, silica, and other ingredients in 
solution. These waters percolate slowly the earth's 
crust in different regions, and often remove gradually 
the component elements of fossil organic bodies, sub- 
stituting other substances in their place. It seems, 
Moreover, that the draining off of the waters during 
the elevation of land may often cause the setting of 
particular mixtures, in the same manner as mortar 
hardens when desiccated, or as the recent soft marl of 
Lake Superior becomes highly indurated when ex- 
posed to the air.* The conversion of clay into shale, 
a nd of sand into sandstone, may, in many cases, be 
attributed to simple pressure, produced by the weight 
°f superincumbent strata, or by the upward heaving of 
subjacent masses during earthquakes. Heat is another 
c ause of a more compact and crystalline texture, which 
^ill be considered when I speak of the strata termed 

" primary." All the changes produced by these various 

* Vol. I. p. 344. - 

p 3 







x - 

means require time for their completion ; and this may 
explain, in a satisfactory manner, why the older rocks 
are most consolidated, without entitling us to resort to 
any hypothesis respecting an original distinctness in 
the degree of lapidification of the secondary strata. 

Secondary, why more disturbed.— As the older form- 
ations are generally more stony, so also they are more 
fractured, curved, elevated, and displaced, than the 
newer. Are we, then, to infer, with some geologists? 
that the disturbing forces were more energetic in re- 
moter ages? No conclusion can be more unsound; 
for as the moving power acts from below, the newer 
strata cannot be deranged without the subjacent rocks 
participating in the movement ; while we have evidence 
that the older have been frequently shattered, raised? 
and depressed, again and again, before the newer rocks 
were formed. It is evident that if the disturbing 

power of the subterranean causes be exerted with 

uniform intensity in each succeeding period, the quan- 
tity of convulsion undergone by different groups oi 
strata will generally be great in proportion to their 
antiquity. But exceptions will occur, owing to the 
partial operation of the volcanic forces at particular 
periods; so that we sometimes find tertiary strata 
more elevated and disturbed, in particular countries* 
than the secondary rocks in others. 

Some of the enormous faults and complicated dis- 
locations of the ancient strata may probably have 
arisen from the continued repetition of earthquakes in 
the same place, and sometimes from two distinct 
series of convulsions, which have forced the same 
masses in different, and even opposite, directions i 
sometimes by vertical, at others by horizontal, move- 

c h. XXIV.] 



yf different 


association of volcanic rocks with different secondary 
strata is such as to prove that there were igneous 
eruptions at many distinct periods, as also that they 
^ere confined during each epoch, as now, to limited 
areas. Thus, for example, igneous rocks contempora- 
neous with the carboniferous strata abound in some 
countries, but are wanting in others. So it is evident 
that the bottom of the sea, on which the oolite and its 
contemporary deposits were thrown down, was, for the 
toost part, free from submarine eruptions ; but at some 
Points, as in the Hebrides, it seems that the same 
ocean was the theatre of volcanic action. It was before 
remarked*, that, as the ancient eruptions occurred 
in succession, sufficient time usually intervening be- 
tween them to allow of the accumulation of many 
subaqueous strata, so also should we infer that sub- 
terranean movements, which are another portion of 
the volcanic phenomena, occurred separately and in 


* Book i. chap* v. 

P 4 


- ; 






Theory of M. Elie de Beaumont — His opinions controverted 
His method of proving that different chains were raised at dis- 
tinct periods, and that the rise of others was contemporaneous, 
not conclusive — His doctrine of the parallelism of contem- 
poraneous lines of elevation _ Objections (p. 326.) —Howfa r 
anticlinal lines formed at the same period are parallel -* 
Difficulties in the way of determining the relative age of 

That the different parts of our continents have been 
elevated, in succession, to their present height above 
the level of the sea, is an opinion which has been gr**' 
dually gaining ground with the progress of science 5 
but no one before M. Elie de Beaumont had the merit 

t ^ 

even of attempting to collect together the recorded 
facts which bear on this subject, and to reduce then 1 
to one systematic whole. The above-mentioned geo- 
logist was eminently qualified for the task, as one wb° 
had laboured industriously in the field of original ob- 
servation, and who combined an extensive knowledge 
of facts with an ardent love of generalization. 

But, as I cannot admit the accuracy of an import' 
ant part of his method of reasoning on this topic, and 
as his principal conclusions appear to me very uncer- 
tain, I must explain the reasons of my dissent, having 
first given a brief summary of the most prominent fea- 
tures of his theory. 


°b. XXV.] 



1st. M. de Beaumont supposes, " that in the history 
°f the earth there have been long periods of compara- 
tive repose, during which the deposition of sedimentary 
Matter has gone on in regular continuity ; and there 
have also been short periods of paroxysmal violence, 
during which that continuity was broken. 

" 2dly. At each of these periods of violence or 
^evolution' in the state of the earth's surface, a 
§ r eat number of mountain-chains have been formed 

" 3dly. All the chains thrown up by a particular 
^Volution have one uniform direction, being parallel 
to each other within a few degrees of the compass, 
ev en when situated in remote regions ; but the chains 
thrown up at different periods have, for the most part, 
different directions. 

cc 4thly. Each ' revolution,' or, as it is sometimes 
termed, ' frightful convulsion/ has fallen in with the 
^ate of another geological phenomenon ; namely, * the 
Passage from one independent sedimentary formation 
to another/ characterized by a considerable difference 
lr * i organic types/ 

"5thly. There has been a recurrence of these 
Paroxysmal movements from the remotest geological 
Periods; and they may still be reproduced, and the 
depose in which we live may hereafter be broken by 
t^e sudden upthrow of another system of parallel 
c hains of mountains. 

cc 6thly. We may presume that one of these revo- 
lutions has occurred within the historical era, when 
^e Andes were upheaved to their present height; 
for that chain is the best defined and least obliterated 
feature observable in the present exterior configuration 
of the globe, and was probably the last elevated. 

p 5 






[Book lV« 

u 7thly. The instantaneous upheaving from the 
ocean of great mountain masses must cause a violent 
agitation in the waters; and the rise of the Andes 
may? perhaps, have produced that* transient deluge 
which is noticed among; the traditions of so many 

" Lastly. The successive revolutions above men- 
tioned cannot be referred to ordinary volcanic forces* 
but may depend on the secular refrigeration of the 
heated interior of our planet." * 

I need not enter here into an examination of &** 
these topics, as the discussion of several of them has 
been in some degree anticipated in former chapters- 
Respecting the alternation of periods of general ^ e " 
pose and disorder, I have before suggested that ge°" 
logical phenomena indicate merely that each regi° n 
of the globe has in succession been a great theatre 
of subterranean convulsions, as some districts are n0^> 
while others remain at rest. Before we can reason" 
ably attribute extraordinary energy to any known cause? 
we must be sure that its usual force would be W 


adequate, though exerted for indefinite ages, to produce 
the effects required. 

The geologist, therefore? who assumes that cont** 

nents and mountain-chains have been heaved up sud - 
denly by paroxysmal violence, may be considered aS 
pledging himself to the opinion that the accumulate^ 
effects of ordinary volcanic forces could never in &*v 
series of years produce appearances such as we ^" 
ness in the earth's crust. Time and the progress ° 

* Ann. des Sci. Nat., Septembre, Novembre, et Decern^ 
1829. Revue Francaise, No. 15. May, 1830. The last edition W 
M. de B. is in De la Beche's Manual, 3d. edit. ; and D'Aubu*' 
son, Traite de Geognosie, torn. iii. p, 282., 1835. 

Ch « XXV.] 



science can alone decide whether such an assumption 
is Warranted, or whether, on the contrary, it does not 
spring from two scources of prejudice: — first, the 
difficulty of conceiving the aggregate results of a great 
^mber of minor convulsions ; secondly, the habit of 
dewing geological phenomena without any desire to 
explain them as the effects of moderate forces, such 
a s we know to act, instead of that intense degree of 
e nergy ? the occasional development of which, however 
Possible, is entirely conjectural. 

The speculation of M.'de Beaumont concerning the 
c< secular refrigeration" of the internal nucleus of the 
globe, considered as a cause of the instantaneous rise 
°f mountain- chains, . appears to me obscure, and is 
Mainly founded on that part of the doctrine of central 
heat which has been controverted in the secon 

In regard to the connection of the rise of mountain- 
chains with revolutions equally sudden in the animate 
^orld, I have endeavoured to show, in the third book, 
that changes in physical geography, which are un- 
ceasingly in progress, are among the causes which 
contribute, in the course of ages, to the extermination 
°f certain species of animals and plants ; but the in- 
fluence of these causes is slow, and, for the most part, 
^direct, and has no analogy with those sudden cata- 
strophes which are introduced into the theory now 
u **der review. An explanation of the probable cause 
°f the abrupt transitions from one set of strata to 
Mother, containing distinct organic remains, has been 
§ iv eti at length in the third and fourth chapters of 
l his book, f 



Book ii. chapters xviii. and xix. 
f See particularly from p. 345. to p. 355. of Vol. III. 

p 6 


> ■ * ■ 





[Book IV 

When the protrusion of the Andes from beneath the 
sea is proposed as a possible cause of the historical 
deluge, we naturally inquire, what proofs there are of 
that chain having started up at once within the last 
4000 or 5000 years from a great depth of sea ; for it * s 
necessary that a large body of water should be dis- 
placed, in order that a diluvial wave, capable of &* 
undating a previously existing continent, should be 
raised. If it were reasonable to refer deluges to what 
have been called paroxysmal elevations, it would surely 
be a fairer speculation to point to a line of shoals o* 
reefs, consisting of shattered and dislocated rocks, and 
surrounded on all sides by an unfathomable ocean, tha# 
to select a mountain-chain as the site of the upthro^' 
for the rapid conversion of the bed of a deep sea \xA° 
a shoal would evidently cause a much greater displace* 
ment of water than the rise of a large shoal into * 



Without dilating further on these subjects, I 
now endeavour to analyze the proofs by which tltf 
successive elevation of different chains, and the sup" 
posed parallelism of lines of contemporaneous elev#' 
tion, are supported. 

M. de Beaumont's proofs that different chains tf ere 

raised at different epochs. — "We observe/' says 


Elie de Beaumont, "along nearly all the mountain 
chains, when we attentively examine them, that th e 
most recent rocks extend horizontally up to the foot o* 


such chains, as we should expect would be the case * 
they were deposited in seas or lakes, of which the$ e 
mountains have partly formed the shores ; whilst tb 
other sedimentary beds, tilted up, and more or l eS$ 
contorted, on the flanks of the mountains, rise in cet" 


<*. XXV.] 



tain points even to their highest crests/'* There are, 
therefore, in and adjacent to each chain, two classes of 
sedimentary rocks, the ancient or inclined beds, and 
the newer or horizontal. It is evident that the first 
a Ppearance of the chain itself was an event " inter- 
mediate between the period when the beds now up- 
raised were deposited and that when the strata were 
Produced horizontally at its feet/' 


Fig. 216. 

Thus the chain A assumed its present position after 
the deposition of the strata &, which have undergone 
great movements, and before the deposition of the 
group c, in which the strata have not suffered derange- 

If we then discover another chain B, in which we 


Fig. 217 


*h*d not only the formation 5, but the group c also, 
^sturbed and thrown on its edges, we may infer that 
l he latter chain is of subsequent date to A; for B 
must have been elevated after the deposition of c, and 
before that of the group d ; whereas A had originated 
be fore the strata c were formed. 

Phil. Mag. and Annals, No, 58., New Series, p. 242. 





[Book IV. 

In order to ascertain whether other mountain ranges 
are of contemporaneous date with A and B, or are re- 
ferable to distinct periods, we have only to inquire 

whether the geological phenomena are 

identical \ 

namely, whether the inclined and undisturbed sets 01 
strata in each correspond to those in the types above 


Objections to M. de Beaumont's theory. 



this reasoning is perfectly correct, so long as 
periods of the deposition of the particular local groups 
of strata b and c are not confounded with the period 
during which the animals and plants found fossil in " 
and c may have flourished, and provided also that due 
latitude is given to the term contemporaneous ; J° r 
this term must be understood to allude, not to * 
moment of time, but to the interval, whether brief ° r 
protracted, which elapsed between two events, namely 
between the accumulation of the inclined and that °* 
the horizontal strata. 

But, unfortunately, no attempt seems to have bee 11 
made to avoid this manifest source of confusion, a n 


hence the very terms of each proposition are eq u1 ' 
vocal ; and the length of some of the intervals l 
so vast, that to affirm that all the chains raised * n t 
such intervals were contemporaneous, is an abuse ° 

In order to illustrate this argument, I shall sele c 
the Pyrenees as an example. This range of mou* 1 ' 
tains, says M. de Beaumont, rose suddenly (a un seu 
jet*) to its present elevation at a certain "epoch in d' 6 

* In the last edition of M. de B.'s system (see note abo ve ' 
p. 323.), he only speaks of the convulsion which raised the XT 
renees, as " one of the most violent which the land of Eur°P 
ever experienced." 




Ch - XXV.] 



e ^th's history, namely, between the deposition of the 
c halk and that of the tertiary formations; for the 
c halk is seen in vertical, curved, and distorted beds on 
*he flanks of the chain, while the tertiary formations 
* e st upon them in horizontal strata at its base. 

The only proof offered of the extreme suddenness 
°f the convulsion is the shortness of the time which 
*ntervened between the formation of the chalk and 

l hat of the tertiary strata. * 

Now the beds called chalk on the flanks of the Pyre- 
** e es differ widely in mineral composition from the 
^hite chalk with flints of England and France ; but as 
they contain for the most part the same species of 
fossil shells, I grant that they may on that evidence be 
^ferred to the cretaceous system, f On the other 
Wd, the horizontal tertiary strata at the western end 
°f the Pyrenees, near Bayonne, are certainly of the 


The reader will find, when he re- 

acts on these data, that we can only infer that the 
§ r eat movement took place after the cretaceous period 
** a d commenced, but we cannot assume that it oc- 
Cl *rred after the close of that period. So also we may 
Sa y> that the Pyrenees rose before the close of the 
Miocene epoch, but not that the event happened 
before its commencement We cannot permit M. de 
^aumont to exclude the whole of either of these 
Periods (the Cretaceous and Miocene) from the pos- 
Sl ble duration of that interval during all or any part of 
^hich the elevation may have taken place. 

* Phil. Mag. and Annals, No. 58., New Series, p. 243. 

t The fossils which I collected in company with Captain S. E. 
Co °k, R. N., from the newest secondary beds on the flanks of the 
Pyrenees, near Bayonne, were examined by M. Deshayes, and 
*°Und identical with species of the chalk near Paris. 











[Book I v « 

The upheaving of the Pyrenees, therefore, may have 
been going on before the animals of the chalk period 



or during the indefinite ages which mtf 


animals and the introduction of the Eocene tribes, ot 
during the Eocene epoch, or between that and the 



epoch. Or the rise may have been going on through" 
out one, or several, or all of these periods. 

It would be a purely gratuitous assumption to s&f 
that the chalk strata c, Fig. 217., p. 325., were the la sfc 
which were deposited during the cretaceous period, ° r 
that, when they were upheaved, all or nearly all thG 
species of animals and plants which are now foufld 
fossil in them were suddenly exterminated; y et ' 
unless this can be affirmed, we cannot say that & e 
chain B was not upheaved during the cretace° uS 
period. Consequently, another range of mountain 5 
(A, Fig. 216.), at the base of which cretaceous rock s > 
c, may lie in horizontal stratification, may have be eti 


elevated during the same period; because, in 
case, the particular group c may have been formed \^ 
after the animals and plants which are characterise 
of them, in a fossil state, began to flourish, and durtfte 
those antecedent ages the chain A may have risen. 

The Newer Pliocene strata in Sicily have be en 
raised to the height of nearly 3000 feet in some placed 
with great derangement; yet the testacea and z°°* 
phytes inclosed in these still exist, or nine tenths ^ 
^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ terranean. The same pe** 10 
still continues, if we speak of periods in the same e% ' 
tended sense in which they are understood by geol°" 

gists, and by M. de Beaumont, in the memoir fl° 





Ch « XXV.] 




e us. So the chalk in the Pyrenees may have 
e en raised to the height of many thousand feet, when 
^e animals found fossil in the upheaved strata still 
c °ntinued to inhabit the sea. 

in like manner the sea may have been inhabited by 
Miocene testacea for ages before the deposition of 
those particular Miocene strata which occur at the 
*°ot of the Pyrenees. 

To illustrate the grave objections above advanced, 
*hich go to affect the whole of De Beaumont's reason- 
lri g> let us suppose, that in some country three styles 
^architecture had prevailed in succession, each for a 
P e riod of one thousand years ; first the Greek, then 

6 Roman, and then the Gothic ; and that a tremen- 




^Us earthquake was known to have occurred in the 
Sat *ie district during one of the three periods, — a con- 
cision of such violence as to have levelled to the 
§ r ound all the buildings then standing. If an anti- 
*i u ary, desirous of discovering the date of the cata- 

frophe, should first arrive at a city where several 
;* r eek temples were lying in ruins and half engulphed 
^ the earth, while many Gothic edifices were stand- 

g uninjured, could he determine on these data the 
e ^ of the shock ? Could he even exclude any one of 

** e three periods and decide that it must have happened 
^ring one of the other two? Certainly not. He 

° u ld merely affirm that it happened at some period 
^ te r the introduction of the Greek style,, and before 
y* e Gothic had fallen into disuse. Should he pretend 
define the date of the convulsion with greater 
decision, and decide that the earthquake must have 
°ccurred after the Greek and before the Gothic period, 

hat is to say, when the Roman style was in use, the 
* ac y in his reasoning would be too palpable to escape 

Section for a moment. 








Yet such is the nature of the erroneous induction 
which I am now exposing. For as, in the example 
above proposed, the erection of a particular edifice lS 
perfectly distinct from the period of architecture in 
which it may have been raised, so is the deposition ° 
chalk, or any other set of strata, from the geologic 1 
epochs characterized by certain fossils to which they 
may belong. 

It is superfluous to enter into any farther analysis ° 
this theory, because the force of the whole argumefl 
depends on the accuracy of the data by which th e 
contemporaneous or non-contemporaneous date of t* 1 
elevation of two independent chains can be demo* 1 ' 
strated. In every case, this evidence, as stated tv 
M. de Beaumont, is equivocal, because he has not ir 
eluded in the possible, interval of time between the d e 
position of the deranged and the horizontal formatio 1 ^ 
part of the periods to which each of those classes 
formations are referable. By the insufficiency, th^ 
of the above proofs, the doctrine of the parallelism 
lines of contemporaneous elevation is destroyed ; v e 
cause all the geological facts may be true, and ) r 
the conclusion that certain chains were or were n 
simultaneously upraised is by no means a legiti** 1 



As the hypothesis of parallelism, however, has a 
quired some popularity, I may remark, that it app e ^ r 
as stated by the author, to be in some degree at variant 
with itself. When certain European chains were 
sumed to have been raised at the same time, on 






data already impugned, it was found that several 
these contemporaneous chains had a parallel directs ' 
Hence it was immediately inferred to be a general 

in geological dynamics that the chains upheav 


Ch - XXV. 




^e same time are parallel. For example, it was said 

*jat the Pyrenees and northern Apennines have a 

Section about W. N. W. and E. S. E. ; to this line the 

^Ueghanies, in North America, conform, as also the 

Ghauts of Malabar, and certain chains in Egypt, Syria, 

n ° r thern Africa, and other countries; and from this 

^e conformity in direction it was presumed that all 

^ese mountain-ranges were thrown up simultane- 


To select another example, the principal chain of 
he Alps, differing in age and direction from the Py- 
* ei *ees, is parallel to the Sierra Morena, the Balkan, 
^ e chain of Mount Atlas, the central chain of the 
C ^Ucasus, and the Himalaya. All these ridges, there- 
0r e, are assumed to have been heaved up by the same 
oxysmal convulsion. The Western Alps, on the 
ot W hand, rose at a still earlier period, when the 
wall e i chains of Kiol, in Scandinavia, certain chains 
^ Morocco, and the littoral Cordillera of Brazil, were 
^ftied ! 

Not only do these speculations refer to mountains 
ey er yet touched, as M. Boue remarks, by the ham- 
, er of the geologist, but they proceed on the suppo- 
l ^°n, that in these distant chains the geological and 
^graphical axis always coincide. Now we know 
^ a t in Europe the strike f of the beds is not always 

^ regard to the Alleghanies, see De Beaumont, 1833. French 




rar *s. of De la Beche's Manual, p. 657. But in fact thisthain 

**from N. E. to S. W. 

T The term " strike" has been recently adopted by some of 

, r ^ost eminent geologists from the German " streich," to 

S §1 % what our miners call the " line of bearing" of the strata. 

0/ * a terin was much wanted ; and, as we often speak of striking 

^ ln a given direction, the expression seems sufficiently consistent 

analogy in our language. 










% m 





parallel to the direction of the chain. As an exception? 
we may instance the Hartz mountains, where Von D e " 
chen* states that the direction or strike of the. strata 
of slate and greywacke is sometimes from E. and ™* 9 
and frequently N. E. and S. W. ; the geographical dl * 
rection of the mountain-chain being decidedly f r0 

W.N. W 

In addition to these considerations, the impor 

tan 1 





the elevating forces, whose activity must be ref^ re 
to different epochs, have sometimes acted in Europ 
in parallel lines. " It is worthy of remark," he say 
H that the directions of three systems of mounta 1 * 1 ' 
— namely, first that of the Pilas and the Cote d'0 r ' 
secondly, that of the Pyrenees ; and thirdly, that 
the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, — are respective 
parallel to three other systems, namely, first, that 

Westmoreland and the Hunsdruck ; secondly, that 
the Ballons (or Vosges) and the hills of the BoC&v 
in Calvados ; and thirdly, the system of the nortfl 
England. The corresponding directions only diflfe r « 
a few degrees, and the two series have succee 
each other in the same order, leading to the supp 




rence of the same, or nearly the same, directions 
elevations." \ 

Here then, we have three systems of moun 
A, B, C, which were formed at successive epochs, 
have each a different direction : and we have th r 
other systems, D, E, F, which, although they are 

sumed to have the same strike as the series first & ^ 

Mied (D corresponding with A, E with B, 

* Trans, of De la Beche's Geol. Manual, p. 41. 

f Phil. Mag. and Annals, No. 58., New Series, pp- 255: 


x r 





* xt h C), are nevertheless declared to have been formed 
a ' different periods. On what principle, then, is the 
a §e of an Indian or transatlantic chain referred to one 
°f these European lines rather than to another ? 
w hy is the age of the Alleghanies, or the Ghauts of 
Malabar, determined by their parallelism to B rather 
l han to E, to the Pyrenees rather than to the Ballons 

of the Vosges ? * 
Modern volcanic lines not parallel. — The analogy of 

v °lcanic operations in our own times would lead us to 
appose that the lines of convulsion, at former epochs, 
^ e re far from being uniform in direction ; for that the 
tr ains of active volcanos are not parallel, every one is 
aMr are who has studied Von Buch's masterly survey of 
the general range of volcanic lines over the globe t; 
^hile the elevations and subsidences caused by mo- 
7 e Hi earthquakes, although they may sometimes run 
111 parallel lines within limited districts, have not been 
°bserved to have a common direction in distant and 
^dependent theatres of volcanic action. 

I doubt not that in many regions, yet only within a 
'.United range of country, the ridges, troughs, and fis- 
hes caused by modern earthquakes, are, to a certain 
e *tent, parallel to each other; and such appears to 
^■ve been the case in many districts at former eras. 


* The substance of the last objection has been anticipated by 
**• Boue" (Journ. of Geol., torn. iii. p. 338. )• I shall not re- 
Peat here minor points and facts, enumerated, in a former edition, 
as disputed by several geologists, because they are of no import- 
ariCe if the basis of the theory is unfounded. See Mr. Cony, 
fare's remarks, Phil. Mag. and Journ. of Sci., No. 2., Third 
^es, p. 118. Studer, Bulletin de la Soc. Geol. de France, ii. 
P* 68. 

t Physical. Besch. der Canarischen Inseln. Berlin, 1825. 





[Book IV. 






been contemporaneous ; that is to say, both may b ave 
been formed in some part of the Eocene period, -^ a 
hypothesis which does not involve the theory of the 1 
having been due to a paroxysmal convulsion at tfl 
same moment of that vast period. It should be o®' 
served, that, as some trains of burning volcanos a 
parallel to each other, so at all periods some in 
pendent lines of elevation may be parallel accidental!/' 
not in obedience to any known law of parallelism, b u 
on the contrary, as exceptions to the general rule. 

The speculations of M. de Beaumont will, I t rUS ' 
be useful, in inducing geologists to inquire how far * 
uniformity in the direction of the beds, in a reg 
which has been agitated at any particular period, & * 
extend ; but, in the present st^te of our science 
cherish no sanguine expectations of fixing a chrofl * 
gical succession of epochs of elevation of differ 
mountain-chains, or of making more than a loose #P 
proximation to such a result. The difficulty depe* 1 
chiefly on the broken and interrupted nature of * 
series of sedimentary formations hitherto brought 
light, which appears so imperfect that we can ve ^ 
seldom be sure that, between the groups now cl# sS « 
as consecutive, the memorials of some great interval 
time may not be wanting. Another great source 
ambiguity arises from the small progress which 
have yet made in identifying strata in countries sort 1 


what distant from each other. 

tffi e 

There may be instances, perhaps, where the s# 
set of strata, preserving throughout a perfect idefltw 
of mineral character, may be traced continuously * r 
the flanks of one independent mountain-chain to 




Ch « XXV.] 



"ase of another, the beds being vertical or inclined in 
0r *e chain, and horizontal in the other. We might 
*hen decide with confidence, according to the method 
Proposed by M. de Beaumont, on the relative periods 
at which these chains had undergone disturbance : and 
fr °m one point thus securely established, we might 
Proceed to another, until we had determined the eras 
of many neighbouring lines of convulsion. 







Relation of rocks called " Primary" to volcanic and sedime* 1 a 
formations — Unstratified rocks called " Plutonic" — ■ ^ aD 
veins — Their various forms and mineral composition — ■ * r 
of their igneous origin — Granites of the same character P 
duced at successive eras (p. 343.) — Some of these newer 
certain fossiliferous strata — Volcanic, trappean, and pl ut 

I shall now treat of the class of rocks usually tert* 1 

a name which, as I shall afterwards sh° 

" primary, 

is not always applicable, since the formations so de s b 
nated sometimes belong to different epochs, and a 
not, in every case, more ancient than the fossilif er ° 
strata. In general, however, this division of rocks & ; 
justly be regarded as of higher antiquity than . 
secondary and transition groups above described ; a 
they may, therefore, with propriety be spoken ot 


these concluding chapters, as I have hitherto procee 
in my retrospective survey from the newer to the & 
ancient geological monuments. 

In order to explain the relation which I con cel 
the rocks termed " primary " to bear to the terti* V 
secondary, and transition formations, I shall res u 
that general view of the component parts of the ea r 
crust of which I gave a slight sketch in the p r 
minary division of the subject in the second chapt* • 

* See Vol. III. pp. 313, 314. 


Ch - XXVI.] 




It was there stated that sedimentary formations, 
containing organic remains, occupy a large part of the 
surface of our continents ; but that here and there vol- 
canic rocks occur, covering, alternating with, or break- 
ln g through, the sedimentary deposits ; so that there 
ar e two orders of mineral masses formed at the surface 

w hich have obviously a distinct origin, 
an d the volcanicJ 

the aqueous 

Fig. 218. 




a - Formations called primary (stratified and unstratified\ 
b ' Aqueous formations. c. Volcanic rocks. 

Besides these, however, there is another class, which 
c annot be assimilated precisely to either of the pre- 
ying, and which is often seen underlying the sedi- 
mentary, or breaking up to the surface in the central 
Parts of mountain-chains, constituting some of the 
f "ghest lands, and, at the same time, passing down and 
<*ming the inferior parts of the crust of the earth. 
t hl « class, usually termed "primary," is divisible into 
*o groups,— the stratified and the unstratified. The 
Ratified consists of the rocks called gneiss, mica-schist, 

filaceous-schist (or clay-slate), hornblende-schist! 
J lf nary limestone, and some others. The unstratified, 
J\ Plutonic > is composed in great measure of granite, 
^ d rocks closely allied to granite. Both these groups 
t § r ee in having, for the most part, a highly crystalline 

x *ure, and in not containing organic remains. 

m^J f .mm — 


Plutonic rocks. 

The unstratified crystalline rocks 

ave been very commonly called Plutonic, from the 

V( H. IV. 




■ 4 





opinion that they were formed by igneous action at 
great depths ; whereas the volcanic, although they als° 
have risen up from below, have cooled from a melted 
state upon or near to the surface. Granite, porphyry? 
and other rocks of the same family, often occur tfj 
large amorphous masses, from which small veins afl 
dikes are sent off, which traverse the stratified rocks 
called "primary," precisely in the manner in which 
lava is seen in some places to penetrate the secondary 

Granite veins. — We 


veins intersecting another, and granitiform porphyr 
intruding themselves into granite, in a manner analo* 
gous to that of the volcanic dikes of Etna and Vestf* 
vius, where they cut and shift each other, or p 
through alternating beds of lava and tuff. 


Fig. 219. 

Granite veins traversing stratified rocks. 

The annexed diagram will explain to the reader t 
manner in which these granite veins often branch 
from the principal mass. Those on the right-h** 11 

„:j~ „»A ,'r, tho vni'rMlp nrp tnlrpn frnm Dr. MacCU ' 




Cl >- XXVI.] 



^ch's representation of veins 

passing through the 

gneiss at Cape Wrath, in Scotland.* The veins on 
the left of the same diagram are described, by Captain 
Basil Hall, as traversing the argillaceous schist of the 
Table-Mountain at the Cape of Good Hope.f 

I subjoin another sketch from Dr. MacCulloch 
teresting representations of the granite veins in Scot- 
land, and in which the contrast of colour between th 

Fig- 220, 









s in- 


Granite veins traversing gneiss at Cape_ Wrath, in Scotland. 

v ein and some of the dark varieties of hornblende- 
Schist associated with the gneiss renders the phenomena 
"fiore conspicuous. 

The following sketch of a group of granite veins in 
Cornwall is given by Messieurs Von Oeynhausen and 
y on Dechen. % The main body of the granite here is 
of a porphyritic appearance, with large crystals of M- 
s Par ; but in the veins it is fine-grained, and without 
"ese large crystals. The general height of the veins 

J s from sixteen to twenty feet, but some are much 
hl gher. 

■ Western Islands, plate SI. 

+ Account of the Structure of Table- Mountain, &c. Trans. 
n °y- Soc. Edin., vol. vii. 

* p hil. Mag. and Annals, No. 27., New Series, March, 



Q 2 














Fig. 221. 

Granite veins passing through hornblende slate, Carnsilver Cove, Cornwall' 

The vein-granite of Cornwall very generally assuifl^ 
a finer grain, and frequently undergoes a change in 
mineral composition, as is very commonly observed *# 
other countries. Thus, according to Professor Sedg' 
wick, the main body of the Cornish granite is an %%' 
gregate of mica, quartz, arid felspar ; but the veins a re 
sometimes without mica, being a granular aggregate 
of quartz and felspar. In other varieties quartz p re ' 
vails to the almost entire exclusion both of felspar Qfl a 
mica ; in others, the mica and quartz both disapp eaf ' 
and the vein is simply composed of white granule 

Changes are sometimes caused in the intersect^ 
strata very analogous to those which the contact ot *■ 
fused mass might be supposed to produce. 

The annexed diagram, from a sketch of Dr. M^ c " 
Culloch, represents the junction of the granite of G* en 
Tilt, in Perthshire, with a mass of stratified limestone 

* On Geol. of Cornwall, Trans, of Cambridge Soc, ▼ 

oh 1 


. 124. 


t >i^ 


and schist. The granite, in this locality, often sends 
forth so many veins as to reticulate the limestone and 
schist, the veins diminishing towards their termination 
to the thickness of a leaf of paper or a thread. In 
s ome places fragments of granite appear entangled, as it 
w ere, in the limestone, and are not visibly connected 
w ith any larger mass ; while sometimes, on the other 
hand, a lump of the limestone is found in the midst of 
l he granite. The ordinary colour of the limestone of 

Fig, 222. 

Junction of granite and limestone in Glen Tilt. 

a. Granite. 

& Blue argillaceous schist. 

b. limestone 


e n Tilt is lead blue, and its texture large-grained 

ai *d highly crystalline ; but where it approximates to 

Q 3 

- . 

•• - 

-. ■♦ . . 

„ _ * ■ 








[Book I v - 

the granite, particularly where it is penetrated by the 
smaller veins, the crystalline texture disappears, and it 
assumes an appearance exactly resembling that 01 


The associated argillaceous schist often 

passes into hornblende slate, where it approaches very 
near to the granite.* 

The conversion of the limestone in these and many 
other instances into a siliceous rock, effervescing 


slowly with acids, would be difficult of explanation, were 
it not ascertained that such limestones are always in 1 " 
pure, containing grains of quartz, mica, or felsp& r 
disseminated through them. The elements of these 
minerals, when the rock has been subjected to great 
heat, may have been fused, and so spread more uni' 
formly through the whole mass. 

In the plutonic, as in the volcanic rocks, there lS 
every gradation from a tortuous vein to the most re' 
gular form of a dike, such as I have described inter* 
secting the tuffs and lavas of Vesuvius and Etna. ^ n 
these dikes of granite, which may be seen, among 


other places, on the southern flank of Mount Battocn 
one of the Grampians, the opposite walls sometimes 
preserve an exact parallelism for a considerable diS" 
tance. It is not uncommon for one set of granite vein 
to intersect another ; and sometimes there are thre 
sets, as in the environs of Heidelberg, where tn e 
granite on the banks of the river Necker is seen i0 
consist of three varieties, differing in colour, grain, a n 
various peculiarities of mineral composition. One ° 
these, which is evidently the second in age, is seen * 
cut through an older granite ; and another, still newer? 
traverses both the second and the first. These pheno* 

* MacCulloch, Geol. Trans., vol. iii. p. 259 

• \ 


Ch. XXV I.] 



*nena were pointed out to me by Professor Leonhard 

at Heidelberg. 

In Shetland there are two kinds of granite. One 
of these, composed of hornblende, mica, felspar, and 
quartz, is of a dark colour, and is seen underlying 
gneiss. The other is a red granite, which penetrates 
the dark variety every where in veins. * 

Granites of different ages.— It was formerly supposed 
that granite was the oldest of rocks, the mineral pro- 
duct of a particular period or state of the earth, formed 
long antecedently to the introduction of organic beings 
into our planet. But it is now ascertained that this 
rock has been produced again and again, at successive 
eras, with the same characters, penetrating the stra- 
tified rocks in different regions, but not always asso- 
ciated with strata of the same age. Nor are organic 
remains always entirely wanting in the formations in- 
vaded by granite, although they are usually absent. 
Many well-authenticated exceptions to the rule 
now established, on the authority of numerous ob- 
servers, amongst the earliest of whom we may cite 


Von Buch, who discovered in Norway a mass of granite 
overlying an ancient secondary limestone, containing 
orthocerata and other shells and zoophytes, f 

A considerable mass of granite in the Isle of Sky is 
described by Dr. MacCulloch as incumbent on lime- 
stone and shale, which are of the age of the English 
Has. J The limestone, which, at a greater distance 
from the granite, contains shells, exhibits no traces of 

* MacCulloch, Syst. of Geol., vol. i. p. 58. 

t Travels through Norway and Lapland, p. 45. London, 


t See Murchison, Geol. Trans., Second Series, vol. ii. partii. 

pp. 311—321. 


Q 4 





[Book IV. 

them near its junction, where it has been converted 
into a pure crystalline marble.* r 

This granite of Sky was at first termed " Syenite/' 
by which name some authors have denominated the 
more modern granites ; but they have entirely failed 
in their attempt to establish a distinction between 
granites and syenites on geological grounds. Syenite 
has been defined to be a triple compound of felspar 
quartz, and hornblende ; but the oldest granitiform 
rocks are very commonly composed of these ingre- 
dients only. In his later publications Dr. 
loch has, with great propriety, I think, called the 
plutonic rock of Sky a granite, f 

In different parts of the Alps a comparatively modern 



granite is seen penetrating through secondary strata? 
which contain belemnites, and other fossils, and are 
supposed to be referable to the age of the English 



Beaumont and Hugi, masses of this granite are some- 
times found partially overlying the secondary beds? 

in a manner analagous to 


and altering them 

changes superinduced upon sedimentary deposits in 


x ( s 

In such examples we can merely affirm, that the 
granite is newer than a secondary formation containing 
belemnites ; but we can form no conjecture when i t 
originated, not even whether it be of secondary or ter- 
tiary date. It is not to be inferred that a granite is 

* Western Islands, vol. i. p. 330. 

f Syst. of GeoL, vol. i. p. 150. 

\ Elie de Beaumont, sur les Montagues de l'Oisans, Mem. de 
la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, tome v. Hugi, Natur. Historiscbe 
Alpenreise, Soleure, 1830. 




usually of about the same age as the group of strata 
into which it has intruded itself; for in that case we 
should be inclined to assume, rashly, that the granite 
found penetrating a more modern rock, such as the 
has, for example, was much newer than that which 
*s found to invade greywacke. The contrary may 
°ften be true ; for the plutonic rock which was last in 
a melted state may not anywhere have been forced 
u p so near to the surface as to traverse the newer 
groups, but may be confined exclusively to the older 
Sedimentary formations. 

" In a deep series of strata," says Dr. MacCulloch, 
u the superior or distant portions may have been but 
s %htly disturbed, or have entirely escaped disturb - 
ar *ce, by a granite which has not emitted its veins far 
eyond its immediate boundary. However certain, 
therefore, it may be, that any mass of granite is pos- 
terior to the gneiss, the micaceous schist, or the argil- 
,a ceous schists, which it traverses, or into which it 
lr Urudes, we are unable to prove that it is not also pos- 
terior to the secondary strata that lie above them."* 

There can be little doubt, however, that some gra- 
ces are more ancient than any of our regular series 
^hich we identify by organic remains ; because there 
ar e rounded pebbles of granite, as well as gneiss, in 
the conglomerates of very ancient fossiliferous groups. 

Distinction between volcanic and plutonic rocks 
rap — When geologists first began to ekamine at- 
tentively the structure of the northern parts of Europe, 
&e y were almost entirely ignorant of the phenomena 

existing volcanos ; and when they met with basalt 




* Syst. of Geol., vol. 1. p. 136 

Q 5 


• \ 







and other rocks composed chiefly of augite, hornblende 
and felspar, which are now admitted by all to have 
been once in a state of fusion, they were divided »P 
opinion whether they were of igneous or of aqueous 
origin. In the sketch of the history of geology in the 
first volume, it was shown how much the polemics 
controversies on this subject retarded the advance- 
ment of the science, and how slowly the analogy ° 
the rocks in question to the products of active volcanos 

was recognized. 

Most of the igneous rocks first investigated in Ger- 
many, France, and Scotland were associated with ma- 
rine strata, and in some places they occurred in tabula' 
masses or platforms at different heights, so as to fort" 
on the sides of some hills a succession of terraces o» 
steps; from which circumstance they were calle 
" trap" by Bergman (from trappa, Swedish for a nig' 1 
of steps), — a name afterwards adopted very generally 
into the nomenclature of the science. 

When these trappean rocks were compared wit 1 
lavas produced in the atmosphere, they were found t° 
be in general less porous and more compact : and fro 
this character, and their association with subaqueo u 
deposits, the connection of their origin with ordinal 
volcanic action was overlooked. In this instance to 
terms of comparison were imperfect; for a set of roc ' 
formed almost entirely under water, was contraste 
with another which had cooled in the open air. ^ 

Yet the products of the ancient volcanos of Cen r 
France were classed, in reference, probably, to tn e ^ 
antiquity, with the trap rocks, although they aP° T ^ 
perfect counterparts to existing volcanos, and je 
evidently formed in the open air. Mont Dor and ^ 
Plomb du Cantal, indeed, differ in many respects v° 




Ch. XXV I.] 



Vesuvius and Etna in the mineral constitution and 
structure of their lavas ; but it is that kind of differ- 
ence which we must expect to discover when we com- 
pare the products of any two active volcanos in distant 
regions, such as Teneriffe and Hecla, or Hecla and 


The amygdaloidal structure in many of the trap 
formations proves that they were originally cellular 
and porous, like lava; but the cells have been subse- 
quently filled up with silex, carbonate of lime, zeolite, 
and other ingredients which form the nodules. The 
absence of this amygdaloidal structure may be said to 
be one of the negative characters of granite and other 

onic r 


Dr. MacCulloch, after examining with great atten- 
tion the igneous rocks of Scotland, observes, " that it 
*s a mere dispute about terms to refuse to the ancient 
eruptions of trap the name of submarine volcanos, for 
l hey are such in every essential point, although they 
**o longer eject fire and smoke/"* The same author 
also considers it not improbable that some of the vol- 
canic rocks of the same country may have been poured 
°ut in the open air. f 

The recent examination of the igneous rocks of 
Sicily, especially those of the Val di Noto, has proved 
that all the more ordinary varieties of European trap 
^ave been produced under the waters of the sea in the 
^ewer Pliocene period ; that is to say, since the Me- 
^terranean has been inhabited by a great proportion 
°* the existing species of testacea. We are, therefore, 
^titled to expect, that if we could obtain access to 
^e existing bed of the ocean, and explore the igneous . 

* Syst. of Geo!., vol. ii. p. 114. 

Q 6 

f Ibid 

* .; ■/• 




[Book IV 







rocks poured out within the last five thousand years 
beneath the pressure of a sea of considerable depth 
we should behold formations of modern date very 
similar to the most ancient trap rocks of our island* 
We cannot, however, expect the identity to be perfect; 
for time is ever working some alteration in the com- 
position of these mineral masses, as, for example, by 
converting porous lava into amygdaloids. 

Passage from trap into granite. — If a division v e 
attempted between the trappean and volcanic rocks, i* 
must be made between different parts of the sam e 

— nay, even the same rock, which would b e 
called " trap," where it fills a fissure and has assumed 
a solid crystalline form on slow cooling, must v e 
termed volcanic, or lava, where it issues on the flanks 
of the mountain. Some geologists may, perhaps, ^ e 
of opinion that melted matter, which has been pour^ 
out in the open air, may be conveniently called vol" 
canic ; while that which appears to have cooled at th e 
bottom of the sea, or under pressure, but at no gre^ 
depth from the surface, may be termed " trap:" but ** 
is very doubtful whether such distinctions can be m^ e 
without confusion, and whether we shall not be oblig e 
to consider trap and volcanic as synonymous. On w e 
other hand, the difficulty of discriminating the volcafl lC 
from the plutonic rocks is sufficiently great ; th#" e 
being an insensible passage from the most comm 0l) 
forms of granite into trap or lava. 

" The ordinary granite of Aberdeenshire," say 
Dr. MacCulloch, « is the usual ternary compound o* 
quartz, felspar, and mica; but sometimes hornblefl^ 
is substituted for the mica. But in many places 


variety occurs which is composed simply of felspar an 

in examining more minutely ^ l 

hornblende ; and 





duplicate compound, it is observed in some places to 
assume a fine grain, and at length to become undistin- 
guishable from the greenstones of the trap family. It 
a lso passes in the same uninterrupted manner into a 
basalt, and at length into a soft claystone, with a 
schistose tendency on exposure, in no respect dif- 
fering from those of the trap islands of the western 
coast."* The same author mentions, that in Shetland 
a granite composed of hornblende, mica, felspar, and 
quartz graduates in an equally perfect manner into 
basalt, f 

It would be easy to multiply examples to prove that 
the granitic and trap rocks pass into each other, and 
are merely different forms which the same elements 
bave assumed, according to the different circumstances 
Under which they have consolidated from a state of 
fusion. What has been said respecting the mode of 
explaining the different texture of the central and ex- 
ternal parts of the Vesuvian dikes may enable the 
deader in some measure to comprehend how such dif- 
ferences may originate. J 

The lavas, which are porous where they have flowed 
°ver the crater, and cooled rapidly under compara- 
tively slight pressure, appear compact and porphyritic 
XI * the dike. Now these dikes evidently communicate 
w ith the crater and the volcanic foci below ; so that 
w e may suppose them to be continuous to a vast 
depth; and the fluid matter below, which cools and 
consolidates slowly under so enormous a pressure, 
^ay be conceived to acquire a very distinct and more 
cr ystalline texture, like granite. 

If it be objected that we do not find in mountain- 


Syst. of Geol., vol. i. p. 157. 

f Ibid., p. 158 

I See p. 8. 


• ■ - ■ ■ 





chains volcanic dikes passing upwards into lava, and 
downwards into granite, we may answer, that our ver- 
tical sections are usually of small extent ; and if we 
find in certain places a transition from trap to porous 
lava, and in others a passage from granite to trap, it lS 
as much as could be expected of this evidence. I* 
should also be remembered, that a large proportion of 
the igneous rocks, when first formed, cannot be sup' 
posed to reach the surface, and these may assume tW 
usual granitic texture without graduating into trap, ° r 
into such lava and scoriae as are found on the flanks o* 

a volcanic cone. 

of the origin of granit 

It is 

not uncommon for lava streams to require more thai 1 
ten years to cool in the open air; and where they a re 
of great depth, a much longer period. The melted 
matter poured from Jorullo, in Mexico, in the ye# r 
1759, which accumulated in some places to the heigb* 
of 550 feet, was found to retain a high temperature 
half a century after the eruption.* For what immense 
periods, then, may we not conceive that great masses 
of subterranean lava in the volcanic foci may rema in 
in a red-hot or incandescent state, and how graduB* 
must be the process of refrigeration ! This process 
may be sometimes retarded for an indefinite period? 
by the accession of fresh supplies of heat; for we fi n(J 
that the lava in the crater of Stromboli, one of t' ie 
Lipari islands, has been in a state of constant ebulliti° n 
for the last two thousand years ; and we must suppo se 
this fluid mass to communicate with some cauldron of 


reservoir of fused matter below. In the Isle of Bourbon* 
also, where there has been an emission of lava once in 


■ ■ 



* See Vol. II. p. 134. 




C h. XXVI.] 



every two years for a long period, we may infer that 
the lava below is permanently in a state of lique- 

The great pressure of a superincumbent mass, and 

exclusion from contact with the atmosphere, and per- 
haps with the ocean, are some of the conditions which 
*nay be necessary to produce the granitic texture ; but 
^hat I have before said of the causes of volcanic heat 
operating at considerable depths, will show how com- 
plicated may be the processes going on in the interior 
°f the earth, and how different from any within the 
sphere of our observation at the surface.* 

If plutonic rocks, such as granite or porphyry, have 
originated far below as often as the volcanic have been 
generated at the surface, it will follow that no small 
quantity of the former class has been forming in the 
decent epoch ; since we suppose that about two thou- 
sand volcanic eruptions may occur in the course of 
every century, either above the waters of the sea or 

beneath them.f 

We may also infer, that during each preceding 
Period, whether tertiary or secondary, there have been 
granites and granitiform rocks generated ; because we 
have already discovered the monuments of ancient 
v olcanic eruptions of almost every period. 

In the next chapter I shall endeavour to show, that, 
hi consequence of the great depths at which the plu- 
tonic rocks usually originate, and of the manner in 
^hich they are associated with the older sedimentary 
strata of each district, it is rarely possible to determine 
w ith exactness their relative age. It may be true that 
the greater portion of them now visible are of higher 

* Book ii. chapters 18. and 19. 

f See Vol. II. p. 178. 




[Book l v 

antiquity than the oldest secondary strata; and yet 
they may have been produced in nearly equal quanti- 
ties during equal periods of time, from the earliest to 
the most modern epochs, instead of diminishing * n 
quantity at each successive epoch, as some geologists 








"heiher any "primary" rocks are truly stratified — Difference 
between stratification and cleavage — Professor Sedgwick on the 
Slaty and the Jointed Structure — Alteration of sedimentary 
strata by dikes (p. 364.) — Manner in which heat may be con- 
Ve yed through rocks — Conversion of sedimentary into crystal- 
line strata — The term " Hypogene" proposed as a substitute for 
<c primary" (p. 379. ) — " Metamorphic" for u stratified primary" 
**ocks — No regular order of succession of hypogene rocks — 
Cause of the high relative antiquity of visible hypogene forma- 
tions (p. 383.) — They may have been produced at each succes- 
s *ve period in equal quantities — Volume of hypogene rocks 
Su pposed to have been formed since the Eocene period- — Con- 
c *uding remarks. 


ether any primary rocks are stratified, — It has been 

t&ted that the rocks usually called " Primary," are 
visible into the stratified and the unstratified; but 
°ttie geologists have entertained doubts as to the pro- 
ity of applying the term stratified to any rocks of 
*s crystalline or " primary " class. They admit that 
e latter are often made up of t&bular masses, or beds 
ac ed one upon the other, something in the manner 

true strata ; but they deny that the analogy is so 

^ er fect as to indicate a similarity of origin : in other 

0r( ls, they do not believe the distinct beds into which 

y^talline rocks, such as gneiss, mica-schist, andhorn- 

e ttde-schist, are divided, to have been the result of 

lr *ientary deposition from water. 





; ■ 





Now it must be conceded that even in rocks whic* 1 
are unequivocally of sedimentary origin, and whic 
contain organic remains, there are many lines of P ar 

ing, that might easily be mistaken for strata, yet 

whid 1 

have no connection with stratification. Of these p af 
ings some' have been distinguished by miners und e 
the name of "joints," others by that of the "planes ° 

Cleavage or slaty structure. — In an admirable essfy 
recently published on this subject, Professor Sedg^ lC 

has described the ordinary forms, and speculated ° 
the probable origin, of these different kinds of str u 
ture.* His descriptions are derived from an extens 1 

series of original observations, made on the slate yo 



of Cumberland and Wales, and will be read by all ^ 
are desirous of obtaining a clear and thorough kfl° 
ledge of this important class of phenomena. 

Some of these Cumbrian and Welsh rocks are 
cidedly of mechanical origin ; and some strata con 
marine organic remains, so that they must have b e 
deposited from water. But, besides being strati* 16 
they are intersected by cleavage planes, which a 
usually inclined at a very considerable angle to 

flC e 

planes of the strata, and appear to be in no insta 
exactly coincident with them. In some cases 
difference is so small that these planes might easflj 
supposed parallel ; but their inclination to each <> tl1 
in the Welsh chains, is upon an average as mud 1 ^ 
30° to 40°, Sometimes the cleavage planes dip to^ r 
the same point of the compass as those of stratificat* 
but more frequently they dip to opposite points. „ 
" In that variety of slate which is used for roofi*# 


* Geol. Trans., vol. iii. Second Series, p. 461 


Ch - XXVII. 




Sa ys Professor Sedgwick, " the structure of the rock 
has been so modified that the traces of its original de- 
Position are quite obliterated; and this remark does 
^t apply merely to single quarries, but sometimes to 
w We mountains. We can, however, in many slate 
parries, and even in hand specimens of slate, discover 
a number of parallel stripes, sometimes of a lighter, and 
s °nietimes of a darker colour than the general mass; 
ar *d in rocks of the age I am considering, these stripes 
ar e universally parallel to the true bedding of the rocks. 
The proof of this is established by the fact that the 
Assumption leads to consistent results ; that these 
str ipes are always parallel to true beds whenever such 
^ds can be discovered, whether by organic remains, by 
t]l e alternations of dissimilar deposits, or by any other 
° r dinary means. Sometimes, however, all these means 
^1> and we may ramble for miles among mountains of 
^ate without seeing a single trace of their original 
"1 think it obvious," continues the same author, 
that the contortions of slate rocks are phenomena 
Si^ite distinct from cleavage, and that the curves pre- 


8e nted by such formations are the true lines of dis- 
ced strata. 9 ' * 
In the accompanying section, given by the Professor 

Fig. 223. 

Parallel planes of cleavage intersecting curved strata. 

to illustrate these appearances in the Welsh slate rocks, 
u>e see the cleavage planes preserving an almost geo- 


Sedgwick, Geol. Trans., vol, iii. Second Series, p. 474. 

I ! 









metrical parallelism, while they pass through contorte 
strata of " hard greenish slate, obviously of sedimen * 
ary origin.'' A region more than thirty jniles in leng* 
and eight to ten in breadth, exhibits this structure ° n 
a magnificent scale. Many of the contorted 
" are of a coarse mechanical structure ; but subordina 
to them are fine, crystalline, chloritic slates. But tn 
coarser beds and the finer, the twisted and the straig* 1 
have all been subjected to one change. 

" The slaty cleavage, however, is only brought out 1 
perfection where the materials of the rock are fine an 
homogeneous. Yet although the coarser beds are n° 
slaty, they are said to have usually a grain parallel 
the cleavage planes of the finer beds, and it is on ) 
when the materials are very coarse that the cleavag 
planes entirely vanish."* . 

It is admitted by Professor Sedgwick, that some be 
of greywacke are subdivided into very thin lam in 
which resemble slate, and are used for the same p ur ' 
poses, yet have been produced by aqueous deposit! 011 ' 
Nay, in certain cases, " these laminae cannot be disti 
guished by their mineral structure from the slates 
cleavage." It is proposed, however, to call such slat ; 
of deposition "flagstones," by reference to their se 
mentary origin. A flagstone, it is said, may general; 
be distinguished from a true slate of cleavage by sug . 
deviations in its plane ; occasionally by what is cal* 
the ripple mark ; by a dull granular surface ; by sca 
tered flakes of mica, entirely unlike the continue 
chloritic flakes of a true cleavage ; and sometimes 
organic remains studded on its surface. 


Some confusion will, I fear, arise from attempting 



restrict the term slate to those cases alone where 

* Proceedings of Geol. Soc. No. 44. p. 360. 






v laminae are oblique to the stratification; espe- 

Cla % as we have seen that diagonal lamination may be 
Produced by sedimentary deposition, and that too in 
Sor *)e instances with considerable regularity. But, 
whatever nomenclature we adopt, it is clfcar that three 
Satinet forms of structure are exhibited in certain 
r °cks throughout large districts : viz. — first, stratifi- 
Ca tion ; secondly, joints ; and thirdly, slaty cleavage ; 
^e two last having no connection with true bedding, 
ar *d having been superinduced by causes absolutely in- 
^pendent of gravitation. All these different structures 
^Ust have different names, even though there be some 
Ca ses where it is impossible, after carefully studying the 
Phenomena, to decide upon the class to which they 



Before treating of joints, it may be well to speak of 
^ e probable origin of slaty cleavage in those cases 
^here it is decidedly unconnected with sedimentary 
^position. Professor Sedgwick is of opinion that " no 
% e treat of parts, no contraction in dimensions, in pass- 
es to a solid state, can account for the phenomenon." 
j* ttiust be referred to crystalline or polar forces acting 
^ultaneously and somewhat uniformly, in given di- 
ctions, on large masses having a homogeneous com- 

c There is at first sight a difficulty in comprehending 
6 fastness of those forces which nature must have 


PpKed in producing such effects. But, in crystalliza* 
° n > there is something like a definite polarity in each 
l^ticle, by which it is compelled to turn in a given 
| re ction, and group itself with other particles in defi- 
l * e forms ; and if this modification of internal structure 


carried on through a very large mass of matter, is it 
ot probable that there is an accumulated intensity of 










crystalline action in each part, so that the whole inten- 
sity of crystalline force modifying the mass is n ° 
equal to the sum of the forces necessary to crystals 
each part independently, but is some function of tha 
sum, whereby it may be increased almost indefinitely • 
I see nothing improbable in this kind of accumulate 


Sir John Herschel, in allusion to this subject, h*j 
suggested to me, " that if rocks have been so heate^ 
as to allow a commencement of crystallization ; that 
to say, if they have been heated to a point at whic 1 
the particles can begin to move amongst themselves, ° 
at least on their own axes, some general law must th^ 
determine the position in which these particles * l 
rest on cooling. Probably, that position will have so& 
relation to the direction in which the heat escape ' 
Now, when all, or a majority of particles of the sal* 1 
nature have a general tendency to one position, tb 
must of course determine a cleavage plane, 
we see the infinitessimal crystals of fresh precipita te 
sulphate of baryte, and some other such bodies, arran^ 
themselves alike in the fluid in which they float ; so ** > 
when stirred, all to glance with one light and give t 
appearance of silky filaments. Some sorts of soap 
which insoluble margarates exist, exhibit the sa 
phenomenon when mixed with water ; and what occ& 
in our experiments on a minute scale, may occur 
nature on a great one, &c." t 

Jointed structure. — " Besides the planes of c . 
age," observes Professor Sedgwick, " we often find 
large slate quarries one or more sets of cross j<> in 

* Sedgwick, Geol. Trans., vol. iii. Second Series, pp. 47 h 
f Letter to the author, dated Cape of Good Hope, Feb' 


Thu 5 



Cb - XXVII. 




w hich, combined with cleavage, divide the rock into 
fhombohedral solids. These solids are not capable of 
^definite subdivision into similar solids, except in one 
Section, namely, that of true cleavage ; and in this 
Wa y> even in hand specimens, we may generally dis- 
* n guish the true cleavage planes from the joints. 

hese last are fissures placed at definite distances from 
° ac h other, the masses of rock between them having, 
generally speaking, no tendency to cleave in a direc- 
l0t * parallel to them. Such a structure seems in most 
Cas es to have been produced mechanically, either by a 
* r ain upon the rock from external force, producing 
^ore or less regular sets of cracks and fissures, or by 
j- Mechanical tension on the mass, produced probably 

J" contraction, during its passage from a fluid, or semi- 

u *d, into a solid state. Cleavage planes are, on the 

0r *trary, the results of the ultimate chemical arrange- 

er *t of the particles of a rock, and appear in most 

* s es to be unconnected with any direct mechanical 

c A slaty and jointed structure are, however, often 
***ft>ited together; and cases may arise where it is 
Most impossible to decide whether a certain set of 
^res are to be called joints, or cleavage planes : but 

exception, and not 

J^culties of this kind are the 


e mle."* 

. *he jointed structure is common both to the strati- 
G( *and unstratified rocks ; but is best seen in the un- 
ratified, as in granite, or columnar basalt In the 
^ss and Savoy Alps, Mr. Bakewell has well remarked 
at enormous masses of limestone are cut through so 
Snarly by nearly vertical partings, and these are 


Sedgwick, Geol. Trans., vol. iii. Second Series, pp. 480, 481. 









often so much more conspicuous than the seam s 
stratification, that an unexperienced observer will a " 
most inevitably confound them, and suppose the stra 


to be perpendicular when in fact they are 
horizontal. * . 

The cause of this tendency to a jointed structure 
by no means understood ; but it appears, from rece° 
observations, that ice sometimes presents a sim lIa 
arrangement of parts. Scoresby, indeed, when spea 
ing of the icebergs of Spitzbergen, had long ago state > 
" that they are full of rents, extending perpendicular; 
downwards, and dividing them' into innumerable c ° 
lumns." Colonel Jackson has lately investigated tj 11 
subject more attentively, and has found that the lC 
on the Neva, at St. Petersburg, at the beginning 
a thaw, when two feet in thickness, is traversed J 
rows of very minute air-bubbles extending in straig 
lines, sometimes a little inflected, from the upper s u 
face of the ice towards the lower, within from W° 
five inches of which they terminate. " Other blo c 
presented these bubbles united, so as to form cy 
drical canals, a little thicker than a horse-hair. ^ 
serving still further," he says, " I found blocks in 


the process was more advanced, and two, three 
more clefts, struck off in different directions from 


vertical veins, so that a section perpendicular to 
vein would represent in miniature the star-for** 1 
cracks of timber. Finally, in some pieces, th e ^ 
cracks united from top to bottom of the veins, sep 
ating the whole mass into vertical prisms, having ■ 

o In this state a slig 

shock was sufficient to detach them ; and the W 

greater or less number of sides. 

* Introduction to Geology, chap, iv 

C1 >. XXVII.] 



w ith its scattered fragments was in all respects the 
e *act miniature resemblance, in crystal, of a Giant's 
Causeway. The surface was like a tessellated pave- 
^ent, and the columns rose close, adhering and pa- 
rallel, from the compact mass of a few inches at the 
Ul *der surface. More or less time is required for the 
Process, which I have since seen in all its different 



tification of 

If we examine 

§fleiss, which consists of the same materials as granite 
0r mica-schist, which is a compound of quartz and mica 
°r hornblende schist, which is formed of hornblende and 
felspar, or any other member of the so-called primary 
^vision, we find that they are each made up of a suc- 
cession of beds, the planes of which are, to a certain 
e *tent, parallel to each other in a manner analogous to 
^at exhibited by sedimentary formations of all ages. 
They may occasionally exhibit, in addition, both a 
Jointed and a slaty structure ; but they are also divided 
j&to uneven foliated layers, or in some cases into thick 
° e ds which resemble strata of deposition. 

The resemblance to stratification in the granitic 
Sc hists often extends very far ; for the beds are oc- 
casionally contorted, or they are made up of lamina? 
Pkced diagonally, as in many sedimentary formations 
e fore described f , such laminae not being regularly 
Parallel like the planes of cleavage. 

This disposition of the layers is illustrated in the 
Accompanying diagram, in which I have represented 
Penally the stratification of a coarse argillaceous 
Sc hist, which I examined in the Pyrenees, part of 
W hich approaches in character to a green and blue 

* Journ. of Roy. Geogr. Soc, vol. v. p. 19. \\ 


f See above, p. 79. 

v ol. iv. 





[Book IV. 

Fig. 224, 



Lamination of clay-slate, Montagne de Seguinat, near Gavarnie, in i^ e 


roofing slate, while part is extremely quartzose, the 
whole mass passing downwards into micaceous schist' 
The vertical section here exhibited is about three fe^ 
in height, and the layers are sometimes so thin that 
fifty may be counted in the thickness of an inch* 
Some of them consist of pure quartz. 

Another striking point of analogy between the 
stratification of the crystalline formations and that °* 
the secondary and tertiary periods, is the alternation, ltt 
each, of beds varying greatly in composition, colotfft 
and thickness. We observe, for instance, gneiss & 
ternating with layers of black hornblende-schist, 
with granular quartz or limestone ; and the interchange 
of these different strata may be repeated for an inde* 

finite number of times. In like manner, mica-sch ist 



alternates with chlorite-schist, and with gran 
limestone in thin layers. 

As we observe in the secondary and tertiary fori* 1 * 
ations strata of pure siliceous sand alternating with 
micaceous sand and with layers of clay, so in the 
"primary" we have beds of pure quartz rock alte** 

mica-schist and clay-slate. Aa {n 4 ^ e 



As in 

secondary and tertiary series we meet with limeston 
alternating again and again with micaceous or argih a " 



c eous sand, so we find in the "primary" gneiss and 
^ica-schist alternating with pure and impure granular 




Passage of gneiss into granite. — But if we attribute 
e stratification of gneiss, mica-schist, and other as- 
sociated rocks, to sedimentary deposition from a fluid, 
^e encounter this difficulty, — that there is often a 
transition from gneiss, a member of the stratified and 
therefore sedimentary series, into granite, which, as I 
have shown, is of igneous origin. Gneiss is composed 
°f the same ingredients as granite, and its texture is 
equally crystalline. It sometimes occurs in thick beds, 
a *id in these the rock is often quite undistinguishable, 
k hand specimens, from granite; yet the lines of 
Gratification are still evident. These lines, it is con- 
nived, imply deposition from water ; while the passage 
x *tto granite would lead us to infer an igneous origin, 
fo what manner, then, can these apparently conflicting 
v *ews be reconciled ? The Huttonian hypothesis offers, 
■*■ think, the only satisfactory solution of this problem. 
According to that theory, the materials of gneiss were 
°Hginally deposited from water in the usual form of 
queous strata; but these strata were subsequently 
^tered by subterranean heat, so as to assume a new 
texture. The reader will be in some degree prepared, 
ty what has been stated in the preceding pages, to 
c °nclude, that when voluminous masses of melted and 
^candescent rock, accompanied by intensely heated 
§ases under great pressure, have been for ages in con- 
tact with sedimentary deposits, they may produce great 
iterations in their texture; and this alteration may 
a dmit of every intermediate gradation between that 
^suiting from perfect fusion and the slightest modifi 
°ation which heat can produce. 

R 2 







Some light has been thrown on the changes which 
stratified masses may undergo subsequently to their 
original deposition by direct experiment on the fusion 
of rocks in the laboratory; and still more by observ- 
ations on strata in contact with igneous veins and dikes* 
In studying the latter class of phenomena, we have 
the advantage of examining the condition of the same 
continuous rock at some distance from the dike, where 
it has escaped the influence of heat, and its state where 
it has been near to, or in contact with, the fused mass- 
The changes thus exhibited may be regarded as the 
results of a series of experiments, made by nature on 
greater scale than we can imitate, and under every 
variety of condition, in respect to the mineral ingred** 
ents acted upon, the intensity of heat or pressure, a n(J 
the celerity or slowness of the cooling process* 


Strata altered by volcanic dikes 


One of the most interesting examples of alteration in 
the proximity of a volcanic dike occurs near Pl aSS 
Newydd, in Anglesea, described by Professor Henslo^' 
The dike is 134 feet wide, and consists of a rock whie* 1 

is a compound of 



authors). Strata of shale and argillaceous limestone? 
through which it cuts perpendicularly, are altered to a 
distance of thirty, or even, in some places, to thirty - " 
five feet from the edge of the dike. The shale, as 1 
approaches the basalt, becomes gradually more coin" 
pact, and is most indurated where nearest the junction* 
Here it loses part of its schistose structure, but tn 
separation into parallel layers is still discernible. *■ 
several places the shale is converted into hard porce * 
lanous jasper. In the most hardened part of tn 
mass the fossil shells, principally Productce, are near y 
obliterated ; yet even here their impressions may * re 

°k. XXVIL] 



quently be traced. The argillaceous limestone under- 
goes analogous mutations, losing its earthy texture as 
xt approaches the dike, and becoming granular and 
crystalline. But the most extraordinary phenomenon 
ls the appearance in the shale of numerous crystals of 
^nalcime and garnet, which are distinctly confined to 
those portions of the rock affected by the dike.* Gar- 
gets have been observed, under very analogous cir- 
cumstances, in High Teesdale, by Professor Sedgwick, 
w here they also occur in shale and limestone, altered 
by a basaltic dike. This discovery is most interesting, 
because garnets often abound in mica-schist ; and we 
s ee in the instance above cited that they did not pre- 
v iously exist in the shale and limestone, but have 
evidently been produced by heat or heated gases in 
r ocks in which the marks of stratification have not 
been effaced. 

Stirling Castle. — To select another example of 
iteration by dikes : the fock of Stirling Castle is a 
calcareous sandstone, fractured and forcibly displaced 
by a mass of green-stone, which has evidently invaded 
4 be strata in a melted state. The sandstone has been 


lr *durated, and has assumed a texture approaching to 
bornstone near the junction. So also in Arthur's Seat 
a *id Salisbury Craig, near Edinburgh, a sandstone is 
s een to come in contact with green-stone, and to be 
converted into a jaspideous rock.-j- 

Antrim. — In several parts of the county of Antrim, 
111 the north of Ireland, chalk with flints is traversed 
by basaltic dikes. The chalk is there converted into 
§ r anular marble near the basalt, the change sometimes 


* Trans, of Cambridge Phil. Soc, vol. i. p. 406. 
t IUust. of Hutt. Theory, §§ 253. and 261. X>r. MacCulloch, 
Ge ol. Trans., First Series, voi. ii. p. 305. 

R 3 

* M 

: - 











extending eight or ten feet from the wall of the dike? 
being greatest near the point of contact, and thence 
r'adually decreasing till it becomes evanescent. " The 
extreme effect," says Dr. Berger, " presents a dar* 
brown crystalline limestone, the crystals running in 
flakes as large as those of coarse primitive limestone ; 
the next state is saccharine, then fine-grained # n " 
arenaceous ; a compact variety, having a porcellanoU 3 
aspect and a blueish-grey colour, succeeds ; this, to* 
wards the outer edge, becomes yellowish white and #' 
sensibly graduates into the unaltered chalk. The fli nts 
in the altered chalk usually assume a grey yellowish 
colour." * All traces of organic remains are effaced ^ 
that part of the limestone which is most crystalline. 

As the carbonic acid has not been expelled, in thi s 
instance, from that part of the rock which must b 6 
supposed to have been melted, the change probaW 

took place under considerable pressure ; for Sir Ja& eS 
Hall proved, that, under ordinary circumstances, jt 

would require the weight of about 1700 feet of $&' 
water, which would be equivalent to the pressure of a 
column of liquid lava about 600 feet high, to preve* 1 
this acid from being given off. The experiments ° 
Faraday have recently shown that, if carbonate of H 1 ** 6 
be perfectly dry, it may be melted under a very slig* 1 
pressure, without the carbonic acid assuming a g aS * 
eous form ; but it is probable that in the earth's eras 
calcareous rocks are rarely, if ever, entirely free ft* 0111 



Another of the dikes of the north-east of Irelan 

has converted a mass of red sandstone into hornstone.f 


By another, the slate-clay of the coal-measures 

* Dr. Berger, Geol. Trans., First Series, vol. iii. p. 172. 
f Rev. W. Conybeare, Geol. Trans., First Series, vol.iii* p-2° 




£h. XXVII.] 



been indurated, and has assumed the character of flinty 
slate * ; and in another place the slate clay of the lias 
has been changed into flinty slate, which still retains 


numerous impressions of ammonites.f One of the 
green-stone dikes of the same country passes through 
a bed of coal, which it reduces to a cinder for the space 
of nine feet on each side. % Yet there are places in 
the north of Ireland, where the chalk is scarcely, if at 
all, altered by the contact of basaltic dikes, and a 
similar phenomenon is not unfrequent in other districts, 
at the junction of trap with different kinds of strata. 
This great inequality in the effects of the igneous rocks 
*nay often arise from an original difference in their 
temperature and in that of the entangled gases, such 
as is ascertained to prevail in different lavas, or in the 
same lava near its source, and at a distance from it. 
The power also of the invaded rocks to conduct heat 
may vary according to their composition, structure, 
and the fractures which they may have experienced, 
and, perhaps, as I shall hint in the sequel, the quantity 
of steam or hot water they contain. It should also be 
borne in mind that in some cases the melted rock may 
begin to cool from the first; whereas, in other cases, 
although parting constantly with its heat, it may receive 
fresh accessions of caloric from below. 

The secondary sandstones in Sky are converted into 
solid quartz in several places where they come in con- 
tact with veins or masses of trap ; and a bed of quartz, 
says Dr. MacCulloch, has been found near a mass of 
trap, among the coal strata of Fife, which was in all 

* Rev. W. Conybeare, Geol. Trans., First Series, vol.iii. p. 205. 
f Ibid., p. 213. ; and Playfair, IUust. of Hutt. Theory, §253. 
t Ibid., p. 206. 

R 4 

_ * 



[Book IV' 

probability a stratum of ordinary sandstone subse- 
quently indurated by the action of heat.* 



selected these from innumerable examples of changes 
produced by volcanic dikes, we may next consider 
those caused by the contiguity of plutonic rocks. To 
some of these I have already adverted, when speaking 
of granite veins, and endeavouring to establish the 
igneous origin of granite. It was stated that the main 
body of the Cornish granite sends forth veins through 
the killas of that country f, — a coarse argillaceous 
schist, which is converted into hornblende- schist near 
the contact with the veins. These appearances are 
well seen at the junction of the granite and killas in 
St. Michael's Mount, a small island nearly 300 fee* 
high, situated in the bay, at a distance of about three 
miles from Penzance., 

The granite, says Mr. De la Beche, of Dartmoor? 
in Devonshire, has intruded itself into the greywackfe 
twisting and contorting the strata, and sending vein* 
into them. Hence some of the slate rocks have be- 
come " micaceous, others more indurated, and with 
the characters of mica-slate and gneiss, while others 
again appear converted into a hard-zoned rock strongly 

ipregnated with felspar." J 

We learn from the investigations of M 


that in the eastern Pyrenees there are mountain masses 
of granite posterior in date to the lias and chalk of that 
district, and that these secondary rocks are greatly 
altered in texture, and often charged with iron ore, * n 
the neighbourhood of the granite. Thus in the en* 

rons of St. Martin, near IS 

* Syst. of Geol., vol. i. p. 206. 
•f See diagram, Fig. 221. 

| Geol. Manual, p. 479 

C h. XXVII] 



chalky limestone becomes more crystalline and sac- 
c haroid as it approaches the granite, and loses all 
traces of the fossils which it previously contained in 
abundance. At some points also it becomes dolomitic, 
a nd filled with small veins of carbonate of iron, and 
s pots of red iron-ore. At Rancie the lias nearest the 
granite is not only filled with iron-ore, but charged with 
Pyrites, tremolite, garnet, and a new mineral somewhat 
allied to felspar, called, from the place in the Pyrenees 
*here it occurs, " couzeranite." 

In the department of the Hautes Alpes, in France, 
fiear Vizille M. Elie de Beaumont traced a black 
argillaceous limestone, charged with belemnites, to 
within a few yards of a mass of granite. Here the 

Fig. 225. 

** u *cti<m of granite with Jurassic or oolite strata in the Alps, near Champoleon* 

^^estone begins to put on a granular texture, but is 
extremely fine-grained. When nearer the junction, it 
becomes grey and has a saccharoid structure. In 
Mother locality, near Champoleon, a granite com- 

r 5 





[Book l v 


posed of quartz, black mica, and rose-coloured felspar? 
is observed partly to overlie the secondary rocks, pi" ' 
ducing an alteration which extends for about thirty 
feet downwards, diminishing in the beds which H e 
farthest from the granite. (See Fig. 225.) In the 
altered mass the argillaceous beds are hardened, the 
limestone is saccharoid, the grits quartzose, and in the 
midst of them is a thin layer of an imperfect granite- 
It is also an important circumstance, that near the 
point of contact, both the granite and the secondary 
rocks become metaliferous, and contain nests and small 
veins of blende, galena, iron, and copper pyrites. The 
stratified rocks become harder and more crystalline* 
but the granite, on the contrary, softer and less per' 
fectly crystallized near the junction.* 

It will appear from sections in the Alps, described 
by MM. Hugi and Studer, that some of the secondary 
beds of limestone and slate, which are in a simile 
manner overlaid by granite, have been altered into 
gneiss and mica-schist.f Some of these altered sedi- 
mentary formations are supposed, by M. Elie de Beau- 
mont, to be of the age of the lias of England, and 
others to be even as modern as the Jurassic or ooH te 


We can scarcely doubt, in these cases, that the hea* 
communicated by the granitic mass, accompanied, per- 
haps, by gases at a high temperature, have reduced 
the contiguous strata to semifusion, and that, on cool- 
ing slowly, the rock assumed a crystalline texture. 



* Elie de Beaumont, sur les Montagnes de l'Oisans, # c ' ? 
Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, tome v. 

f Hugi, Natur. Historische Alpenreise, Soleure, 1830. Studeft 
Westlichen Alpen. 





that a rock need not be perfectly melted in order that 
a re-arrangement of its component particles should 
take place, and that a more crystalline texture should 
ensue.* We may easily suppose, therefore, that all 
traces of shells and other organic remains may be de- 
stroyed, and that new chemical combinations may 
arise, without the mass being so fused as that the 
Hnes of stratification should be wholly obliterated. 

In allusion to the passage from granite to gneiss, 
above described f, Dr. MacCulloch remarks, that, " in 
numerous parts of Scotland, where the leading masses 
of gneiss are schistose, evenly stratified, and scarcely 
ever traversed by granite veins, they become contorted 
and irregular as they approach the granite ; assuming 
also the granitic character, and becoming intersected 
by veins, numerous in proportion to the vicinity of the 
. The conclusion," he adds, " is obvious ; the 
fluid granite has invaded the aqueous stratum as far as 
its influence could reach, and thus far has filled it with 
veins, disturbed its regularity, and generated in it a 
new mineral character, often absolutely confounded 
with its own. And if the more remote beds, and 
those alternating with other rocks, are not thus af- 
fected, it is not only that it has acted less on those ; 
but that, if it had equally affected them, they never 
could have existed, or would have been all granitic 

and venous gneiss." J 

It should, however, be understood, that the alter- 
ations caused by volcanic dikes, granite veins, and 
even large masses of granite, can only afford us some 
analogy to those which have given rise to the meta- 




* Phil. Trans., 1804. 

t Syst. of Geol., vol.ii. p. 145. 

R 6 

See p. 364 

Ifl I 



[Book IV. 

morphic structure ; for, according to the views ex- 
plained in the second book (chaps. 18 and 19.), vol- 
canic heat itself may be derived from chemical and 
electrical action pervading large portions of the earth's 
crust. This action, which, when most intense, may 
reduce the elements of rocks to fusion, and give rise 

to the most perfect granitic structure, may perhaps? 


when less energetic, give rise to a crystalline texture 
without destroying stratification. 

As to the degree of heat required to superinduce 
such changes, it must, in the present state of science? 
be matter of conjecture ; but some geologists object to 
the metamorphic theory, on the ground that rocks are 
extremely bad conductors of heat. Now it is worthy 
of consideration, how far heat, instead of being con- 
ducted through the solid parts of rocks, may be 
carried by heated gases through their pores ; for we 
have seen that volcanic eruptions are attended by the 
evolution of steam and other gases, which rush out i* 1 
enormous volume, and at a high temperature, for days? 
weeks, or years continuously, and which are given off 
by lava even after it has begun to assume a solid form- 
These aeriform fluids, if unable to force their way 
into the atmosphere, may, nevertheless,, when brought 
into contact with rocks, pass through their pores* 
According to the experiments of Henry, water, under 
an hydrostatic pressure of ninety-six feet, will absorb 
three times as much carbonic acid gas as it can under 
the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere. Although 
this increased power of absorption would be dimi- 
nished, in consequence of the higher temperature 
found to exist as we descend in the earth, y et 
Professor BischofF has shown that the heat by n° 
means augments in such a proportion as to counteract 






the effect of augmented pressure.* There are other 
gases, as well as the carbonic acid, which water 
^sorbs, and more rapidly in proportion to the amount 
°f pressure. Now even the most compact rocks may 
he regarded, before they have been exposed to the air 
and dried, in the light of sponges filled with water ; 
ai *d it is conceivable that heated gases brought into 
contact with them, at great depths, may be absorbed 
r eadily, and transfused through their pores. Although 
the gaseous matter first absorbed would soon be con- 
densed, and part with its heat, yet the continued 
arrival of fresh supplies . from below, might, in the 
course of ages, cause the temperature of the water, 
a nd with it that of the containing rock, to be mate- 
rially raised. 
M. Fournet, in his description of the metaliferous 

gneiss near Clermont, in Auvergne, states that all the 
minute fissures of the rock are quite saturated with 
*ree carbonic acid gas, which rises plentifully from 
the soil there and in many parts of the surrounding 
country. The various elements of the gneiss, with 
the exception of the quartz, are all softened ; and new 
combinations of the acid, with lime, iron, and man- 
ganese, are continually in progress.f 

Another illustration of the power of subterranean 
gases is afforded by the stufas of St. Calogero, situated 
ir * the largest of the Lipari Islands. Here, according 
to the description lately published by Hoffmann, hori- 
zontal strata of tuff, extending for four miles along 
the coast, and forming cliffs more than 200 feet high, 
have been discoloured in various places, and strangely 
altered by the " all-penetrating vapours/? Dark clays 


Poggendorf s Annalen, No. XVI. Second Series, vol. iii. 

t See Vol. I. p. 331. 


-* -'J 






[Book IV, 

have become yellow, or often snow-white ; or have as- 
sumed a chequered and brecciated appearance, being 
crossed with ferruginous red stripes. In some places 
the fumeroles have been found by analysis to consist 
partly of sublimations of oxide of iron ; but it also 
appears that veins of calcedony and opal, and others 
of fibrous gypsum, 

have resulted from these volcanic 

I have before referred to M. Virlet's account of the 
corrosion of hard, flinty, and jaspideous rocks near 
Corinth, by the prolonged agency of subterranean 

ises f ; and to Dr. Daubeny's description of the de- 
composition of trachytic rocks in the Solfatara, near 
Naples, by sulphuretted hydrogen and muriatic acid 

gases. X 

Although in all these instances we can only study 
the phenomena as exhibited at the surface, it is clear 
that the gaseous fluids must have made their way 
through the whole thickness of porous or fissured 
rocks, which intervene between the subterranean re- 
servoirs of gas and the external air. The extent 
therefore, of the earth's crust, which the vapours have 
permeated and are now permeating, may be thousands 
of fathoms in thickness, and their heating and modi- 
fying influence may be spread throughout the whole ot 
this solid mass. 

The study of metaliferous veins, also, especially 
those which are admitted to be fissures filled from 
below, is calculated to throw light on the manner i* 1 
which heated vapours and aqueous solutions may fi n( * 


* Hoffmann's Liparischen Inseln, p. 38. Leipzig, 1832. 
| See Vol. III. p. 203. ; and Bulletin de la Soc. Geol 
France, torn. ii. p. 330. 

i See Vol. II. p. 90. ; and Daubeny's Volcanos, p. 167. 




their way up through the interstices of rocks, raising 
their temperature, and sometimes transfusing into 
them new mineral substances. A great number of these 
fissures have evidently been filled in the first instance 
with rubbish, resulting from fragments of the adjoining 
rocks ; and through this rubbish various siliceous, cal- 
careous, and metallic vapours or solutions appear to 
have risen, causing precipitates of quartz, hornstone, 
calcareous spar, lead, zinc, and other metals, often 
perfectly distinct in their composition from any of the 
elements of the rocks which form the walls of such 
fissures. Proofs are not wanting that these rents have 
been caused and filled at different epochs. Thus, for 
example, some of the silver and cobalt veins in Bohemia 
appear, from the observations of Mayer and Fournet, 
to be of the age of the chalk * , while other metaliferous 
veins, in the same district, were contemporaneous with 
a tertiary basalt.f M. Necker has also shown that a 
relation exists between the position of numerous me- 
tallic veins in various countries and subjacent masses 
of plutonic rock ; so that the emanations rising from 
such igneous masses may, in many instances, have 
given rise to the more crystalline substances, whether 
metallic or not, which constitute the contents of the 

If, after more fully reflecting upon those various 
causes of change in the composition and structure of 
rocks, which have only been glanced at in the above 
sketch, the reader conceives the possibility of a very 
great amount of alteration being induced in the course 
of time, he may be prepared to conjecture that gneiss 
and mica-schist may be nothing more than altered mi- 

* D'Aubuisson, Traite de G£og., torn. iii. p. 497. 
f Ibid., p. 508. 




[Book IV. 

caceous and argillaceous sandstones, and^hat granular 
quartz may have been derived from siliceous sandstone? 
and compact quartz from the same materials. Clay- 
slate may be altered shale, and shale appears to be clay 
which has been subjected to great pressure. Granule 
marble has probably originated in the form of ordinary 
limestone, having in many instances been replete with 
shells and corals now obliterated, while calcareous 
sands and marls have been changed into impure crys- 


talline limestones. 

" Hornblende-schist," says Dr. MacCulloch, " may 
at first have been mere clay ; for clay or shale is found 
altered by trap into Lydian stone, a substance differing 
from hornblende-schist almost solely in compactness 
and uniformity of texture."* " In Shetland," remarks 
the same author, " argillaceous-schist (or clay-slate)? 
when in contact with granite, is sometimes converted 
into hornblende-schist, the schist becoming first sili- 
ceous, and ultimately, at the contact, hornblende- 


Associated with the rocks termed primary, we meet 
with anthracite, just as we find beds of coal in sedi- 
mentary formations ; and we know that, in the vicinity 
of some trap dikes, coal is converted into anthracite. 

This theory, if confirmed by observation and ex- 
periment, may enable us to account for the high 
position in the series usually held by clay-slate r e " 
latively to hornblende-schist, as also to gneiss and mica* 
schist, which so commonly alternate with hornblende- 
schist ; for we must suppose the heat which alters the 
strata to proceed, in almost all cases, from below up- 
wards, and to act with greatest intensity on the inferior 
strata. If, therefore, several sets of argillaceous strata 

* Syst. of Geol., vol. i. p. 210. 

f Ibid., p. 211 




Ch. XXVII.] 



or shales be superimposed upon each other in a vertical 
series of beds in the same district, the lowest of these 
^ill be converted into hornblende-schist, while the up- 
permost may continue in the condition of clay-slate. 

It has been objected that the chemical composition 
of the secondary strata differs essentially from that of 
the crystalline schists into which they are supposed to 
be convertible.* The "primary" schists* it is said, 
Usually contain a considerable proportion of potash or 
of soda, which the secondary clays, shales and slates do 
not, these last being the result of the decomposition of 
felspathic rocks, from which the alkaline matter has 
been abstracted during the process of decomposition. 
But this reasoning proceeds on insufficient and ap- 
parently mistaken data ; for a large portion of what is 

Usually called clay, marl, shale, and slate does actually 
contain a certain and often a considerable proportion of 
alkali ; so that it is difficult in many countries to obtain 
clay or shale sufficiently free from alkaline ingredients 
to allow of their being burnt into bricks or used for 

Thus the argillaceous shales, as they are called, and 
slates of the old red-sandstone, in Forfarshire and other 
parts of Scotland, are so much charged with alkali, 
derived from triturated felspar, that, instead of harden- 
*ng when exposed to fire, they melt readily into a 
glass. They contain no lime, but appear to consist of 
extremely minute grains of the various ingredients of 
granite, which are distinctly visible in the coarser- 
grained varieties, and in almost all the interposed 
sandstones. These laminated clays, marls, and shales 
**%ht certainly, if crystallized, resemble in composition 
***any of the primary strata. 

* Dr. Boase, Primary Geology, p. 319. 







■ I 





Another objection to the metamorphic theory has 
been derived from the alternation of highly crystalline 
strata with others having a less crystalline texture* 
The heat, it is said, in its ascent from below must have 
traversed the less altered schists before it reached 
a higher and more crystalline bed. In answer t° 
this, it may be observed, that if a number of strata 
differing greatly in composition from each other be 
subjected to equal quantities of heat, there is every 
probability that some will be&more fusible than others* 
Some, for example, will contain soda, potash, lime, o r 
some other ingredient capable of acting as a flux ; while 
others may be destitute of the same elements, and $° 
refractory as to be very slightly affected by a degree 
of heat capable of reducing others to semi-fusion. ^° r 
should it be forgotten that, as a general rule, the le sS 
crystalline rocks do really occur in the upper, and the 
more crystalline in the lower part of each metamorph 1 


To some it appears a phenomenon very difficult ° l 
explanation, that detached masses of granite, and eve** 
layers of it, should often occur in the midst of strata 
near their contact with granite. This appearance ° 
isolation is usually deceptive, arising from the inter' 
section in a vertical precipice of tortuous veins ° 
granite, as Professor Henslow has shown to be tn e 
case in several places in the cliffs of Anglesea.* I ^^ 
also remark, that if unaltered sedimentary strata con- 
tained here and there layers or nests of the ingredients 
of granite, the rest of the mass consisting of differed 
materials, and if the temperature of the whole has 
been sufficiently raised by plutonic action, the resu 

* Camb. Trans., voL i. 

's ^ 

Ch. XXVII.] 



might be, that nodules and threads of granite might 
be formed in certain spots only. 

The term " Hypogene " proposed instead of Pri- 
mary. — It will appear from the reasoning explained in 
this and the preceding chapter, that the popular no- 
menclature of Geology, in reference to the rocks called 
u primary," is not only imperfect, but in a great degree 
founded on a false theory ; inasmuch as some granites 
and granitic schists are of origin posterior to many 
secondary rocks. In other words, some primary form- 
ations can already be shown to be newer than many 
secondary groups — a manifest contradiction in terms. 

Yet granite and gneiss, and the families of stratified 
and unstratified rocks connected with each of them, 
belong to one great natural division of mineral masses 
having certain characters in common ; and it is there- 
fore convenient that the class to which they belong 

should receive some common name — a name which 
must not be of chronological import, and must express, 
on the one hand, some peculiarity equally attributable 
to granite and gneiss (to the plutonic as well as the 
altered rocks), and which, on the other, must have refer- 
ence to characters in which those rocks differ, both 
from the volcanic and from the unaltered sedimentary 
strata. I propose the term " hypogene " for this pur- 
pose^ derived from vm 9 subter, and ywopai, nascor ; a 
Word implying the theory that granite and gneiss are 
both nether-formed rocks, or rocks which have not as- 
sumed their present form and structure at the surface. 
It is true that gneiss and all stratified rocks must have 
been deposited originally at the surface, or on that part 
of the surface of the globe which is covered by water ; 

but, according to the views explained in this and the 
foregoing chapter, they could never have acquired 



m ^. 

; ; : 

i ■ 







their crystalline texture, unless acted upon by heat and 
chemical forces under pressure in those regions, and 
under those circumstances where the plutonic rocks 
are generated. 

The term " Metamorphic " proposed for stratified 

We mav divide the hypogene rocks, then 


into the unstratified, or plutonic, and the altered stra- 
tified. For these last the term " metamorphic " (from 
pera, trans, pogcpYj, forma,) may be used. The la st * 
mentioned name need not, however, be often resorted 
to, because we may speak of hypogene strata, hyp ' 
gene limestone, hypogene schist ; and this appellate 
will suffice to distinguish the formations so designated 


from the plutonic rocks. By referring to the 

(No. II. p. 395.), the reader will see the chronologic 1 

relation which I conceive the two classes of hypoge ne 

rocks to bear to the strata of different ages. 

No order of succession in hypogene formations 

When we regard the tertiary and secondary forifl a 
tions simply as mineral masses uncharacterized W 

organic remains, we perceive an indefinite series 


beds of limestone, clay, marl, siliceous sand, sandstone 
coal, and other materials, alternating again and ag& irl 
without any fixed or determinate order of positio* 1 ' 
The same may be said of the hypogene formations 5 
for in these a similar want of arrangement is manifest 
if we compare those occurring in different countries- 
Gneiss, mica-schist, hornblende-schist, quartz-rock, hy- 
pogene limestone, and the rest, have no invariable ordei 
of superposition, although, for reasons above explained? 
clay-slate must usually hold a superior position rela* 

tively to hornblende-schist. 

I do not deny that, in a particular mountain-chaifl? 

a chronological succession of hypogene formations vndj 


Ch. XXVII.] 



be recognized, for the same reason that in a country 
of limited extent there is an order of position in the 

secondary and tertiary rocks, limestone predominating 
in one part of the series, clay in another, siliceous sand 
in a third, and so of other compounds. It is probable 
that a similar prevalence of a regular order of arrange- 
ment in the hypogene series throughout certain dis- 
tricts led the earlier geologists into a belief that they 
should be able to fix a definite order of succession for 
the various members of this great class throughout 

the world. 

That expectation has certainly not been realized; 
yet was it more reasonable than the doctrine of the 
Universality of particular kinds of rock which were 
admitted to be of sedimentary origin; for there is 
undoubtedly a remarkable identity in the mineral cha- 
racter of the hypogene formations, both stratified and 
Unstratified, in all countries ; although the notion of a 
Uniform order of succession in the different groups 

Uiust be abandoned. 

The student may, perhaps, object to the views above 
given of the relation of the sedimentary and metamor- 
phic rocks, on the ground that there is frequently, 
indeed usually, an abrupt passage from one to the other. 
This phenomenon, however, admits of the same expla- 
nation as the fact that the beds of lakes and seas are 
Uow frequently composed of hypogene rocks. In these 
localities the hypogene formations have been brought 
Up near to the surface, and laid bare by denudation. 
New sedimentary strata are thrown down upon them, 
tod in this manner the two classes of rocks, the aque- 
ous and the hypogene, come into immediate contact, 
without any gradation from one to the other. As we 

suppose the plutonic and metamorphic rocks to have 




'I ill 







been uplifted at all periods in the earth's history, so as 
to have formed the bottom of the ocean and of lakes, 
by the same operations which have carried up marine 
strata to the summits of lofty mountains, we must 
suppose the juxtaposition of the two great orders ot 
rocks, now alluded to, to have been a necessary result 
of all former revolutions of the globe. 

But occasionally a transition is observable from strata 
containing shells, and displaying an evident mechanical 
structure, to others which are partially altered ; and 
from these again we sometimes pass insensibly into the 
hypogene series. Some of the argillaceous schists m 
Cornwall are of this description, being undistinguish- 
able from the hypogene schists of many countries, and 
yet exhibiting, in a few spots, faint traces of organic 
remains. In parts of Germany, also, there are schist 
which, from their chemical condition, must be called 
metamorphic ; yet which are interstratified with grey* 
wacke, a rock probably modified by heat, but whfc* 1 
contains casts of shells, and often displays unequivocal 
marks of being an aggregate of fragments of pre-exis t- 
ing rocks. 



described by Professor Sedgwick. * They are meta- 
morphic slates alternating with a few mechanical and 
fossiliferous beds. If it be asked by what characters 
we can draw the line and determine where the nieta 


morphic series ends, and the sedimentary begins, 
reply that, if this be difficult or impossible, it only 
strengthens the argument adduced in the preceding 
part of this chapter; for, according to the theory 
proposed, we must expect to find strata in every inter- 

* See p. 355. 






Ch. XXVII.] 



mediate condition between the most and the least 


Had Werner's term "transition" been restricted 
exclusively to certain peculiarities of mineral struc- 
ture, and never connected with the presence of par- 
ticular species of fossils, in consequence of which it 
soon acquired a chronological import, that term might 
have been conveniently retained to designate an 
intermediate condition of strata when they exhibit the 
characters of rocks of the metamorphic series with 

occasional traces of a mechanical structure and organic 

Some geologists, who shrink from the theory that 
all the hypogene strata, beautifully compact and crys- 
talline as they are, have once been in the state of 
ordinary mud, clay, marl, sand, gravel, and limestone, 
such as are now forming beneath the waters, resort, in 
their desire to escape from such conclusions, to the hy- 
pothesis, that chemical causes once acted with intense 
energy, and that by their influence purely crystalline 
strata were precipitated ; a theory which to me appears 
as mysterious and unphilosophical as the doctrine of a 
plastic virtue/' introduced by the earlier writers to 
explain the origin of fossil- shells and bones. 

Relative age of the visible hypogene rocks. — It was 
stated, at the close of the last chapter, that a great 
Portion of the plutonic rocks now visible are of higher 
antiquity than the oldest secondary strata; the same 
^ay be said of the stratified hypogene formations, 
Much are therefore entitled to the appellation of pri- 
mary, in the strict sense of the word, as anterior in age 
to the greywacke, or oldest known fossiliferous group, 
^ut we can, in some instances, demonstrate that there 
a *e granites of posterior origin to certain secondary 




[Book IV. 

strata? and that secondary strata have been converted 
into the metamorphic. Examples of such phenomena, 
are rare, and their rarity is quite consistent with the 
theory, that the hypogene formations, both stratified 
and unstratified, may have been always generated 
in nearly equal quantities during periods of equal 



I conceive that the granite and gneiss of perio 
more recent than the carboniferous and greywacke 
formations are still, for the most part, concealed; and 




those portions which are visible can rarely be shown 
by geological evidence, to have originated during 
secondary periods. It is very possible, for example 
that considerable tracts of hypogene strata in the 
Alps may be altered oolite, altered lias, or altered 
secondary rocks inferior to the lias ; but we 
scarcely ever hope to substantiate the fact, because 
whenever the change of texture is complete, no charac 
ters remain to afford us any insight into the probable 


age of the mass. Where granite happens to have in- 
truded itself in such a manner as partially to overlie a 
•mass of lias or other strata, as in the case before alluded 



to (Fig. 225., p. 369.), we may prove that fossilifero^ s 
strata have been converted into gneiss, mica-schist 
clay-slate, or granular marble ; but if the action of the 
heat upon the strata had been more intense, these 
inferences could not have been drawn; and it mign 
then have been supposed that no alpine hypogen 
strata were newer than the oldest secondary rocks. 

Considerable difficulty and misapprehension,, in re- 
gard to the antiquity of the metamorphic rocks, may 
arise from the circumstance of their having been de- 
posited at one period, and having assumed their crys- 

talline texture at another. Thus, for example, if an 




Eocene granite should invade the lias, and superinduce 
a hypogene structure, to what period shall we refer the 
altered strata ? Shall we say that they are metamorphic 
rocks of the Eocene or Liassic eras? They assumed 
their stratified form when the animals and plants of 
the lias flourished; they have become metamorphic 
during the Eocene period. It would be preferable in 
such instances, I think, to consider them as hypogene 
strata of the Eocene period, or of that in which they 
were altered ; yet it would rarely be possible to esta- 
blish their true age. For this purpose we ought to 
know the granite, to which the change of texture was 
due, to be newer than the lias which it penetrated • 
but there would rarely be any data to show that this 
granite might not have been injected at the close of 
the Liassic period, or at some much later era. 

The metamorphic rocks must in all cases be the 
oldest, that is to say, they must lie at the bottom of 
each series of superimposed strata ; but the hypogene 
strata of one country may be, and frequently are, of a 
very different age from those of another. The greater 
part, however, of the visible hypogene rocks are, pro- 
bably, more ancient than the oldest fossiliferous form- 
ations. In the latter we frequently discover pebbles 
of hypogene rocks, namely, granite, gneiss, mica- 
schist, and clay-slate; and the carboniferous rocks 
often rest upon the hypogene, without exhibiting any 
marks of change at the junction. According to the 
views before explained of the operations of earth- 
quakes, we ought not to expect plutonic and metamor- 
phic rocks of the more modern eras to have reached 
the surface generally ; for we must suppose many 
geological periods to elapse before a mass, which has 
assumed its particular form far below the level of the 








sea can have been upraised and laid open to view 
above that level. Beds containing marine shells some- 
times appear in the principal mountain-chains, at the 
height of two or three miles above the sea ; but they 
always belong to formations of considerable antiquity • 
still more, then, should we be prepared to find the 
hypogene rocks now in sight to be of high relative 
antiquity, since, before they could be brought up to 
view, they must probably have risen from a site tox 
inferior to the bottom of the ocean. 

The cause of the great age of the plutonic and 
metamorphic rocks, now in sight, may be elucidated 
by a familiar illustration. Suppose two months to be 
the usual time required for passing from some tropic* 1 
country to our island, and that an annual importation 
takes place of a certain species of insect which can be 
reared only in the climate of that equatorial country 
and the ordinary term of whose life is two months* 
It is evident that no living individuals of that specif 
could ever be seen in England except in extreme o\ 
age. The young may come annually into the world i* 1 
great numbers ; but, in order to see them, we m uS 
travel to lands near the equator. 

In like manner, if the hypogene rocks can originate 
only at great depths in the regions of subterranean 
heat, and if it requires many geological epochs to raise 
them to the surface, they must be very ancient befo^ 
they make their appearance in the superficial parts o 
the earth's crust. They may still be forming in every 
century, and they may have been produced in equ a 
quantities during each successive geological period o 
equal duration ; but in order to see them in a nascen 
state, slowly consolidating from a state of fusion, ° 



Ch. XXVII.] 






















CJ . 




r - * 













5- ^ 









• *** 





rji Cft CM 

O S 

g o 

S "3 











Ph w h K 




c a 



s 2 




[Book IV 



semi-fusion, it would be necessary to descend into the 
" fuelled entrails" of the earth. 

In the accompanying diagram, Fig. 226., an attempt 
is made to show the inverted order in which the sedi- 
mentary and plutonic formations may occur in the 
earth's crust ; subterposition in the plutonic, like super- 
position in the sedimentary rocks, being for the most 
part characteristic of a newer age. 

The oldest plutonic rock, No. L, supposed to have 
consolidated from a state of fusion before any of the 
fossiliferous rocks now on the surface were deposited, 
has been upheaved at successive periods until it has 
become exposed to view in a mountain-chain. This 


protrusion of No. I. has been caused by the igneous 
agency which produced the new plutonic rocks Nos.II- 
III. and IV. Part of the metamorphic rocks No. J. 
have also been raised to the surface by the same gradual 
process. It will be observed that the Recent strata 

No. 4. and the Recent plutonic rock No. IV. are the 
most remote from each other in position, although of 
contemporaneous date. According to this hypothesis 
the convulsions of many periods will be required be- 
fore Recent granite will be upraised so as to form the 
highest ridges and central axes of mountain-chains. 
During that time the Recent strata No. 4. might be 
covered by a great many newer sedimentary form- 

As the progress of decay and reproduction by 
aqueous agency is incessant on the surface of the 
continents, and in the bed of the ocean, while the 
hypogene rocks are generated below, or are rising 
gradually from the volcanic foci, there must ever be 
a remodelling of the earth's surface in the time inter- 
mediate between the origin of each set of plutonic 

Ch. XXVII.] 



and metamorphic rocks, and the protrusion of the same 
rocks into the atmosphere or the ocean. Suppose 
the principal source of the Etnean lavas to lie at 
the depth of ten miles, we may easily conceive that 
before they can be uplifted to the day several distinct 
series of earthquakes must occur, and between each of 
these there might usually be one or many periods of 
tranquillity. The time required for so great a develop- 
ment of subterranean movements might well be pro- 
tracted until the deposition of a series of sedimentary 
rocks, equal in extent to all our secondary and tertiary 
formations, had taken place. 

The relative age, therefore, of the visible plutonicv; 
and metamorphic rocks, as compared to the unaltered// 
sedimentary strata, must always be determined by tliefjl 
relations of two forces — the power which uplifts the 
hypogene rocks, and that aqueous agency which de- / 
grades and renovates the earth's surface ; or, in other / 
words, the relative age must depend on the quantity 
of aqueous action which takes place between two W 





that during which the heated and melted 


rocks are cooled and consolidated in the nether regions, ] 
and that of their emergence at the earth's surface. 

Volume of hypogene rocks supposed to have been 
formed since the Eocene period. — If we were to indulge 
in speculations on the probable quantity of hypogene 
formations, both stratified and unstratified, which may 
have been formed beneath Europe and the European 
seas since the commencement of the Eocene period, it 
might be conjectured that the mass has equalled, if 
not exceeded in volume, the entire European con- 
tinent. The grounds of this opinion will be under- 
stood by reference to what I have said of the causes 
which may have upheaved part of Sicily to its present 

s 3 






[Book IV 

height above the level of the sea since the beginning 
of the Newer Pliocene period.* If the theory which, 
in that instance, attributes the disturbance and up- 
heavings of the superficial strata to the action of sub- 
terranean heat be deemed admissible, the same argu- 
ment will apply with no less force to every other 
district, elevated or depressed, since the commence- 
ment of the tertiary period. 

But the remarks on the map of Europe, in the first 
book, have shown, that the conversion of sea into land, 
since the Eocene period, embraces an area equal to 
the greater part of Europe ; and that even those tracts 
which had in part emerged before the Eocene era, 
such as the Alps, Apennines, and other mountain- 
chains, have risen to the additional altitude of from 
one thousand to four thousand feet since that era- I 
have also suggested the probability of a great amount 
of subsidence, and the conversion of considerable 
portions of European land into sea, during the same 


changes which may be supposed to arise 

from the influence of subterranean heat. 

From these premises we may conclude, that the 
liquefaction and alteration of rocks, by the operation 
of volcanic heat at successive periods, has extended 
over a subterranean space, equal at least in area to the 
present European continent, and has often pervaded a 
portion of the earth's crust four thousand feet or more 
in thickness. 

The principal effect of these volcanic operations in 
the nether regions, during the tertiary periods, or 
since the existing species began to flourish, has been 
to heave up to the surface hypogene formations of an 
age anterior to the carboniferous. The repetition of 

* See Vol. III. p. 437. 

Ch. XXVII.] 



another series of movements, of equal violence, might 
upraise the plutonic and metamorphic rocks of many 
of the secondary periods ; and if the same force should 
still continue to act, the next convulsions might bring 
up the tertiary and recent hypogene rocks ; by which 
time we may imagine that nearly all the sedimentary 
strata now in sight would either have been destroyed 
by the action of water, or have assumed the meta- 
morphic structure, or would have been melted down 
into plutonic and volcanic rocks. 

At the end of this chapter will be found a table of 
the chronological relations of the principal divisions of 
rocks according to the views above set forth. The 
sketch is confessedly imperfect ; but it will elucidate 
the theory above suggested, of the connection which 
may exist between the hypogene rocks of different 
periods, and the alluvial, volcanic, and sedimentary 




Concluding Remarks. 

In the history of the progress of geology, it has 
been stated that the opinion originally promulgated 
by Hutton, " that the strata called primitive were 

altered sedimentary rocks," was vehemently 
opposed for a time, on the ground of its supposed 
tendency to promote a belief in the past eternity of 
our planet. * Before that period the absence of animal 
and vegetable remains in the so-called primitive 
strata had been appealed to, as proving that there 
had been an era when the planet was uninhabited by 
living beings, and when, as was also inferred, it was 

* Vol. I. p. 92. 

s 4; 






[Book IV. 

uninhabitable, and, therefore, probably in a nascent 


The opposite doctrine, that the oldest visible strata 
might be the monuments of an antecedent period, 
when the animate world was already in existence, 
was declared to be equivalent to the assumption that 
there never was a beginning to the present order of 
things. The unfairness of this charge was clearly 
pointed out by Playfair, who observed, « that it was 
one thing to declare that we had not yet discovered 
the traces of a beginning, and another to deny that the 
earth ever had a beginning." 

I regret, however, to find that the bearing of my 
arguments in the first book has been misunderstood in 
a similar manner ; for I have been charged with en- 
deavouring to establish the proposition, that « the ex- 
isting causes of change have operated with absolute 
uniformity from all eternity." * 

It is the more necessary to notice this misrepresent- 
ation of my views, as it has proceeded from a friendly 
critic, whose theoretical opinions coincide in general 
with my own ; but who has, in this instance, strangely 
misconceived the scope of the argument. With equal 
justice might an astronomer be accused of asserting 
that the works of creation extended throughout in- 
finite space, because he refuses to take for granted 
that the remotest stars now seen in the heavens are 
on the utmost verge of the material universe. Every 
improvement of the telescope has brought thousands 
of new worlds into view ; and it would, therefore, be 
rash and unphilosophical to imagine that we already 
survey the whole extent of the vast scheme, or that 


Quarterly Review, No. 86., Oct. 1830, p. 464, 



Ch. XXVI I.] 






may have commenced at a certain period. It has also 
been urged, that, as we admit the creation of man to 
have occurred at a comparatively modern epoch — as 
we concede the astonishing fact of the first introduc- 
tion of a moral and intellectual being — so also we may 
conceive the first creation of the planet itself. 

I am far from denying the weight of this reasoning 
from analogy; but, although it may strengthen our 
conviction, that the present system of change has not 
gone on from eternity, it cannot warrant us in pre- 
suming that we shall be permitted to behold the signs 
of the earth's origin, or the evidences of the first 
introduction into it of organic beings. We aspire in 

• s5 


it will ever be brought within the sphere of human 

But no argument can be drawn from such premises 
in favour of the infinity of the space that has been 
filled with worlds ; and if the material universe has 
any limits, it then follows that it must occupy a minute 
and infinitesimal boint in infinite space* 

'acing back the earth's history, we arrive 
at the monuments of events which may have happened 
millions of ages before our times, and if we still find 
no decided evidence of a commencement, vet the 
arguments from analogy in support of the probability 
of a beginning remain unshaken; and if the past 
duration of the earth be finite, then the aggregate of 
geological epochs, however numerous, must constitute 
a mere moment of the past, a mere infinitesimal por- 
tion of eternity. | 

It has been argued, that, as the different states of 
the earth's surface, and the different species by which 
it has been inhabited, have all had their origin, and 

many of them their termination, so the entire series 





I i 




[Book IV 

vain to assign limits to the works of creation in space? 
whether we examine the starry heavens, or that 
world of minute animalcules which is revealed to us 
by the microscope. We are prepared, therefore, to 
find that in time also the confines of the universe lie 
beyond the reach of mortal ken. But in whatever 
direction we pursue our researches, whether in time 
or space, we discover every where the clear proofs of 
a Creative Intelligence, and of His foresight, wisdom, 

and power. 

As geologists, we learn that it is not only the pre- 
sent condition of the globe which has been suited to 
the accommodation of myriads of living creatures, but 
that many former states also have been adapted to the 
organization and habits of prior races of beings;: The 
disposition of the seas, continents, and islands', and the 
climates, have varied ; the species likewise have been 

changed ; and yet they have all been so modelled, on 
types analogous to those of existing plants and animals? 
as to indicate throughout a perfect harmony of design 
and unity of purpose. To assume that the evidence 
of the beginning or end of so vast a scheme lies within 
the reach of our philosophical inquiries, or even of our 
speculations, appears to be inconsistent with a just 
estimate of the relations which subsist between the 
finite powers of man and the attributes of an Infinite 
and Eternal Being. 








Showing the Relations of the Alluvial, Aqueous, Volcanic, and 

Hypogene Formations of different Ages. 



Some of the Localities where 
the Formations occur. 

f Alluvial 




Table I. ^ 
p. 301. 


L Hypogene. 


r Alluvial 



Table L 
p. 301. 



I Hypogene 

a. Marine. 

b. Freshwater, 

a. Plutonic. 

b. Metamor- 


a. Plutonic. 

b, Metamor- 

f Beds of existing rivers, 
\ &c. book iii. ch. xiv. 
Coral reefs of the Pacific, 

book iii. ch. xviii. 
Bed of Lake Superior, 
&c, book ii. ch. iv. 
f Etna, Vesuvius, book ii. 
\ chs. x« xi. xii. 
Concealed ; foci of active 
volcanos, book iv. ch. 

Concealed ; around the 
foci of active volcanos, 
book iv. ch. xxvii. 


{Gravel covering the 
Newer Pliocene strata 
of Sicily. 
Val di Noto, Sicily. 
Colle, in Tuscany. 
Val di Noto, Sicily. 
Concealed; foci of Newer 
Pliocene volcanos — 
underneath the Val di 

and book iv. ch. xxvii. 
Concealed ; near the foci 
of Newer Pliocene vol- 
canos — underneath the 
Val di Noto, Vol. III. 
p. 437., and book iv. 
ch, xxvii. 

S 6 



TABLE II. — continued. 








f Alluvial, 




Table I. 

p. 301. 






f Alluvial. 



Table I. 
p. 301. 









Table I. 
p. 302. 








Some of the Localities where 
the Formations occur. 




Norfolk? Vol. IV. p. 78. 
Subapennine formations, 

Vol. IV. p. 49. 
Near Sienna, Vol. IV. 

p. 55. 

Tuscany, Vol. IV. p. 54. 
Concealed; foci of Older 

Pliocene volcanos 

beneath Tuscany. 
Metamor- f Concealed; probably near 
phic. \ the same foci. 

f Mont Perrier, Auvergne 
- - J — Orleanais, Vol. JV. 

(_ pp. 134. 137. 
Bordeaux. Dax. 

a. Marine. 

b. Freshwater, 

a, Plutonic. 

b. Metamor- 


a. Marine. 

b. Freshwater, 

f Saucats, near Bordeaux* 
\ Vol. IV. p. 121. 
Hungary, Vol. IV. p. 140- 

{Concealed; foci of Mio- 
cene volcanos — be- 
neath Hungary. 

f Concealed ; probably 
\ around the same foci. 

f Summit of North and 
\ South Downs? Vol. iV. 
[ p. 263. 
Paris and London basins* 

Isle of 




a. Plutonic. 


b. Metamor- 

f Ronca, Vicentine, ^°^' 

J IV. p. 211.; oldest 

■< volcanic rocks of the 

I Limagne d'Auvergne> 

(^ book iv. ch. xix. 
Concealed; foci of Eocene 

' volcanos — beneath Vi- 
centine and the L 1 ' 

magne d' Auvergne. 
Concealed; probably near 

the same foci. 



TABLE II. — - continued. 



Some of the Localities where 

the Formations occur. 


f Alluvial 



• 1. 


Table I. 

p. 302. LHypogene 

a. Marine. 


f Wiltshire, 
\ Flambc 

North Downs. 
Flamborough Head. 



Wealden ■ Aqueous, 

group. * 


Table I. 


p. 302. Ljjypogene 




Table I. 
p. 303. 


L Hy pogene. 

f Alluvial. 

i Vol 





Table I. 

p. 304. |^ Hypogene 

5. f Alluvial 

New Red 

and Mag- 

nesia n 




limestone I Volcanic. 

group. I 

K. & L. l^Hypogene 
Table I. 
p. 304. 




{Northern Flanks of the 
Pyrenees ? Near Dax ? 

fa. Marine. 
\b. Freshwater. 

/Portland " Dirt-bed" 
L (containing pebbles). 

{Weald of Surrey, Kent, 
and Sussex, book iv. 
ch. xxi. 

Metam or- 

a. Marine. 

b. Freshwater. 



Metam or- 

a. Marine. 

f Oxford. Bath* Jura 
\ chain. 


Hebrides ? 
f Concealed ; beneath the 
\ Hebrides. 

f Lyme Regis. 
\ Aberthaw. 





Metamor- f Alps ? book iv. ch. xxvir, 

phic. \ Valorsine in Savoy. 

{Cheshire. Staffordshire, 
Vosges. Westphalia 

a. Marine. 

b. Freshwater. 


Near Exeter, Devon. 

{Concealed; beneath De- 
vonshire ? 
Metam or- 















TABLE II. — continued. 



Some of the Localities where 
the Formations occur. 

f Alluvial. 

Carbo ni- 
ferous & 
Old Red 

M.& N. 

Table I. 
p. 305, 



Vol canic. 



a. Marine. -f C1 ! fton > Mendip, Ed*' 

^ burgh. 

{Coal measures of Nor* 
of England and near 

{Forfarshire. Edinburgh' 
Fife. Durham. W 1 

{Concealed; beneath Ed* 11 ' 
burgh, Northufliber- 

a. Plutonic. 

r *. 

rian & 


O. & P. 
Table I, 

"L p. 306. 




^ Volcanic. 

6. Met am or- 

a. Marine. 

b. Freshwater. 

. land, Durham. 
f Near the Plutonic rocK* 

\ of the same period* 

Wenlock, Shropshire 




b, Metamor- 


> L 

Hypogene. \ * Hntadc. |^-W 

J" Near the Plutonic rock* 
\ of the same period. 

{Probably all destroy** 
by denudation, or co^ 
verted into hypoge* 10 ' 
f Perhaps a consider^*' 

-J part of the gran ite 

^ now visible. 

f Probably a large prop ?* 

I tion of the gneiss, &** 

Metam orphic. V ,ca-schist, and otb^r 

J stratified crystalK* 1 * 

^ rocks now visible. 


PI utonic. 


* By primary formations are meant those, whether stratified or m»' 
stratified, which are older than the most ancient European rocks (** 

ahco'vered ° r greyWa ° k ^' in which distin <* fo ^ls have as yet been 






Aberdeenshire, passage from trap into 
granite in, iv. 348. 

Abesse, inland cliff at, iv. 124. 

Abich, M., on slope on which lava con- 
geals, ii. 173. 

Abo, ii. 291, 292.' 

Acquapendente, volcanic tuffs at, iv. 54. 

Adams, Mr., on fossil elephant, i. 151. 

Adanson on age of the baobab tree, iii. 

Addington hills, iv. 213. 
Addison on Burnet's theory, i. 56. 
Adernb, dip of strata near, iii. 401. 
Adige, embankment of the, i. 280. ; iii. 

* — , delta of the, i. 350. 
Adour, R., new passage formed by, ii. 24. 

tertiary strata of, iv. 120. 
Adria, formerly a sea-port, i. 351. 
Adriatic, deposits in, i. 64. 67. 128. 351. ; 

iii. 272. 

gain of land in, i. 351. 
, its form and depth, i. 351. 
Adur, R., transverse valley of, iv. 238. 
Africa, fossil shells of, mentioned by 

ancients, i. 25. 

heat, radiated by, i. 168. 
currents on coast of, ii. 20. 32. 
drift sands of deserts, iii. 188. 
shaken by earthquake, ii. 953. 
devastations of locusts in, iii. 95. 
strata forming off coast of, iii. 272. 
j desert of, its area, iii, 131. 
Agassiz, M., on fossil fish, i. 20a 235. ; 
iii. 358.; iv. 33. 112. 179. 279. 293. 296. 
Agricola on fossil remains, i, 37. 
Ahmedabad town, destroyed by earth- 
i quake, ii. 194. 

Aidat, lake, how formed, iv. 200. 

Air, circulation of, i. 188. 

Airthrey, fossil whale found at, iii. 

Airy, Professor, i. 185. 

Aix, in Provence, tertiary strata of, 
iv. 210. 

, fossil insects of, iv. 210. 

Albenga, tertiary strata at, iv. 64. 
Aldborough, incursions of sea at, i. 414. 
Alderney, Race of, i. 385. 
Aleppo, earthquake of, ii. 194. 
Aleutian isles, eruptions, &c. in, ii. 47- 

Alga?, depth at which some species live, 

in. 9. 

Allan, Mr. T., on mammiferous fossils 

of Isle of Wight, i. 241. ; iv. 216. 
Allier, R., volcanic tuff, &c. on its 

banks, iv. 185. 
Alloa, whale cast ashore at, iii. 266. 
Alluvium, definition of, iii. 196. 

, formed in all ages, iv. 44. 

•, imbedding of organic remains in, 
iii. 197. 
•, marine, iii. 198. 
-, volcanic, ii. 94. 
•, in Scotland, ii. 241. 

stalagmite alternating with, in 
French caves, iii. 210. 

Eu ropean, in great part tertiary. 

iv. 45. 
•, of newer Pliocene period, iv. 38, 

44. 48. 

— , of Miocene era, iv. 134. 
•, of Eocene period, iv. 234. 263. 
., under lavas, iv. 95. 98. 195. 
\ in ancient fissures, iv. 198. 
Alps, Saussure on the, i. 80. 
., tertiary rocks of the, i. 210. 





Alps, greatly raised during tertiary 
epoch, i. 219. 

, shells drifted from the, iii. 860. 

•, erratic blocks of the, iv. 46. 
maritime, tertiary strata at base 
of, iv. 61. 

secondary strata penetrated by 

granite in the, iv. 344. 

strata of oolite altered in the, iv. 

Animals, hereditary instincts of, "• ^ 

, domestic qualities of, ii. 408. 413- 

-, their acquired habits rarely trans- 
missible, ii. 413. 421. 
-, changes in the brain of the fte tus 


Altered strata in contact with granite, 
iv. 368. 

-, enumeration of the probable. con- 
versions of sedimentary strata into 

well-known metamorphic rocks, iv. 
' 375. 

Alting, on the Zuyder Zee, ii. 6. 
Alum Bay, alternation of London and 

plastic clay in, iv, 213. 
Alzey, tertiary strata of, iv. 132. 
Amalfi, i. 126. 

Amazon, R., sea discoloured by waters 
of, ii. 33. 
■, land formed by its deposits, ii. 33. 

,. animals floated down on drift 

wood by, iii. 42. 
Amer, structure of country near, iv. 91. 
America, its coast undermined, ii. 9. 
., lakes of, may cause deluges, i. 133. 
recent strata in lakes of, i. 344. ; 
iii. 262. 

•, specific distinctness of animals of, 

iii. 2. 27. 
— — , domesticated animals have run 

wild in, ii. 394. ; iii. 113. 
Amiata, Mount, i. 314. 
Amici, Vito, on Moro's system, i. 67. 
Ammonia in lavas, ii. 351. 
Amonoosuck, flood in valley of, i. 294. 
Ampere, M., on currents of electricity 

in the earth, ii. 324. 

Anapo, valley of, iii. 442. 

Andernach, loess and volcanic ejections 

alternating at, iv. 34. 
Andes, changes of level in, iii. 25a 
, height of perpetual snow on, i. 


volcanos of, ii. 41. 43. 
Anglesea, changes caused by a volcanic 

dike in, iv. 364. 378. 
Animals, Lamarck's theory of the pro- 
duction of new organs in, ii. 368. 

imported into America, have run 
wild,ii. 394. ; iii. 113. 

■, aptitude of some kinds to do- 
mestication, ii. 408. 417. 

in vertebrated, i. 439. 

j plants diffused by, iii. 17. 
— , their geographical distribution* 

i. 204. ; iii. 27. 
», migrations of, iii. 33. 36* 
-, causes which determine thesta* 
tions of, iii. 86. 98. 

.influence of man on their distribu- 
tion, iii. 109. 
, fossil, in peat, caves, &c., iii. ^' 

187. 197. 201. 231. 236. 
Anio, R., flood of the, i. 298. f 

, once flowed through a chain ° 

lakes, i. 324. 

Anning, Miss M., on waste of cli^' 
i. 429. 

Annus Magnus, duration of, i. 12. 

Anoplotherium in freshwater forma- 
tion of I. of Wight, iv. 216. 263. 

Anthracite, whence derived, iv. 37& 

Anticlinal axis of Weald valley, iv ' 
224. 231. 

Anticlinal lines ; how far those form^ 

at the same time are parallel, iv. 34* 

Antilles, earthquake in the, ii. 207- 
Antissa, i.^18. 

Antrim, chalk in, converted into ma 1 * 

ble by trap -dike, iv. 365. 

, altered coal and lias in, iv. 366. 

Apennines, their relative age, i. 209. #& 

, tertiary strata at foot of, iv. 49. 

Aphides, White's account of a shoW# 

of, iii. 65. 

, their multiplication, iii. 93. 

Apollinaris cited, iv. 200. 

Apure, R., horses drowned in, iii. 93^ 

Aqueous causes, i. 259. 

Aqueous lavas, description of, ii. 78. 9*' 
iii. 192. 

Arabian Gulf, filling with coral, iii. ^ 8 °'. 

•, volcano at its entrance, ii. 58. 
Arabian writers, i. 24. 29. 
Arago, M., on influence of forests on 
climate, iii. 168. 
., on solar radiation, i. 226. 
., on level of Mediterranean and R e °\ 
sea, i. 387. 
Arbroath, houses, &c. swept away W 

sea at, i. 400. 
Arduino, memoirs of, 1759, i. 72. 
■, on submarine volcanos, i. 73. 12& 











Aristarchus, i. 299. 

Aristophanes, i. 16. 

Aristotelian system, i. 21. 

** — theory of spontaneous generation, 

■Arno, R., yellow sand like Subapennine 

deposited by, iv. 56. 
Arso, volcanic eruption of, in Ischia, 

ii. 70. 
•Artesian wells, phenomena brought to 

light by, i. 302. 
, depth from which water rises in, 

i. 303. 
•Arun, transverse valley of the, iv. 238. 
■Arve, sediment transported by the, i. 


***-*, section of debris, deposited by, i. 

■Asama-yama, eruption of, ii. 209. 

Ascension, island of, fossil eggs of tur- 
tle from, iii. 267. 

Ashes, volcanic, transported to immense 
distances, ii. 201. 

Asia, subject to earthquakes, i. 14. 

•, coast of, changed, i. 30. 

■i causes of extreme cold of part of, 

i. 168. 

Minor, gain of land on coast of, 

ii. 32. 

•> Western, great cavity in, iii 126. 

■, this now doubted, iv. 202. 
"Ass, wild in Quito, iii. 115. 
"*--» wild in Tartary, iii. 38. 
Astroni, crater of, iv. 94. 
Astruc on delta of Rhone, i. 346. 
"Atchafalaya, R., drift-wood in, i. 286. 
v — s section of the banks of, i. 365. 
Athabasca lake, drift-wood in, iii 222, 
"Atlantic, mean depth of, i. 185. 

•, its relative level, i. 387. * 

. rise of the tide in, i. 388. 
•Atlantis, submersion of, i. 14. ; iv. 309. 
•Atrio del Cavallo, ii. 88. ; iv. 9. 
Aubenas, fissures filled with breccia 
*ear, iii. 210. 

^rillac, freshwater formation 


"^stralia, kangaroo and emu thinning 
% iii. 112. 

> coral reefs of, iii. 280. 

> breccias of, bones of marsupial 

Animals in, iv. 43. 

^ v ergne, salt deposited by springs in, 
l - 331. 

of, iv. 


carbonic acid gas disengaged in, i. 

Auvergne, lavas of, iii. 422. 
., alluviums of, iv. 134. 195. 
■, volcanic rocks of, i. 86, 87. ; iii. 
365. ; iv. 142. 184. 
-, lacustrine deposits of, iv. 144. 
map of lacustrine basins and vol- 
canic rocks of, iv. 145. 

•, tertiary red marl and sandstone of, 
like new red sandstone, iv. 148. 316. 
— , indusial limestone of, iv. 152. 
— -, connexion of Paris basin and, iv. 

-, igneous rocks 'associated with la- 
custrine in, iv. 185. 
-, volcanic breccias of, iv. 134. 187. 
-, minor volcanos of, iv. 188. 192. 
ravines in lavas of, iv. 194. 195. 
Ava, fossils of, i. 49. 
Aventine, Mount, tufa on, iv. 28. 
Avernus, lake, ifc 65. 
Avicenna on cause of mountains, i. 30. 
Azof sea, said to have been united with 
Caspian, ii. 52. 

', new island thrown up in, ii. 53. 
Azores, icebergs drifted to the, i. 177. 

, siliceous springs of, i. 327. 


Babbage, Mr., on the coast near Puz- 

zuoli, ii. 268. 
, on Temple of Serapis, ii. 280. 

, on expansion of rocks by heat, ii. 

Bacon, Lord, cited, iii. 257. 
Baden, gypseous springs of, i. 326. 
Baffin's Bay, icebergs in, i. 172. 
Bagnes, valley of, bursting of a lake in 

the, i. 295. 
Bagneux, strata near, iv. 168. 
Bagshot sand, its composition, &c, iv. 


Baia*, changes on coast of the bay of, ii. 

> ground plan of the coast of, ii. 267. 

9 sections in bay of, ii. 269. 271. 
Bakewell, Mr., on formation of soils, 

iii. 156. 

, on fall of Mount Grenier, iii. 200. 

, on jointed structure in rocks, iv. 
Bakewell, Mr., Jun., on Falls of Nia. 
gar a, i. 276. 

Bakie loch, charze fossil in, iiu 260, , 


i ■ 




Baku, inflammable gas of, i. 19. ; ii. 51. 
Balaruc, thermal waters of, i. 347. 
Baldassari, on Sienese fossils, i. 68. 
Ballard, M„ on state of buried bones, 

iii. 214. 
Baltic sea, deltas of the, i. 344. 

, lowering of level of the, i. 345. ; 

ii. 286. 

drifting of rocks by ice in, i. 271. 
., currents on its shores, ii. 12. 
Banos del Pujio, elevated sea-cliff near, 
iv. 17. 

Baobab tree, its size, probable age, &c. 
iii. 428. ; iv. 205. 

Barbadoes, rain diminished by felling of 
forests in, iii. 165. 

Barcelona, tertiary strata of, iv. 101. 

Barcombe, in Sussex, iv. 234. 

Bargone, gypsum in marls near, iv. 54. 

Barren island, a supposed crater of ele- 
vation, ii. 159. 

Barrow, Mr., on a bank formed in sea 
by locusts, iii. 96. 

Barrow, Mr., Jun., on the Geysers of 
. Iceland, i. 329. ; ii. 342. 

Barsoe, loss of land in island of, ii. 12. 

Barton, Mr., on geography of plants, 

m. 2. 

Basalt, opinions of the early writers 
on, i. 85, 86. ; iii. 307. 

Basterot, M. de, on fossil shells of Bor- 
deaux and Dax, iii. 338. ; iv. 119. 

Batavia, effects of earthquake at, ii. 259. 

Battoch, Mount, granite veins of, iv. 

Baumhauer, Mr., on a river-flood in 

Java, iii. 235. 
Bauza, his chart of Gulf of Mexico, ii. 


Bawdesey, crag strata near, iv. 79. | 

Bay of Bengal, its depth, i. 359. 

Bayfield, Capt, on geology of Lake Su- 
perior, i. 342. 

on bursting of a peninsula by Lake 

Erie, ii. 12. 

on elevated beaches in Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, ii. 47. ; iv. 20. 
., on earthquakes in Canada, ii. 208. 
., on arrangement of strata in Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, iv. 58. 
Bayonne, strata near, iv. 124. 327. 
Beachy Head, i. 423. ; iv. 228. 
Bears, once numerous in Wales, iii. 


black, migrations of, iii. 36. 

drifted on ice, iii. 103. 


Beauchamp, palaeotherium of, iv. *«* 
Beaufort, Capt., on gain of land on coa 
of Asia Minor, ii. 32. 

, on rise of tides, i. 382. . • 

Beaumont, M. Elie de, on greywacK 

fossils, i. 201. 

, on the Great Canary, ii. 158. 

, on elevation craters, ii. 171. 

., on force of modern earthquaKe , 

ii. 357. 

on cause of the deluge, iv. 205. 
, his theory of contemporaneo 
origin of parallel mountain cna 
considered, iv. 320. 

, on modern granite of the Alp s 



Beaver, once an inhabitant of Scotia 
and Wales, iii. 110. . 

., remains of, in shell-marl, in P er 

shire, iii. ^36. 
Beck, Dr., on distribution of testace » 

iii. 56. 
., on fossils of the Crag, iv. 72. 

, on tertiary strata of Denmark 



ofs ° { > 


Bee, migrations of the, iii. 64. f 

Beechey, Capt, on elevation of # aV 
Conception, ii. ^56. .~ c 

on drifting of canoes in P& cl 
iii. 72. 

-, on temple of Ipsambul, iii. 1° Q oo 
— , on coral islands in Pacific, in* 

287.297. . fr 

, on recent changes of level * n 

cific, iii. 296. 
Beginning of things, supposed pr° 

iv. 392. 
Behat, buried town near, iii. 199. 
Belbet, near Aurillac, iv. 160. - 

Belcher, Capt, on elevation of Co& * 

tion Bay, ii. 256. . f 

— , on strata forming off c ° a 

Africa, iii. 273. mq 

Belgium, tertiary formations of, lV * 
Beliemi, Mount, caves in, iv. 42. 
Bell rock, large stones thrown UP 

storms on the, i. 400. .. *ag, 

Belzoni, on temple of Ipsambul, in. 

, on a flood of the Nile, iii- ^' 

Benin, currents in bay of, i. 383. ^ 

Berard, M., on depth of Mediterran 

ii. 18. m oa st, 

Bergmann, on waste of Yorkshire 

i. 404. iii. 

Berkeley, on recent origin of m a ' 







* I 















^mudas, coral reefs of the, iii. 279. 

^ er thelot, M., on the Great Canary, ii. 


^erzelius, on density of sea-water, i. 


^ es htau, earthquakes in, ii. 250. 

^ e Udant, M. , on volcanic rocks of Hun- 

. 8ary, i v . 140. 

^ e Mck, cited, i. 413. ; iii. 47. 111. 
k°oj, town of, destroyed by earth- 
quake, ii. 195. 

^-j volcanic eruption at, during Cutch 

earthquake, ii. 195. ; iii. 194. 

^es Bosch ; new bay formed in Hol- 
loa, ii. 5. 

%sby, Dr., on North American lakes, 

J- 343. ; iii. 262. 
^jftgen, gorge of, iv. 35. 
{^stead, fossils of, iv. 216. 263. 
Bi * ds, diffusion of plants by, iii. 18. 
', geographical ^distribution of, iii. 

^5. 74. 
•» their powers of diffusion, iii. 47. 

•, migrations of, iii. 47. 
-5 recent extermination of some spe- 
cies of, iii. 111. 
•, bones of, in Gibraltar breccia, iii. 


■, rarity of their remains in new 
strata, iii. 230. 

jrjschoff, Professor, cited, iv. 372. 

ls coe, Capt, his discoveries in the 
.south Polar Seas, i. 175. 
^| s on, fossil, in Yorkshire, i. 145. 
frjsons, in Mississippi valley, iii 35. 
^istineau, a lake formed by Red River, 

J; 290. 

^tumen, oozing from the bottom of the 
., s ea, near Trinidad, i. 334. 

luminous springs, i. 334. 

. -, shales, i. 335, 

j*;ze, cave at, iii. 213. 

. I2 ona, town submerged, i. 27. 

j* l ack Lake, i. 290. 

™ack Sea, calcareous springs near, i. 


•i waste of cliffs in the, ii. 12. 
evaporation of the, ii. 15. 
. > see Euxine. 
Javier, M., on peat, iii. 179. L' 
^aye, limestone of, iv. 122. 
Cornfield, bursting of peat-moss near, 

lQ wn sand, imbedding of organic re- 
gains, &c. in, iii. 188. 

Blue mountains in Jamaica, ii. 264. 
Bluffs of Mississippi described, i. 283. 

Boa Constrictor, migration of, iii. 51. 
Boase, Mr., on inroads of sea in Corn- 
wall, i. 429, 430. 
, on drift-sand in Cornwall, iii. 191. 
, on chemical composition of rocks, 
iv. 377. 
Boate, Dr., on Irish peat-bogs, iii. 178. 
Boblaye, M., on ceramique, in Morea, 
iii. 200. 

, on engulphed rivers in Morea, iii. 
, on caves of the Morea, iii. 204. 
, on earthquakes in Greece, iii. 207. 
, on successive elevations of the 
Morea, iv. 20. 
, on tertiary strata of Morea, iv. 70. 
, on cretaceous rocks of Morea, iv. 

Bog iron-ore, whence derived, iii. 182. 
Bogota, earthquake of, ii. 189. 
Bohemia, age of metallic veins of, iv. 

Bolos, Don Francisco, on volcanos of 
Catalonia, iv. 94. 99. 101. 

, on destruction of'Olot by earth- 
quake, in 1421, iv. 99. 

Bonajutus, on subsidence of coast of 
Sicily, ii. 261. 

Bonaparte, C, on birds, iii. 47. 

Bonelli, Signor, on fossils of theSuperga, 
iii. 364. ; iv. 126. 

— , on fossil shells of Savona, iv. 64. 

Bonn, casts of freshwater shells in 
quartz, near, iv. 112. 

Bonpland, on plants common to Old and 
New World, iii. 5. 

Bordeaux, tertiary strata of, iii. 338. ; 
iv. 119. 

Bore, a tidal wave frequent in the Bris- 
tol Channel and the Ganges, ii. 10. 

Bormida, tertiary strata of valley of the, 
iii. 364. ; iv. 127. 

Bory de St. Vincent, M., on isle of San- 

torin, ii. 161. 164. 
Boscomb chine, i. 427, 
Bosphorus, ii, 15. 52. 
Botanical Geography, iii. 3. 

, provinces, their number, iii. 7. 

, how caused, iii. 80. 

, why not more blended together, 

iii. 82. 

Bothnia, Gulf of, gradual elevation of 
the coast of, i. 217. 345. j ii. 287. , 

• • ft 



Bothnia, Gulf of, drifting of rocks by 

ice in, i. 271. 
Botley Hill, height of, iv. 224. 
Bou£, M.. on the Pyrenees, i. 211. 
-, on the coal strata, i. 202. ; 
., on loess of the Rhine, iv. 38. 
., on value of zoological characters 
in determining the chronological re- 
lations of strata, iv. 123. 

•, on tertiary formations of Hungary 
and Transylvania, iv. 129. 141. 
— , on the Vicentine, iv. 211. 

on theory of M. de Beaumont, iv. 

331. 333. 

Bouiilet, M., on extinct quadrupeds of 

Mont Perrier, iv. 136. 197. 
-, on alluviums of different ages in 

Auvergne, iv. 197. 
Boulade, alluviums of the, iv. 134. 
Boulon and Ceret, dip of tertiary strata 

between, iv. 70. 

Bourbon, island, volcanic, ii. 58. ; iv. 

Bourdones, R., shoal upheaved at its 
mouth, ii. 208. 

Bournmouth, submarine forest at, iii. 


Boussingault, M., on volcanos of the 
Andes, ii. 43, 44. 

■, on gases evolved by volcanos, ii. 

Bowdich, Mr., on fossil shells of Ma- 
deira, iv. 24. 

Bowen, Lieut. A., on limestone columns 

near Mingan, iv. 21. 
Boyle on bottom of the sea, i. 44. 
Bracini on Vesuvius before 1631, ii. 77. 
Brahmins, their doctrines, i. 9. 

Brand, Rev. J. F., on birthplace of man, 
iii. 68. 

Brander on fossils of Hampshire, i. 77. 
Bray, valley of, iv. 287. • 
Breaks in series of superimposed form- 
ations, causes of, iii. 315. 351. 
Breccias, in Val del Bove, iii. 422. 
., in caves, iv. 38. 43. 

1 ., now in progress in the Morea, iii. 
., volcanic, of Auvergne, iv. 134. 187. 
Brenta, delta of the, i. 350. 
Brieslak, on the temple of Serapis, ii. 
276. 278. 
>, on lavas of Vesuvius, ii. 90. 
Briggs, Mr., his discovery of water in 

African desert, i. 304. 
Brighton, waste of cliffs of, i. 424. 

Brighton, strata at base of cliffs at, 1 - 

422. ; iv. 261. 267. 
Brine springs, i. 330. 
Bristol Channel, currents in, i. 385: 
Britany, a village in, buried una 

blown sand, iii. 191. 

, marine tertiary strata of, i. ^' 

Brocchi on fossil conchology, i. 34. 

, on Burnet's theory, i. 59. e 

, his account of writers on delta 

Po, i. 351. 

, on extinction of species, iii. 83. 

•, on the Subapennines, i. 209. J n ' 

335 t ; iv. 49. 60. 

Broderip, Mr., on opossum of Stones 
field, i. 238. .. 

•, on shells from Conception BaT> J ' 

, on Ianthinafrctgilis, iii. 56. 

, on bulimi restored to life at 1 " 

long abstinence, iii. 58. 
■, on moulting of crabs, iii. 60. , 
, on naturalization of a foreign latf°- 

shell, iii. 76. 

Bromberg, a vessel and two anchor 



up near, iii. 247. 
Bromley, pebble with oysters in p 

clay at, iv. 212. r 

Brongniart, M. Ad., on fossil plants 

the coal formation, i. 158. 

, on plants in islands, i. 196. 

Brongniart, M. Alex., on modern te va ~ 

streams, ii. 132. 
■, on elevated beaches in Sweden* 

216. 5 ii. 299. 
, on the Paris Basin, iii. 33' 

— , on conglomerate of the Supers * 

iv- 127. „ e 

Bronn, Prof., on fossil shells oi 

Superga, iii. 367. 
. , on tertiary formations of Italy* 

33% ; iv 


, on loess of the Rhine, iv. 32. #•. 
, on tertiary strata of Mayence 



• ii. *--• . 
Gulf oi 

•- V21 

Bronte, eruption of Etna, near. n- l 
Browallius, on filling up of 

Bothnia, ii. 291. .*. 

Brown, Mr., on plants common to 

rica, Guiana, and Brazil, iii. 1*>» 
Brown coal formation near the R nl 

iv. 110. 
Bruel, quarry of, iv. 160. &f . 9 

Buckland, Dr., on fossil elephants, 
in India, i. 9. 















Uc Mand, Dr., on fossils from Esch- 
scholtz's Bay, 1. 153. 
» on the Bristol coal-field, i. 205. 
3 on mammiferous remains of Isle of 
^ight, i. 241. 

on fossils in caves and fissures, iii. 
308. 210. 212. 
■> on Val del Bove, iii. 407. 
on effects of the deluge, iv. 203. 
> on the Plastic clay, iv: 212. 
■> on former continuity of London 
ar *d Hampshire basins, iv. 219. 

on valleys of elevation, iv. 246. 249. 
•, on fossil forest of I. of Portland, 
^. 285. 
k*-* 5 on oolite fossils, iv. 310. 
j^doshagy, solfatara of, iv. 142. 
^Ufadors, jets of air from subterranean 

.caverns called, iv. 98. 
^Won, his theory of the earth, i. 68. 
reproved by the sorbonne, i. 69. 
, on geographical distribution of ani- 
mals, iii. 2. 27. 
. "*•, on extinction of species, iii. 143. 
^limus montanus drifted from Alps, 
fci. 360. 
u *a and Helice, submerged Grecian 

towns, i. 27.'; ii. 56.; iii. 255. 

j^ckhardt cited, iii. 189, 190. 

^rdiehouse fossils, i. 203. ; iv. 294. 

u *ied cones on Etna, sections of, iii. 

j) u rkart, Mr., on Jorullo, ii. 137. 
^fnes, Capt. A., on earthquake of 
Cutch, 1819, ii. 196. 
, on earthquake in valley of the 

k °xus, ii. 50. 

j^rnet, his theory of the earth, i. 55. 
Ur ntisland, whale cast ashore near, 

Jii. 266. 

Ur rampooter, bodies of men, deer, &c. 

boated off by, iii. 234. 
k "*-> delta of the, i. 558. 

Ut ton, Mr. J., on tertiary strata near 
. fted Sea, iv. 25. 

u stards, recently extirpated in Eng- 

knd, iii. 111. 

ut ler, Burnet's theory ridiculed by, i. 


Vr on, Lord, on permanency of the 
°cean, ii. £85. 


^ibona, lignites of, iv. 139. 
^o lake, i. 290, 

Caasar cited, i. 27."; iv. 200. 
Cairo, fossil shells at, iv. 127. 
Caithness schists, fossils in, i. 235. 

Calabria, geological description of, ii. 

214. " ' 


earthquake of 1783 in, ii. 210. 

■—, animals preserved in fissures in, 
in. 209. 

, ^^.y anauiur, i. i4i.. iii. 340 o 

Calais, ripple marks formed by the 

winds on dunes near, iv. 81. 
Calanna, lava of Etna turned from its 

course by hill of, iii. 412. 
- — , valley of, iii. 411. 419. 
Calcaire grossier of Paris basin, iv. 167; 

169. 173. 179. 
Calcaire siliceux of Paris basin, iv. 170. 
Calcareous springs, i. 311. 

Calcutta, beds cut through in sinking i 
well at, i. 361. 

Caldcleugh, Mr., on earthquake in Chili, 

1835, ii. 185. .* 

Caldeira, siliceous sinter of the, i. 327 ' 
Caldera, in Isle of Palma, ii. 155. . £k 

290. ' 

California, volcanos in, ii. 45. 
Callao, town destroyed by sea, ii. 53. 
, changes caused by earthquakes in. 

ii. 258, 259. ; iii. 253. 

Caltabiano, R., lava excavated by, L 


Caltagirone, blue shelly marl of, iii. 386. 
Caltahisetta, tertiary strata at, iii. 387. 
Cambrian formations, iv. 300. 306. 
Camden cited, i. 431. 

Camels, carcasses of, imbedded in drift 
sand v iii. 190. 

Campagna di Roma, calcareous deposits 
of, i. 320. 

> volcanic rocks of, iv. 89. ' 

Campania, aqueous lavas in, iii. 192, 

, tertiary formations of, iv. 1. 

comparison of recorded changes in 
with those commemorated by geolo- 
gical monuments, iv. 1. 

■, age of volcanic and associated 
rocks of, iv. 11. 

■, external configuration of the coun- 
try, how caused, iv. 13. 

S affords no signs of diluvian waves, 
iv. 14. 

Campbell, Mr., on migration of quaggas 

in South Africa, iii. 38. 
Camper, on facial angle, ii. 437. 
Canada, earthquakes frequent in, ii. 

46. 203. 










Canary islands, eruptions in, ii. 58. 

, shells between lavas in, ii. 158. 

Cannon in calcareous rock, iii. 249. 
■, account of one taken up near the 

Downs, iii. 249. 

Canoes drifted to great distances, iii. 71. 

— -, fossil, iii. 248. 

Canopus, formerly an island, i. 354. 

', overwhelmed by the sea, i. 356. 
Cantal, Plomb du, ii. 170. 

•, freshwater formations of, iv. 158. 
Capellbacken, shelly deposit at, ii. 299. 
Cape May, encroachment of sea at, ii. 

of Good Hope, icebergs seen off, 
i. 177. 

Wrath, granite veins of, iv. 346. 

Capitol, hill, calcareous tufa on, iv. 28. 
Capo Santa Croce, shelly limestone 

resting on lava at, iii. 390. 
Capra, rock of, iii. 420. 
Caraccas, earthquakes in, ii. 202. 208. 
Caradoc sandstones, iv. 270, 271. 299. 
Carang Assam volcano, ii. 202. 
Carbonated springs, i. 331. 
Carbonic acid gas ; its effects on rocks, 

i. 331. 333. ; iv. 374. 

Carboniferous series, i. 201. 235.; iv. 

■, freshwater strata in, iv. 294. 

•, see Coal 

Carcare, tertiary strata of, iv. 121. 127. 

Cardiganshire, tradition of loss of land 
in, i. 431. 

Cardium porulosum, iv. 175. 

Cardona, rock salt of, its relative age, 
iv. 316. 

Carelli, Signor, on temple of Serapis, ii, 

Carew on St. Michael's mount, i. 430. 

Cariaco, bed of sea raised near, ii. 250. 

Caribbean sea, tides in, i. 388. 

Caridi, R., its course changed by earth- 
quakes, ii. 230. 

Carlingford bay, raised beaches in, i. 216 . 
Carpenter, Dr., on encroachment of sea 

at Lyme Regis, i. 429. 
Casalmaggiore, island at, carried away 

by the Po, i. 280. 
Casamicciol, shells in tuff at, iv. 12. 
Caspian, Pallas on former extent of, i. 
•, calcareous springs near the, i. 326. 
■, evaporation of the, i. 350. 
., earthquakes on its borders, ii. 51. 
., inflammable gas, &c. near, ii. 51. 

Caspian, its level, ii. 51.; iii. 126.; & ^ 
— , said to have been united ^i 

Black Sea and sea of Azof, ii- bl ' ' 

iii. 45. 
Cassander cited, i. 13. - n 

Castell de Stolles, ravine excavated * 

lava opposite, iv. 96. Q . 
Castell Follitt, lava stream of, * v - *' 
, lava cut through by -river at, 

Castello d'Aci, iii. 405. , 

Castrogiovanni, section of Val di *° 
series at, iii. 385. 
, hill of, its height, iii. 386. 
, fossils of, iii. 389. ... 

Catalonia, devastation of torrents in> l ' 
■, volcanic district of, iv. 90. 
, ravines excavated through la* a l ' 
iv. 95. 97. 

— , age of volcanos of, iv. 99. ^ 

— , superposition of rocks in volc» n 
district of, iv. 100. 
Catania, overwhelmed by lava, & 
iii. 193. 

, destroyed by earthquakes, ii* "° ',j 
, tools discovered in digging a ^ ' 

11S> '> 

at, iii. 246. 


, volcanic conglomerates form^ 
beach at, iii. 396. 
— , plain of, iii. 397. 

, marine formation near, iii. 40& . 
Catastrophes, theories respecting, *• * ' 

iii. 309. 353. 
Catcliff, Little, section of, iv. 80. 
Catcott on the deluge, i. 74. n t 

on traditions of deluges in diff ere 
countries, i. 74. 
Catodons, stranded, iii. 266. n t 

Cattegat, devastations caused by c utre 

in the, ii. 12. 
Catwyck, loss of land at, ii. 5. . 

Caucasus, calcareous springs of, i- ^q, 

, earthquakes frequent in, ii. & 

, abounds in hot springs, ii. 53. 
Cautley, Capt., on buried Hindoo to* ' 

, on bones in ancient wells, m- - .j 

Cavalaccio, Monte, shells in tuffs of, 

402. # iit 

Cavanilles on earthquake of Quito? 

207. ' 5i . 

Caves, organic remains in, iii. 201. ^ 

iv. 38. 42, 43. ^ 
, alternations of sediment ana 

lagmite in some, iii. 210. 




c aves on Etna, ii. 120. 
Cavo delle Neve, in Ischia, iv. 13. 
Cayambe, volcano, ii. 43. 
Ceilent, lava current of, iv. 91. 

• , section above bridge of, iv. 95. 

Celestial mountains, i. 147. 
Celsius on diminution of Baltic, 1. 58. ; 
ii. 286. 

Censorinus, i. 21. f 

Central France, lavas excavated in, i. 


■, comparison between lavas of Ice- 
land and, ii. 129. 131. 

•, volcanic rocks of, iv. 142. 184. 

., freshwater formations of, iv. 144. 

■, analogy of tertiary deposits of, to 
those of Paris basin, iv. 164. 172. 
Central heat and fluidity, theory of, i. 

221. ; ii. 313. 

Centrifugal force, ii. 309. 329. 

Cephalaspzs, fish fossil in old red sand- 
stone (see fig.), iv. 296. 

Cephalonia, earthquakes in, ii. 214. 

Cer, valley of, sections in the, iv. 161. 

Ceret and Boulon, tertiary strata be- 
tween, iv. 70. 

Cesalpino on organic remains, i. 38. 

Cetacea, geographical range of, iii. 33. 
-, migrations of the, iii. 44. 
., imbedding of their remains in re- 
cent strata, iii. 266. 
•, stranded on low shores, iii. 266. ' 

Chabriol, M., on fossils of Mont Per- 

rier, iv. 136. 
Chadrat, pisolitic limestone of, iv. 152. 
Chagos coral isles, iii. 280. 
Chalk, protruded masses of, in the crag 

strata, iv. 85. 
., indentations" filled with sand, &c, 

on its surface, iv. 217. 
■, tertiary outliers on, iv. 218. 
and upper green sand of Weald 

valley, iv. 223. 

escarpments of Weald valley, once 

sea-cliffs, iv. 227, 228. 
f , why no ruins of, on central district 

of the Weald, iv. 234. 

of North and South Downs, its 

former continuity, iv. 244. 
•, furrows on the, how caused, iv. 

-, greatest height of, in England, 

iv. 259. 
., area covered by, iv. 275. 
., converted into marble by trap dike 

in Antrim, iv. 366. 

Chalk-flints, analysis of, iv. 160. 
Chaluzet, calcareous spring at, i. 312. 

■ , volcanic cone of, i. 33%. 

Chama gigas, growth of, iii. 282. 
Chamalieres, near Clermont, iv. 147. 
Chambon, lake of, how formed, iv. 193. 
Chamisso, M., on coral islands, iii. 278. 
Chamouni, glaciers of, iv. 47. 
Champheix, tertiary red marls of, iv. 

Champoleon in the Alps, strata altered 

near, iv. 369. 
Champradelle, vertical marls at, iv. 151. 
Charts, fossilized, iii. 259. 
Charles worth, Mr., on the crag strata, 

iv. 73, 74. 
Chemical changes, whether volcanic 

heat is produced by, ii. 320. 
Chepstow, rise of tides at, i. 382. 
Cheshire, brine springs of, i. 330. 

, waste of coast of, i. 431. 

Chesil bank, i. 427. 

Chesilton, overwhelmed by sea, i. 428. 

Chili, earthquakes in, i. 117. ; ii. 183. 

, numerous volcanos in, ii. 41. 

, Newer Pliocene marine strata at 

great heights in, iv. 16. 

Chimborazo, height of, i. 181. 
China, climate of, i. 169. 

, earthquakes violent in, ii. 50. 

Chinese deluge, i. 10. 

Chines, or narrow ravines, described, 

i. 427. 
Chittagong, earthquake at, ii. 250. 

Chockier, cave at, iii. 211. 

Christ Church head promontory, i. 426. 

Christie, Dr. T., on caverns in Sicily, 
iv. 39. 41, 42. 

Christol, M. de, on fossils of Montpel- 
lier, iv. 126. 

■, on caves, iii. 214, 215. 

Cicero cited, i. 42. 

Cimbrian deluge, ii. 13. 

Cinquefrondi, changes caused by earth- 
quake at, ii. 232. 

Ciply, Maestricht beds seen at, iv. 271. 

Cirque of Gavarnie, in Pyrenees, iii. 

Circular hollows formed by earthquakes, 

ii. 234. 
Cisterna on Etna, how formed, iii 425. ; 

iv. 15. 
Civita Vecchia, springs at, i. 320. 

Clarke, Dr., on appearance, &c. of lava 
in motion, ii. 83. 







Clay-slate in Pyrenees, iv. 362. 

, may be altered into shale, an 
hornblende schist, iv. 376. 
Clayton, Bishop, on the deluge, i. 74. 
Cleavage, or slaty structure of rocks, iv. 

Clermont, sections near, iv. 147. 151. 


calcareous springs at, i. 312. I 

Clift, Mr., on bones of animals from 

Australian caves, iv. 44. 
Climate of Europe, Raspe on former, i. 
, 75. I 

►, change of, in northern hemisphere, 

i 138. 

— , on causes of vicissitudes in, i. 164. 

■, astronomical causes of fluctuations 
in, i. 224. 

, its influence on distribution of 

plants, iii. 3. 

, effect of alterations in, on distri- 
bution of species, iii. 134. 138. 331. 
influence of vegetation on, iii. 


Climates, insular and excessive, i. 169. ; 

ii. 390. 

Coal, formation of, at mouths of Mac- 
kenzie, iii. 222. 

, reduced to cinder by trap dike, iv. 

— . See Carboniferous. 

Coal formation, fossil plants of the, i. 

158. 202. 231. 243. 
Cole, Viscount, on delta of the Kander, 

iv. 69. 
Colebrooke, Mr. H. T., on crocodiles of 

Ganges, i. 362. 
Colebrooke, Major R. H., on the Ganges, 

i. 361. ; iii. 170. 
Colle, travertin of, i. 313. 

, freshwater formation of, iv. 28. 

College, R., transportation of rocks by 

the, i. 268. 
Collini on igneous rocks, i. 86. 
Colombia, earthquakes in, ii. 250. 
Colonna on organic remains, i. 39. 
Comb Hurst, hills of, iv. 213. 
Come, lava current;of, iv. 93. 
Conception, earthquakes at, ii. 185. 256.; 

iii. 253. 
., recent fossils at great heights in 

, Bay of, iv. 16. 

Conglomerates, tertiary, of Nice, iv. 65. 

, now formed by rivers near Nice, 

i. 375. ; iv. 65. 68. 

•j volcanic, ii. 143. ; iii. 396. 

Contemporaneous origin of rocks, how 
determined, iii. 322. 

, remarks on the term, iii. 363. 

Continents, position of former, iv. 30 jr 
Conybeare, Rev. W, D., on Lister, i. ^ 

, on Bristol coal-field, i. 205. 

■, on earthquakes, ii. 357. 
-, on the English crag, iii. 337, 
-, on the London clay, iv. 214. 
•, on indentations in the chalk, 

•, on transverse valleys, iv. 238. 
— •, on vertical strata of Isle of Wight, 
iv. 253. 

•, on former continuity of chalk ot 
North and South Downs, iv. 244. 
-, on theory of M. E. de Beaumont, 


iv. 333. 
Cook, Captain, on drifting of canoes to 

great distances, iii. 71. 
•, on existence of high land near the 

South Pole, i. 177. 
Coomb, ravine called the, near LevveS* 

iv. 241. 
Copernican theory, edicts against, * e * 

pealed at Rome, i. 100. 
Copiapo, raised banks of shells at, *** 

Coquimbo, parallel roads of, iv. 18. 
Coral between lava currents in "West 

Indies, iii. 294. 
Coral islands, iii. 274. 
, beds of oysters, r &c, on, in the 

Pacific, iii. 276. 

, their extent, iii. 280. 294. 9,98. 

-, linear direction of, iii. 280. 
, rate of growth of, iii. 282. 

Cordier, M., on rate of increase of h ea 
in mines, ii. 313. 317. 
., his theory of central ,heat and 

fluidity, i. 222. ; ii. 314. 

— , on tides in the internal melted 

ocean, ii. 319. 
Cordilleras shaken by earthquakes, **■ 

189. 203. 
Corinth, decomposition of rocks in, lU ' 

203. ; iv. 374. 
Cornwall, waste of cliffs of, i. 429. 
., land inundated by drift sand i n > 

iii. 191. 
-, temperature of mines in, ii. 313. 

, granite veins of, iv. 340. 368. 

Corbmandel, inundations of sea on coast 

of, iii. 198. 
Cortesi, i. 79. 

Cosmogony distinct from geology, i> 5' 



Cosmogony of the Hindoos, i. 6. 
, Egyptian, i. 12. 
of the Koran, i. 31. 
Costa de Pujou, hill of, iv. 93. 
Costantini, deluge vindicated by, i. 60. 
Cotentin, tertiary formation of the, iv. 

Cotopaxi, ii. 43. 337. 
Coudes, tertiary red sandstone of, iv. 

Covelli, M., on increase of temperature 
of a hot spring in Ischia by earth- 
quake, ii. 188. 
Cowper, i. 98. 

Couze, R., lake formed by filling up of 

its ancient bed by lava, iv. 193. 
Crag of England, fossils of the, iii. 33Q . 
iv. 71, 72. 75. 

, its age, composition, &c, iv. 71. 

, lacustrine deposits resting on the 
iv. 77. 
, stratification of the, iv. 78. 

•, compared to Faluns of Touraine, 
iv. 116, 117. 

«, its resemblance to formations now 
in progress, iv. 82. 

Cramer, Mr., on earthquake of New 

Madrid, ii. 204. 
Crantz on drift-wood, iii. 224. 

Craters of elevation, Von Buch's theory 
of, considered, ii. 152. 

Crawfurd, Mr., his discovery of fossils 

in Ava, i. 50. 
Creation, supposed centres or foci of, 

iii. 81. 
Cremona, lakes filled up near, i. 279. 
Creta, argillaceous deposit called, iii. 

387. 397. 401. 
Cretaceous group, iv. 271. 
Crimea, waste of cliffs in the, ii. 12. 
Crocodile taken in the Rhone, iii. 50. 
Crocodiles imbedded by a river inunda- 
tion in Java, ii. 260. ; iii. 230. 234. 
Croizet, M., on extinct quadrupeds of 

Mont Perrier, iv. 136. 

, on alluviums of Auvergne, iv. 197. 

Cromer, waste of cliffs of, i. 406. 

, section near, iv. 83. 

Cropthorn, fossils found at, i. 145. 
Crowborough hill, height of, iv. 224. 
., thickness of strata removed from 

summit of, iv. 259. 
Cruckshanks, Mr. A., on earthquake of 

Chili in 1822, ii. 190. 
-, on lines of ancient sea-cliffs on 

coast of ?eru, iv. 17. 

Cuckmere, transverse valley of the iv 

238. ' 

Culver cliff, i. 425. 

Cumana, earthquake of, ii. 207. 

Cumberland, slate rocks of, iv. 354. 382. 

Cuming, Mr., on earthquake at Valpa- 
raiso, 1822, ii. 191. 

Currents from equatorial regions, i. 170. 

, from the Pole to the Equator, i. 


ravages caused by 

— , section of debris deposited by 
opposing, i. 378. 

, causes and velocity of, i. 382. 385. 
, destroying and transporting power 
of, i. 392. ; ii. 30. 32. 34. 
•, in estuaries, their power, i. 400. 
•, in the Straits of Gibraltar, ii. 14. 
-, reproductive effects of, ii. 22. 
, on the British shores, ii. 22. 

, distribution of drift-timber by, iii. 


Curtis, Mr., on 

aphides, iii. 93. 
Curtis, Mr. John, on power of the ti- 

pula? to cross the sea, iii. 67. 

, @n number of British insects, iii . 

, on fossil insects, iii. 229. ; iv. 211. 
Curves of the Mississippi, i. 283. 
Cussac, fossils in alluvium under lava 
at, iv. 136. 

Cutch, changes caused by earthquake of 
1819 in, ii. 194. ; iii. 253. 435. ; iv. 174. 

, map of ( see plate 5. ), ii. 194. . 
Cuvier, on durability of bones of men, 

i. 246. ; iii. 245. 

■ , on variability in species, ii. 391. 394. 

, on identity of Egyptian mummies 
with living species, ii. 397. 

■, on number of fishes, iii. 149. 

■, on extinction of the dodo, iii. 113. 

-, on oolite fossils, i. 237. ; iv. 310. 

, on mammiferous remains of the 
Upper Val d'Arno, iv. 138. 

-, on tertiary strata of Paris basin, 

iii. 332. ; iv. 166. 172 179. 
Cuvier, M. F., on aptitude of some ani- 
mals to domestication, ii. 408. 
., on influence of domestication, H. 

Cyclops, island of, in bay of Trezza, iii. 

Cypris, fossil, iii. 262.; iv.. 150. 282. 

, habits of living species of ( see 

figs.), iv. 150. 








Dalman, M., on greywacke rocks of 

Sweden, iv. 300. 
Danger field, Captain F., on buried cities 

in Central India, iii. 194. 
Daniel!, Professor, on the trade- winds, 

i. 188. 
., on melting point of iron, ii. 314. 

., on fusion of metals, ii. 317. 

., on deoxidating power of hydrogen, 

ii. 328. 
Danish Archipelago, undermined by 

currents, ii. 12. 
Dante, embankment of rivers noticed 

by, i. 281. 
Dantzic, waste of land near, ii. 12. 
D'Anville, M., on gain of land in Red 

Sea, ii. 28. 
Darby on drift-wood of Mississippi, i.286. 
., on lakes formed by Red River, i. 


— , on marine strata of Lower Louis- 
iana, i. 291. 
., on delta of Mississippi, i. 365. 
Darent, transverse valley of the, iv. 238. 
Dartmoor granite, iv. 368. 
Daubeny, Dr. on mineral springs, i. 309. 
. on country round the Dead Sea, i. 


, on Mount Vultur, ii. 57. 

— , on decomposition of trachyte, ii. 

90. ; iv. 374. 

, on flowing of lava under water, ii. 

- oh vicinity of volcanos to the sea, 

Davy, Sir H., his theory of progressive 

development, i. 227. 

, on eruption of Vesuvius, ii. 85. 
— , on chemical agency of electricity, 

ii. 323. 
., his theory of an unoxidated me- 

tallic nucleus, ii. 327. 
, on agency of air and water in vol- 

canos, ii. 349. 351. 
-, his analysis of peat, iii. 177- 

ii. 347. 

■, on agency of air and water in vol- 
canos, ii. 349. 351. 

., on nitrogen in mineraLsprings, iii. 

., on Val di Noto limestone, iii. 387. 

., on eruption of Vesuvius in 1834, 

iii. 424. 
. on volcanic region of Olot, iv. 91. 
on volcanic district of Lower 
Rhine and Eifel, iv. 113. 
_ on Auvergne volcanos, iv. 200. 

D'Aubuuson cited, i. 103.; iii. 422. 
Daun, lake-craters near, iv. 104. 
Davis, Mr., on the Chinese deluge, i. 

Davy, Sir FT., on lake of the Solfatara, 

i i 320. 

., on formation of travertin, i.321. 

Davy, Dr., on Graham Island, ii. 152- 

., on a helmet taken up from the sea 

near Corfu, iii. 251. 
Davy, Rev. C, on Lisbon earthquake, 

ii. 352. 
Dax, tertiary formations of, iii. 338. ; 

iv. 119. 

, inland cliff near, iv. 124. 

Dead Sea, waters of, i. 331. . 

. , the country around it volcanic, I. 

331. ; ii. 54. 
De Candolle on hybrid plants, ii. 431- 
., on distribution of plants, iii. 4, 5- 

7. f 

., on agency of man in dispersion or 

plants, iii. 22. 

, on stations of plants, iii. 87- 

., on the barriers which separate dis- 
tinct botanical provinces, iii. 144. 
, on number of land plants, iii. 148- 
,, on longevity of trees, iii. 428. 
Dee, R., bridge over, swept away W 

floods, i. 267. # „ 

Deer, their powers of swimming, iii. *>• 
, formerly abundant in Scotland, 

iii. 110. 
, remains of, in marl lakes, in. 2J&; 

Deguer on remains of ships, &c ' n 

Dutch peat-mosses, iii. 187. 
De la Beche, Mr., on greywacke fossils, 

i.201. „ r _ 
, on delta of Rhone in Lake of ge- 
neva, i. 338. 

, on storm of Nov. 1824, i. 429. 

., on earthquake of Jamaica, 1692, 

ii. 263. 
., on action of rain in the tropics, 

iii. 165. 
., on drifting of plants to sea d. 

hurricanes, iii. 225. 

, on coral formations, iii. 288. 

., on alternation of coral and lava i 
Isle of France, iii. 294. . 

., on fossil forest of I. of Portland, 

iv. 285. 





De la Beche, Mr., on granite of Dart- 
moor, iv. 368. 

Be la Hire on fossil wood from Ava 

1692, i. 49. 
Delhi territory, elephants in, i. 152. 
Delille on wheat in Egyptian tombs, 
ii. 398. 

on native country of wheat, ii. 

Delta of the Adige, i. 350. 

of the Brenta, i. 350. \ 

of the Burrampooter, i. 358. 

of the Ganges, i. 358. 

, its stratification, i. 376. ' 

of the Isonzo, i. 350. . 

of the Mississippi, i. 364*. 376. 

of the Niger, size of, iv. 309. 

of the Nile, i. 353. ; iii. 348. 

of the Po, i. 350. 

— of Rhone, in Lake of Geneva, i. 
337. ; iii. 346. 

— of Rhone, in Mediterranean, i. 


of the Tagliamento, i. 350. 

Deltas, chronological computations of 

age of, i. 339. 
., of Lake Superior, i. 342. 

., of the Baltic, i. 344. 

, oceanic, i. 357. 

, grouping of strata in, i. 371. 

., independent in same basin, i. 373. 
De Luc, his treatise on geology, 1809, 
i. 99. 

, on origin of granite, i. 102. 

— , on age of deltas, i. 342. 
, on conversion of forests into peat- 
mosses, iii. 181. 
, on the deluge, iv. 203. 

De Luc, M. G. A., his natural chrono- 
meters, iii. 188. 

Deluge, ancient theories on causes of, 
i. 32. 46. 53. 55. 57, 58. 60. 74. 
., fossil shells referred to the, i. 34. 

., on changes caused by the, iv. 201. 

„ M. de Beaumont on cause of his- 
torical, iv. 218. 
Deluges part of the present course of 
Nature, i. 133. 
., local, how caused, i. 10. 292. 
., traditions of different, i. 10. 21.74. ; 
ii. 52. 
Demaillet, speculative views of, ii. 373. 
Denmark, tertiary strata of, iv. 87. 
Denodur volcano, ii. 195. 
Denudation, effects of, iii. 165. 349. 352. 

T 2 


Denudation of valley of the Weald,iv.221 . 
Deposition of sediment, rate at which 

the finer kinds subside, ii. 34. 
-, shifting of the areas of, iii. 345. 
Derbyshire, Whitehurst on, i. 79. 
Descartes, iii. 426. 
Desha^es, M., on fossil shells, iii. 339 

369. 374. 387. 402. ; iv. 23. 28. 71. 131. ' 

141. 175. 272. 279. 327. 

, on subdivisions of the tertiary 

strata, iii, 366. 

•, on limestone of Blaye, iv. 122. 
Desjardin, M., bones of the dodo found 

under lava by, iii. 113. 
Desmarest considered geology a branch 

of physical geography, i. 5. 
, on Auvergne, i. 86. 

, on the separation of England from 

France, i. 420. 

Desmoulins, M. Ch., on Eocene depo- 
sits near Bordeaux, iv. 123. 

, on fossils of S. of France, iv 259 

Desnoyers, M., on human remains 
caves, iii. 215. 

— , on tertiary formations of Touraine 
iii. 338. 366. ; iv. 115. 117. ' ' 

,on fossils of the Orleannais, iv. 137. 
on alternation of plastic clay and 
calcaire grossier in Paris basin, iv. 168. 
, on the Cotentin, iv. 208. 
Deucalion's deluge, i. 21. 
Diceras limestone, iv. 289. 
Didelphis, fossil, in oolite, i. 237. 
Dikes, composition and position of. 
85. ; iii. 390. 392. 417. 421.'; iv. 5. 24. 
how caused, iii. 85. ; iv. 6. 

, changes caused by, iii. 392. 417 • iv 
364. 378. 

Diluvial theories, iv. 201. 

waves, whether there are signs of 
their occurrence on Etna, iii. 43i # 
, no signs of in Campania, iv. 14. 
Dimlington height, waste of, i. 4Q2. 
Diodorus Siculus cited, ii. 53. 115. 
Dion Cassius cited, ii. 68. 
Dodo, recent extinction of the, iii. ]]2, 
Dog, varieties of the, ii. 367. 393. 
, its distinctness from the wolf. 




, hybrids between wolf and, ii. 424. 

, examples of acquired instincts he- 
reditary in the, ii. 409. 

has run wild in America, iii. 115. 

Doggerbank, Capt. He wet* on the ii 


Dollart, formation of estuary of the ii,*\ 





Dolomieu on the Val di Noto, Vicentin, 

and Tyrol, i. 87. 

on lavas of Etna, i. 87. 

on decomposition of granite, i. 333. 

on earthquake of 1783^in Calabria, 

ii. 213. 215. 229. 242. 

Domestication, aptitude possessed by 
some animals to, ii. 408. 419. 

, influence of, ii. 413. 

Dominica, coral between two lava cur- 
rents in, iii. 294. ; iv. 22. 

Don, R., transportation of rocks by, i. 

Donati on bed of Adriatic, i. 68. 127. 

351. ; iii. 272. j 

D'Orbigny cited, iv. 176. 
Dorsetshire, landslip in, i. 427. 

, waste of cliffs of, i. 429. 

, valleys of elevation in, iv. 249. 

Doue, M. Bertrand de, on tertiary strata 

of Velay, iv. 136. 157, 158. 190. 

, on Auvergne alluviums, iv. 197. 

Dover, waste of chalk cliffs of, i. 419. 

, depth of sea near, i. 420. 

, formation of Straits of, i. 420. 
, strata at foot of cliffs of, i. 422. ; iv. 

Downham buried by blown sand, iii. 191. 

Dranse, R., i. 295. 297. 

Drift-sand of African deserts, iii. 188. 

Drift-wood of Mississippi, i. 284. 287* 


, imbedding of, iii. 219. 

., , abundant in North Sea, iii. 224. 

Drinkwater, Mr., i. 100. 

Drongs, granitic rocks of Shetland, worn 

by the sea, i. 397. 
Drontheim, ii. 302. 
Druids, their doctrines, i. 27. 
Du Bois, M., on tertiary strata of Vol- 

hynia and Podolia, iv. 132. . 
Dufrenoy, M., on the Pyrenees, i. 211. ; 

iv. 368. 
., on tertiary strata of S. of France, 

iv. 119. 121. 124. 

on limestone of Blaye, iv. 123. 
! 9 on hill of Gergovia, iv. 186. 
on age of red marl and rock-salt of 

Cardona, iv. 316. 

. , on chalk of S. of France, iv. 276. 

Dujardin, M., on shells, &c. brought up 

by artesian well at Tours, i. 307- 
., on foraminifera of Paris basin, iv. 

Dunes, hills of blown sand, i. 404. ; n. 

k 21. ; iv. 81.; 

• • 

Dunwich, destroyed by the sea, i. 411. 

, crag strata in cliffs near, iv. 77. 79. 

Durance, R.. land-shells drifted by the, 

iii. 360. 
Dureau de la Malle, M., cited, ii. 396. 

Durham, waste of coast of, i. 402. 



Earth, antiquity of the, i. 35. 

., on changes in its axis, i. 53. 57. 
., proportion of land and sea on its 

surface, i. 221. 

., spheroidal form of the, ii. 309. 

., mean density of the, ii. 311. 

., electric currents in the, ii. 324. 
— , sections of the {see Jigs. 59, 60.,, " 

316. 333. 
., effects produced by the powers ot 

vitality on its surface, iii. 153. 

Earth's crust, signs of a succession of for- 
mer changes recognizable in, iii. 303. 
, arrangement of materials com- 
posing the, iii. 311. 

Earthquakes, energy of, probably uni- 
form, i. 94. 132. 

., earth's surface continually re- 
modelled by, i. 181. 
— , all countries liable to slight shocks 

of, ii. 59. 

chronologically described, see Vol. 

II. p. 181. et seq. 

— , phenomena attending, ii. 182. 
_-, in Cutch, 1819, see map, ii. 194. 
..-, in Calabria, 1783, ii. 210. 
., difficulty of measuring the effects 

of, ii. 217. 

, chasms formed by, ii. 224, 935- ^ 
., excavation of valleys aided by, IU 

237. ; iii. 442. 
., renovating effects of, ii. 3o3. 3j»- 
., cause of the wave-like motion oU 

11. ooo. .- 

, cause of retreat of sea during, 1U 

254. . ... 

, ravages caused by sea during, »*• 

198. d 

., several thousand people entomoe 

in caverns during, iii. 207. 
. their effects in imbedding citie» 

and forests, iii. 252. 
., in the Pacific, iii. 296. 

9 causes of volcanos and, ii. 307. 

East Indian Archipelago, tertiary form- 
ations of, iv. 23. 



Ecchellensis, Abraham, i. 23. 

Edmonstone Island, i. 360. 

Edwards, Mr. M., on corals of the crag, 

iv. 73. 
Eels, migrations of, iii. 53. 
Egerton, Rev. Mr., on delta of the Kan- 

der, iv. 69. 
Egypt, nearly exempt from earthquakes, 

i. 14. ; ii. 57. 
, cities and towns buried under drift- 
sand in, iii. 188. 190. 
Egyptian cosmogony, i. 12. 249. 
mummies identical with species 

still living, ii. 395. 
Ehrenberg, M. C. G., found Bengal tiger 

in Siberia, i. 147. 
on corals of Red Sea, iii. 275. 283. 

288. 293. 359. 
Ehrenhausen, coralline limestone of, iv. 

Eichwald, M., on tertiary deposits of 

Volhynia and Podolia, iv. 132. 
Eifel, volcanos of the, iv. 101. 

, lake-craters of the, iv. 102. 

• ., trass of the, and its origin, iv. 108. 

Electricity, a source of volcanic heat, 

ii. 323. 

. , whence derived, ii. 326. 

Elephant, fossil, in ice on shores of 

North Sea, i. 80. 151. 
* Elephant Bed' at Brighton, i. 422. ; iv. 

261. 267. 
Elephants covered with hair in Delhi, i. 


., their sagacity not attributable to 
their intercourse with man, ii. 418. 
,, their powers of swimming, iii. 33. 
Elevation of land, how caused, i. 50. ; 

ii. 184. 189. 256. 339. ; iii. 436. 

, proofs of successive, iii. 440. 

Elevation and subsidence, proportion of, 

ii. 355. 
Elevation craters, Von Buch's theory 

of, considered, ii. 152. 
Elevation valleys, ii. 176. ; iv. 246. ' 
Elizabeth or Henderson's Island de- 
scribed, iii. 295. 
Elsa, travertin formed by the, i. 312. 
., freshwater formations of the, iv. 



Embankment, system of, in Italy, i. 

, gain of land in Adriatic more rapid 

in consequence of, i. 351. 

Emu in Australia will become extermi. 

nated, iii. 112. 

Engelhardt on the Caspian Sea, ii. 51 - 

iii. 126. 
England, waste of cliffs on coast of, i . 


•, slight shocks of earthquakes felt 
in, ii. 59. 

— , height of tides on east coast of, i. 
381. 409. 

, tertiary strata of, iii. 335, 336. ; iv. 

25. 71. 211. 

■, excavation of valleys in S.E. of, iv. 



, geological map of S.E. of, iv. 221. 

Eocene period, derivation of the term, 
iii. 370. 
>, fossils of the, iii. 371. 373. 
, freshwater formations of, iv. 143. 
, marine formations of, iv. 164. 
, physical geography, fauna and 
flora of the, iv. 181. 
■— , volcanic rocks of, iv. 184. 

, map of principal tertiary basins of, 
iv. 209. 

-, alluviums of, iv. 263. 
•, chasm between secondary form- 
ations and those of, iv. 279. 

., hypogene rocks formed since, iv. 
Epomeo, Monte, height, &c, iv. 11. 

, shells in tuff near summit of, iv.12. 
Equatorial current, i. 170. 
Equinoxes, precession of the, i. 178. 

Erhebungscratere, theory of, considered, 
ii. 152. 

Erie, lake, rapidly filling up, i. 278. 

, peninsula cut through by, ii. 11. 

Erman, M., on specific gravity of sea. 

water,], 172. 
, on level of Caspian, iii. 126. ; iv. 

Erratic blocks of the Alps, iv. 46. 

, transported by ice, i. 269. ; iv. 48. 
Eruptions, volcanic, number of, per 

year, ii. 178. 

• , cause of, ii. 307. 341. 

Er2gebirge, mica slate of the, i. 84. 
Escarpments, manner in which sea de- 
stroys successive lines of, iii. 440. ; iv. 

of chalk in Weald valley, once 

sea cliffs, iv. 227, 228. 
Escher, M., on flood in valley of Bagnes, 

i. 296. 
Eschscholtz Bay, fossils of, i. 153. 
Escrinet, Pass of, conglomerate forming 

at, iii. 210. , 





Essex, inroads of sea on coast of, i. 415. 
Estuary „, deposits, arrangement of, iii. 

Estuaries described, i. 401. 

., new ones in Holland, ii. 7. 
., how formed, ii. 23. 
, tides in, ii. 24. 

., gain of land in, does not compen- 
sate loss of coast, ii. 25. 
, imbedding of freshwater species 

in, iii. 262. 

Eternity of the earth, or of present sys- 
tem of changes, not assumed in this 
work, iv. 392. 

Etna, description of, ii. 71. 111. 5 iii- 

397. 407. 421. 

., lavas of, i. 272. 371. ; ii. 175. 

, minor volcanos on, ii. 113. 
— , buried cones on flanks of, ii. 114. ; 

iii. 415. 
., eruptions of, ii. 115. 120. ; iii. 413. 
., towns overflowed by lava of, ii. 

118. ; iii. 193. 

— , subterranean caverns on, ii. 120. 

., great floods on, ii. 123. 

., glacier under lava on, ii. 124. 

., its cone truncated in 1444, ii. 167. 

, marine formations at its base, ii. 

158. ; iii. 397. 401. 
., great valley on east side of, iii. 407. 
, form, composition, and origin of 

the dikes on, iii. 417. 
., subsidences on, iii. 424. 
., antiquity of cone of, iii. 426. 
-, whether signs of diluvial waves are 

observable on, iii. 431. 
Euganean Hills, lavas of, ii. 60. 
Europe, newest tertiary strata of, iii. 

, geological map of {see plate 2.), i. 

., large portions of, submerged when 

secondary strata formed, iii. 341. 

European tertiary strata, successive 

origin of, iii. 335. 

European alluviums in great part ter- 
tiary, iv. 45. 

Euxine burst its barrier, according to 

Strabo, i. 25. 
, gradually filling up, i. 25. 

, see Black Sea. 

Evaporation, quantity of water carried 

off by, i. 350. 386. ; ii. 14. 

, currents caused by, i. 386. 

Everest, Mr., on island of Munkholm, 

ii. 302. 

Everest, Rev. R., on climate of fossil 

elephant, i. 152. 

, on sediment of Ganges, i. 367. 

Excavation of valleys, ii. 237. ; iv. 263. 
Extinction of species, successive, part of 

the economy of nature, iii. 134. 142. 
Eyderstede overwhelmed by sea, ii. 13. 



Fabio Colonna, i. 39. 

Facial angle, ii. 437. 

Fair Island, action of the sea on, i. 399. 

Falconi on elevation of coast of Bay ot 

Baia?, ii. 281. 
Falloppio on fossils, i. 36. 
Falls of Niagara, i. 275. 

of St. Mary, i. 343. 

Faluns of Touraine, iv. 115. 

, compared to the English crag, iv. 

116, 117. 
., how formed, iv. 117. 

., fossils of, iv. 116. 119. 
Faraday, Mr., on water of the Geysers, 

i. 328. 
-, on slow deposition of sulphate ot 

baryta powder, ii. 35. 
•, on electric currents in the earth, 

ii. 325. 
-, on metallic reduction by voltaic 

agency, ii. 328. 
., on liquefaction of gases, ii. 337. 

., experiments of, on carbonate of 

lime, iv. 366. 
Faroe Islands, deposits forming near the* 

iii. 272. 

Farquh arson, Rev. J., on floods in Scot- 
land, i. 267. 

Fasano, marine strata near, iii. 401. 

Faujas, on Velay and Vivarais, 1779, 

i. 86. 
Ferishta, i. 9. 
Ferrara on lavas of Etna, i. 371. 

on floods on Etna, ii.124. 

on earthquake in Sicily, ii. 208. 
Ferruginous springs, i. 330. 
Ferussac on distribution of testacea, 

iii. 56. 
Fetlar, effect of lightning on rocks of, 

i. 394. 
Fez, earthquakes in, ii. 57. 
Fife, coast of, submarine forests on, 

i. 401. 
., encroachments of sea on, i. 401. 

Findhorn, town swept away by sea* 
i. 39a 



Finochio, rock of, iii. 420. 
Firestone of Weald valley, iv. 222. 

, terrace formed by, iv. 229. 

Fish, their geographical distribution, 

iii. 52. 

, migrations of, iii. 53. 

, fossil, i. 235. ; iii. 272. 358. ; iv. 

292. 296. 
Fissures, sulphur, &c. ejected by, ii. 209. 
caused by earthquake of 1783 in 

Calabria, ii. 218. 222. 225. 
, cause of the opening and closing 

of, ii. 262. 
., preservation of organic remains in, 

iii. 201. 
Fitton, Dr., on history of English geo- 
logy, i. 73. 

., on valley of the Weald, iv. 222. 
225. 231. 252. 281, 282. 284. 
— , on a line of vertical and inclined 
strata from I. of Wight to Boulogne, 

iv. 260. 
., on Maestricht beds, iv. 272. 274. 

., on delta of Niger, iv. 309. 

FitzRoy, Capt, on earthquake in Chili, 

1835, ii. 185. 187. 192. 
Fiume Salso, in Sicily, iv. 178. 
Flagstones and slates, difference be. 

tween, iv. 356. 

Flamborough Head washed into caves, 

i. 402. 
Fleming, Dr., on uniformity in climate, 

i. 140. 

, on food of fossil elephant, i. 146. 
— , on submarine forests, i. 401. j iii. 

, on rapid flight of birds, iii. 48. 

., on turtles taken on coast of Eng- 
land, iii. 50. 

on changes in the animal king- 
dom caused by man, iii. 109. 
., on stranding of cetacea, iii. 266. 
., on fossils of the crag, iv. 73. 
., on effects of the deluge, iv. 204. 
Flinders on coral reefs, iii. 275. 280. 

Flint on course of Mississippi, &c., i. 

282. 285. 

on earthquakes in Mississippi val- 
ley, ii. 204. 

Flood, supposed effects of the, iv. 201. 

., hypothesis of a partial, iv. 201. 

Floods, bursting of lakes, &c, i. 292. 

in North America, i. 293. 

in valley of Bagnes, i. 295. 

in Scotland, i. 266. ; iii. 233. 


Floods at Tivoli, i. 298. 

— on Etna, ii. 123. 

Floridia, limestone of, iii. 387. 

Fluvia, R., ravines in lava excavated 

by, iv. 93. 97. 
Foah, advance of delta of Nile near, i. 


Folkestone, subsidence of land at, i. 422. 
Fontenelle, his eulogy on Palissy, i. 39. 
Foraminifera of the crag, iv. 75. 

of the Paris basin, iv. 176. 

Forbes, Mr., on Bay of Baia>, ii. 277. 

, on temple of Serapis, ii. 279. 

Forchhammer, Dr., on tertiary strata of 

Denmark, iv. 88. 
Forest ridge of Weald valley, iv. 231. 

, faults in strata of the, iv. 231. 

, thickness of masses removed from 

the, iv. 259. 
Forests, influence of, iii. 163. 165. 168. 

, sites of, now covered by peat, iii. 


, destroyed by insects, iii. 173. 

, submarine, i. 400. ; iii. 226. 

Forfarshire, encroachments of sea on 
coast of, i. 400. 

, marl lakes of, iii. 259. 300. ' 

, composition of secondary rocks of, 

iv. 377. 

Forio, earthquake near, ii. 188. . 

Formosa, earthquakes in, ii. 48. 

Forster, Mr., on coral reefs, iii. 275. 

Forsyth on climate of Italy, ii. 110. 

Fortis on Arabian doctrine of new ge- 
nera and species, i. 24. 

, views of Arduino confirmed by, i. 


— — and Testa on fossil fish of Monte 

Bolca, i. 78. 
Fossa Grande, section of Vesuvius seen 

in, iii. 410. 
Fossilization of organic remains on 
emerged land, iii. 177. 

in peat mosses, iii. 182. 

in caves and fissures, iii. 201. 

in alluvium and landslips, iii. 197. 

in volcanic formations on land, iii. 


— in subaqueous deposits, iii. 218. 


— by river floods, iii. 231. 

in marl lakes, iii. 236. 
of plants , and animals partial, iii. 


Fossils, speculations concerning their 
nature, i. 42. 45. 47. 




Fossils, formerly all referred to the 
deluge, i. 43. 

of the coal strata, i. 158. 201. 231. 

, distinctness of secondary and ter- 
tiary, i. 211. - 3 iv. 279. 

, mammiferous, of successive ter- 
tiary eras, iii. 379. 

. See Organic Remains. 

Fourier, Baron, on temperature of 
spaces surrounding our atmosphere, i. 

, on central heat, i. 222. 

, on radiation of heat, i. 223. 

Fournet, M., on alluvium in ancient 
fissures, iv. 198. 

. , on disintegration of rocks, iv. 373. 

. , on mineral veins, iv. 375. 

Fox, Mr., on heat in mines, ii. 313. 

, on electric currents in the earth, 

ii. 324. 

France, waste of coast of, i. 431. 

, caves of, iii. 213. 

Franconia, caves of, iii. 210. 

Frankfort, tertiary strata near, iv. 132. 

Franklin on a whirlwind in Maryland, 
iii. 11. 

Freshwater formations, species of tes- 
tacea few in, iii. 265. 

. , secondary, why rare, iv. 314. 

Freshwater plants and animals fossil- 
ized, iii. 258. 262. 

Freyberg, school of, i. 81. 92. 

Freyer, Mr., on earthquake in Chili, ii. 


, on Isle of San Lorenzo, iv. 17. 

Fries on dispersion of cryptogamic 

plants, iii. 13. 
Frisi on influence of vegetation, iii. 

Fuchsel, opinions of, 1762, i. 76. 

Funchal, rise of sea during earthquake 

at, ii. 254. 

Fuveau, in Provence, tertiary strata of, 
iv. 210. 


Gabel Tor, volcano of, ii. 58. ; iv. 26. 
Galieri, a bed of corals among igneous 

formations at, iii. 396. 
Gambier coral island, iii. 290. 
Ganges, delta of the, i. 358. 376. 
•, its ancient mouths, i. 358. 
, inundations of the, i. 363. 5 iii. 

Ganges, quantity of sediment in waters 
of, i. 367. 

and Burrampooter not yet com- 
pletely united, i. 376. 

, islands formed by the, iii. 170. 

, bones of men found in delta of, iii* 


Gannat, freshwater limestone of, iv. 

Gardner on destruction of Dunwich by 

the sea, i. 412. 
Gardner, Mr., cited, i. 177. 221. 
Garnets, in altered shale, iv. 365. 
Garrinada, hill of, iv. 93. 
Gases, liquefaction of, ii. 337. 

, evolved by vol can os, ii. 348. 

, passage of, through rocks, iv. 372. 

Gaulish Druids, i. 27. 

Gault of Weald valley, iv. 222. 

, valley formed at its out- crop, iv. 

230. ■ , 

Gavarnie, cirque of, iii. 415. 
— , lamination of clay-slate near, iv. 

Gay-Lussac, M., on the vibration of 

solid bodies, ii. 337- 
., on agency of water in volcanos, ii. 

Gefle, upraised shelly deposit near, ii. 

298. 301. 
Gemmellaro on eruption of Etna in 

1811, ii. 121. 

on ice under lava, ii. 124. 

Gemunder Maar, view of, iv. 104. 

Generation, spontaneous, theory of, i. 

Generelli, on state of geology in Europe 

in middle of 18th century, i. 62. 
, on effects of earthquakes in recent 

times, i. 65, 66. 93. 
Geneva, lake of, men drowned above 

Martigny floated into, i. 296. 

, delta of Rhone in, i. 337. 372. ; iii. 

Genoa, tertiary strata at, iv. 63. 

Geognosy of Werner, i. 81. 

Geographical distribution of plants, iii. 


of animals, iii. 27. 

of birds, iii. 45. 
of reptiles, iii. 49. 
of fishes, iii. 52. 
of testacea, iii. 55. 
of zoophytes, iii. 61. 
- of insects, iii. 62. 
of man, iii. 68. 



Geography, proofs of former changes in 

physical, i. 199. 214. 
., effect of changes in, on species, ill. 

Geological Society of London, i. 104. 
Geological theories, causes of error in 

i. 110. 
Geology defined, i. 1. 
compared to history, i. 1. 

its relation to other physical 
sciences, i. 2. 
— distinct from cosmogony, i. 5. 

considered by Werner as part of 
mineralogy, i. 5. 

., causes of its retardation, i. 42. 97. 

., state of, in Europe, before middle 
of last century, i. 63. 

., modern progress of, i. 104. 


Georges Gemund, freshwater strata of, 
iv. 133. 

Georgia, in island of, perpetual snow to 
level of sea, i. 175. 193. 

Gerbanites, an Arabian sect, their doc- 
trines, i. 24. 

Gergovia, section of hill of, iv. 186. 

German Ocean, filling up, ii. 29. 

Gesner, John, on organic remains, i. 71. 

Geysers of Iceland, i. 328. ; ii. 342. 

■, cause of their intermittent action, 

ii. 344. 

Giacomo, St., valley of, described, iii. 
411, 412. 419. 

Gian Greco, fall of cliffs during earth- 
quake, ii. 236. 

Gibbon cited, i. 120. 

Gibraltar, birds' bones in breccia at, iii. 

, Straits of, ii. 14. 

J t supposed under-current in, ii. 15. 

Gillenfeld, Pulvermaar of, iv. 105. 
Girard, M., on mud of the Nile, i. 355. 

9 on former union of Mediterranean 

and Red Sea, ii. 31. 
Girgenti, tertiary strata at, iii. 385. 
Gironde, tides in its estuary, ii. 24. 

, tertiary strata of basin of, iv. 119. 

Glacier, under lava, on Etna, ii. 124. 
Glaciers, formation of, i. 156. 269. 

of Spitzbergen, i. 172. 

., transportation of rocks by, i. 269. ; 

iv. 47. 
Glen Roy, parallel roads of, iv. 18. 

Glen Tilt, granite veins of, i. 90. 

, junction of limestone and granite 

in, iv. 340. 


Gloger, M., cited, iii. 75. 
Gloucestershire, gain of land in, i. 430. 
Gly, R., tertiary strata in valley of the, 

iv. 69. 
Gmelin on distribution of fish, iii. 54. 

Gneiss, mineral composition of, iv. 361. 

■, passage of, into granite, iv. 363. 


, whence derived, iv. 363. 375. 

Goats, multiplication of, in South Ame- 
rica, iii. 115. 

Godman on migrations of rein-deer, iii. 

Goebel, Mr., on level of Caspian, iv. 


Golden age, doctrine whence derived, i. 

Goldfuss, Professor, on the greywack£, 
iv. 299. 

Goodwin Sands, i. 418. 
Goree on new island, ii. 163. 
Gothenburg, rise of land near, ii. 297. 
Gozzo degli Martiri, dikes at, iii. 390. 

, view of valley of, iii. 439. 

Graah, Capt., on subsidence of Green- 
land, ii. 302. , 

Graham, Mrs., on earthquake of Chili 

in 1822, ii. 190. 
Graham Island, ii. 146. ; iii. 393. 

, views of, see wood-cuts, ii. 147, 

148, 149. 

, depth of sea from which it rose, ii. 

, arrangement of the ejected ma- 
terials on, ii. 148. 

Grammichele, strata near, iii. 387. 

, bones of mammoth in alluvium at, 

iv. 48. 

Grampians, granite veins of the, iv. 342. 
Granada, tertiary strata of, iv. 70. 
Granite of the Hartz, greywacke slate 

with organic remains found in, i. 84. 
, disintegration of, in Auvergne, i, 


, junction of limestone and, in Glen 
Tilt, iv. 340. 

, formed at different periods, iii. 
317. ; iv. 343. 

, origin of, iii. 316.,; iv. 350„ 
, passage of gneiss into, iv. 363. 371. 
, changes produced by its contact 


with strata of lias and oolite in the 
Alps, iv. 369. 

Granite veins, their various forms and 





mineral composition, i. 90.; 



Graves, Lieut., on diffusion of insects 

by the wind, iii. 66. 

Graves, Mr., on distribution of the bus- 
tard, iii. 111. . 

Graves, M , on Valley of Bray, iv. 28/. 

Gravesend, indentations in chalk filled 
with sand, &c, near, iv. 217. 

Grecian Archipelago, new isles of the, 

i. /6. 
., volcanos of the, ii. 58. 

., chart and section of, ii. 161. 
Greece, earthquakes in, iii. 207. 
Greenland, why colder than Lapland,! 


, earthquakes in, ii. 58. 
, gradual subsidence of, ii. 302. 340. 
timber drifted to shores of, iii. 

Gulholmen, island of, gradually rising, 

ii. 297. 
Gun-barrel, with shells attached, found 

in sands, iii. 250. 
Gunnell, Mr., on loss of land in Sheppey, 

i. 415. 
Gypsum and marls of Paris basin, iv. 

, bones of quadrupeds, &c, in, **• 

, of St. Romain on the Allier, iv. 

■, Subapennine, iv. 54. 
Gyrogonite described, iii. 259. 

Greenough, Mr., on fossil shells from 

borders of Red Sea, iv. 26. 
Greville, Dr., on drift sea- weed, iii. 16. 
Greywacke formations, fossils of, i. 2C0. 

232. ; iv. 297. 
of the Eifel, iv. 102. 

, classification of the, iv. 298. 

Grffone, Monte, caves in, iv. 41. 

Grimaldi on earthquake of 1783 in Ca- 
labria, ii. 212. 225. 228. 

Grind of the Navir, passage forced by 
sea in Shetland Islands, i. 396. 

Grosceil tertiary strata at, iv. 24. 

Grosse, Dr., on baths of San Filippo, i. 

Grotto del Cane, i. 332. 
Gryphyte limestone, iv. 291. 
Guadaloupe, human skeletons of, iii. 


, volcanos in, iv. 22. 

Guatimala, active volcanos in, ii. 45. 

, town of, swallowed up by earth- 

quakes; ii. 248. 
Guettard, on the Vivarais, i. 86. 
Guiana, its maritime district formed by 
sediment of the Amazon, ii. 33. 

Guidotti, Signor, on Subapennine fossils, 

iii. 364. 
, on shells in gypsum of Monte 

Cerio, iv. 54. 
Guilding, Rev. L., on migration of boa 

constrictor, iii. 51. 
Guinea current, i. 383. 
Guldenstadt on distinctness of the dog 

and wolf, ii. 394. 

Gulf stream, i. 170. 384. 391. ; iii. *4. 


Habitations of plants described, iii. 5. 
Hall, Sir J., his experiments on rocks, 

i. 90. ; iv. 9. 
Hall, Capt. B., on Falls of Niagara, L 


, on width of Mississippi, i. 282. 

., on islands in Mississippi, i. 284. 
*, on drift-wood in Mississippi, i. 287. 

, on flood in valley of Bagnes, i. 


— , on the trade winds, i. 389, 

•, on volcanic eruption in Tierra del 

Fuego, ii. 41. 

, on temple of Serapis, ii. 274, 

., on isle of Cyclops, iii. 403. 

. on parallel roads of Coquimbo, iv 


, on dikes in Madeira, iv. 24. 

., on veins in the Table Mountain, 
Cape of Good Hope, iv. 339. 
Hall, Mr. J., on temple of Serapis, ii- 

Hallstrom, Col., on rise of land in Gult 

of Bothnia, ii. 291. 
Hamilton, Sir W., on mass covering 

Herculaneum, ii. 99. 

-, on earthquake of 1783, in Cala- 
bria, ii. 213. 229. 232. 

, on earthquakes attending eruption 

of Monte Nuovo, ii. 281. 
i, on eruption of Vesuvius in 1779, 

ii. 82. 174. ; iv. 7. 
Hamilton, Sir Charles, on submerged 

buildings of Port Royal, iii. 255. 
Hampshire, Brander on fossils of, i- 77. 
, submarine forest on coast of, « J 





Hampshire, tertiary formations of, iii. 
335.; iv. 211. 215. 

, on former continuity of the basins 

of London and, iv. 219. 
Happisborough, crag strata near, iv. 79. 
Harcourt, Rev. W. V. V., on bones of 

mammoth, &c. in Yorkshire, i. 145. 
Harlbucht bay, ii. 8. 
Harris, Hon. C, on sunk vessel off 

Poole harbour, iii. 246. 
— -, on a submarine forest on coast of 

Hampshire, iii. 228. 
Hartmann, Dr., on grey wacke fossils in 

granite of the Hartz, i. 84. 
Hartsoeker on sediment in waters of 

Rhine, i. 366. 
Hartz mountains, i. 84. ; iv. 332. 
Harwich, waste of cliffs at, i. 415. 
Hastings sands, their composition, iv. 


, anticlinal axis formed by, iv. 225. 

Hatfield moss, trees found in, iii. 180. 
Haute Loire, freshwater formation, iv. 

Headen Hill, section of, iv. 216. 

Heat, laws which govern the diffusion 

of, i. 166. 
, its influence on consolidation of 

strata, iv. 317. 
Heber, Bishop, on animals inhabiting 

the Himalaya mountains, i. 152. 
Hebrides, volcanic rocks of the, iv. 

Hecla, columnar basalt of, i. 85. 
— , eruptions of, ii. 126. 
Heidelberg, loess and gravel alternating 

at, iv. 31. 

granites of different ages near, iv. 



Helice and Bura, submerged Grecian 

towns, ii. 56. ', iii. 255. 
Heligoland destroyed by sea, ii. 7. 
Helix, range of species of, iii. 57. 
Helmet, changes of submerged, iii. 251. 
Henderson on eruption of Skaptar Jokul, 

1783, ii. 127. 
Henderson's Island described, iii. 295. 

Henry, Mr., on absorption of carbonic 

acid by water, i v. 372. 

Henslow, Rev. Prof., on the cowslip, ii. 


on diffusion of plants, iii. 19. 

i on changes caused by a dike in 
Anglesea, iv. 364. 378. 
Herbert, Hon. Mr., on varieties and 
hybrids in plants, ii. 403. 431. 


Herculaneum, silence of contemporary 

historians concerning, ii. 67. 
how destroyed, ii. 94. 
, objects preserved in, ii. 100. 
, stalactite formed in galleries of, ii. 

Heme Bay, waste of cliffs in, i. 416. 
Herodotus cited, i. 353. 355. 
Herschel, Sir J., on annual quantity of 

light and heat received by the two 

hemispheres, i. 178. 
, on the sun, i. 224. 

•, on astronomical causes of changes 
in climate, i. 224. 

— , on the trade winds, i. 391. 
— , on height of Etna, ii. 111. 
, on form of the earth, ii. 309. 
•, on Geysers of Iceland, ii. 344. 
, on the effects of heat on seeds,iii,14. 
, on cleavage planes, iv. 358. 
Herschel, Sir W., on the elementary 

matter of the earth, ii. 308. 
Hewett, Capt., on rise of tides, i. 382. 

, on currents, i. 385. 

, on banks in North Sea, ii. 29. 

Hibbert, Dr., on the Shetland Islands, 
i. 393. 395. 397. 

^, on Rhine volcanos, iv. 106. 

., on loess of the Rhine, iv. 34. 38. 

, on fossils of Velay, iv. 136. 

-, on fossils of the carboniferous 

strata, i. 203. 235. ; iv. '294. 
Hiera, new island, ii. 162. 
Highbeach, height of London clay at, 

iv. 257. 
Hilaire, M e Geof. St., on uninterrupted 

succession in animal kingdom, ii. 362. 
Hillswick Ness, action of sea on rocks 

of, i. 398. 

Himalaya mountains, animals inhabit- 
ing the, i. 152. 

, height of perpetual snow on, i. 

Hindoo cosmogony, i. 6. 
Hindoo town, buried, iii. 199. 
Hindostan, earthquakes in, ii. 58. 250 
Hisinger, M., on greywacke rocks of 

Sweden, iv. 299. 
Hodgson, Mr., cited, i. 147. 
Hoff, Von, on level of Caspian, i. 30. 
, on Omar, i. 31. 

— , on springs near Lake Urmia, i. 

., on encroachments of sea, ii. 10. 12. 
, on gain of land in Red Sea, ii. 2S. 
, on earthquakes, ii 54. 184. 249. : 






Hoff, Von, on buried city of Oojain, ii.200. 
, on human remains in delta of 

Ganges, iii. 245. 

, , on a buried vessel, iii. 247. 

Hoffmann, M., on new island in Medi- 
terranean, ii. 147. ; ui. 393. 

9 on elevation craters, ii. 152. 

, on Sicily, iii. 390. ; iv. 39. 41. 

., on agency of subterranean gases, 

iv. 373. 
Holbach, his theory, 1753, i. 58. 
Holderness, marine strata of, iv. 76. 

Holland, inroads of the sea in, ii. 5. 

, submarine peat in, iii. 265. 

Holm sand, near Lowestoff, i. 411. 

Holstein, iv. 88. 

Homer cited, i. 354. 

Honduras, recent strata of, iv. 23. 

Hooke, his " Discourse of Earthquakes," 

i. 47. 

on distribution and duration of 

species, i. 48, 49. 

— on earthquakes, i. 51. ; ii. 258. 260. 

on the deluge, i. 51. 
Hooker, Dr., on eruption of Skaptar 

Jokul, ii. 127. 
, his view of the crater of the great 

Geyser, ii. 343. 
., on drifting of a fox on ice, iii. 105. 

Hordwell, loss of land at, i. 426. 
Hornblende schist, altered clay or shale, 

iv. 376. 
Horner, Mr., on sediment of Rhine, i. 

366. ; iv. 35. 
., on brine springs of Cheshire, i. 331. 
., on limestone of Burdiehouse, iv. 


, on geology of Lower Rhine and 

Eifel, iv. 38. 102. ill. 
Hornitos on Jorullo, account of, ii. 135. 
Horsburgh, Capt, on icebergs in low 

latitudes, i. 177. 

. , on coral islands, iii. 280. 291. 

Horses, wild, drowned in rivers in South 
America, iii. 234. 

Horsfield, Dr., on earthquakes and erup- 
tions in Java, ii. 209. 249. 
., on distribution of Mydaus meliceps 

in Java, iii. 39. 

Horticulture, changes in plants pro- 
duced by, ii. 399. 

Hugi, M., on altered secondary strata 
in the Alps, iv. 370. 
., on modern granite in the Alps, iv. 


Human remains, changes in buried, m- 


in peat-mosses, iii. 183. 

in caves, iii. 205. 207. 212. 
— , their durability, i. 246. ; iii. 245. 

— in delta of Ganges, iii. 245. 

— in calcareous rock at Guadaloupe* 

iii. 245. 

in breccias in the Morea, iii. 205. 

Humber, warp of the, i. 377. ; ii. 27. 
, encroachment of sea in its estuary r 

i. 403. 
Humboldt on laws which regulate the 

diffusion of heat, i. 166. 

on preservation of animals in frozen 

mud, i. 154. 

— on distribution of land and sea, i. 


on transportation of sediment by 

currents, ii. 33. 
, his definition of volcanic action, ii- 


— on mud eruptions in the Andes, ii. 


on eruption of Jorullo, ii. 134. 

on earthquakes, ii. 203. 208, 209. 

on distribution of species, iii. 3. 5. 9,9- 

on migrations of animals, iii. 48. 65. 


cited, i. 11. 147. 154. 174. 
Humming-birds, distribution, &c, iii. 46. 
Hungary, tertiary formations of, iv. 128^ 

, volcanic rocks of, iv. 140. 

Hunstanton, its cliffs undermined, i» 

Hunter, John, on mule animals, ii. 423. 
Hunter, Mr., on buried city of Oujein* 

iii. 193. 
Huron, Lake, recent strata of, iii. 262. 
Hurricanes connected with earthquakes* 

iii. 198. 
, plants drifted to sea by, iii. 225. 

Hurst Castle shingle bank, i. 425. 
Hutchins on a landslip in Dorsetshire,. 

i. 427. 
Hutchinson, John, his " Moses's Prin- 

cipia," 1724, i. 58. 

, on Woodward's theory, i. 58. 

Hutton, first to distinguish between 
geology and cosmology, i. 5. 89. 

on igneous rocks, i. 90. 

on granite, i. 90. 

represented oldest rocks as deri- 
vatives, i. 92. ; iv. 391. 
Hutton, Mr. W., on fossil plants of the 

coal strata, i. 202. 231. 

*w ^ 



Hutton, Mr. W., on freshwater strata 

of the coal period, iv. 294. 
Huttonian theory, i. 89. 92. 95. 101. 
Hybrid races, Lamarck on, ii. 372. 

r animals, ii. 422. 

plants, ii. 426. 

Hydrogen, deoxidating power of, ii. 328. 
-, why not found in a separate form 

among volcanic gases, ii. 349. 
Hydrophytes, distribution of, iii. 8. 16. 
Hypogene, term proposed as a substitute 

for primary, iv. 379. 

formations, no order of succession 

in, iv. 380. 

rocks, their identity of character 
in distant regions, iv. 381. 

produced in all ages in equal quan- 

tities, iv. 384. 
■, their relative age, iv. 383. 
., volume of, formed since Eocene 

period, iv. 389. 

Hythe, encroachments of sea at, i. 422. 


Ianthinafragilis, its range, &c, iii. 56. 
Ice, animals imbedded in, i. 156. 

., drift, influence of, on temperature, 
i. 169. 

— , predominance of, in antarctic 

circle, i. 175. 

., formation of field, i. 191. 

, transportation of rocks by means 
of, i. 269.; ii. 289.; i v. 47, 48. 

■, jointed structure of, iv. 360. 
Icebergs, formation of, i. 156. 172. 

, distance to which they float, i. 173. 

177. 271. 

., their influence on temperature, 
i. 173. 

•, plants and animals transported by, 
iii. 16. 40. 

rocks transported by, i. 270. ; ii. 
289. ; iv. 47, 48. 
Iceland, icebergs stranded on coast of, 
i. 173. 

, geysers of, i. 328. ; ii. 342. 

■, volcanic region of, ii. 58. 
— , volcanic eruptions in, ii. 126. 
— , comparison between the lavas of 
Central France and, ii. 129. 
— , new island near, ii. 127. 145. 

., polar bear drifted to, iii. 103. 

Idienne, volcanic mountain of, iv. 178. 
Igloolik, fossils of, i. 163. 

Igneous action. See Volcanic. 

Igneous causes. See Book ii. 

, the antagonist power to action of 

running water, i. 260.; ii. 354. ; iii. 


Iguanodon, fossil in Wealden and Kent- 
ish rag, iv. 286. 

Imbaburu volcano, fish ejected from, ii. 

Imbedding of organic remains. See Fos- 

Imperati, theory of, 1590, i. 39. 
India, Central, buried cities in, iii. 193. 
Indus, recent changes in delta of, ii. 
194. ; iii. 254. 265. 

sections of the new-raised land 

formed by, ii. 197. ' 
Indusial limestone of Auvergne, iv. 152. 
Inkpen Hill, highest chalk in England, 

iv. 259. 

Inland cliff, near Dax, iv. 124. 

on east side of Val di Noto, iii. 

Inland seas, deltas of, i. 344. 

Insects, geographical distribution of, iii, 


, migrations of, iii. 63. 

, certain types of, distinguish par- 
ticular countries, iii. 64. 

, their agency in preserving an 

equilibrium of species, iii. 89. 

, fossil, iii. 229.; iv. 210. 

Instincts, migratory, occasional develop- 
ment of, in animals, iii. 36. 
, hereditary, ii. 409. 415. 

, modified by domestication, ii. 413. 

Insular climates, description of, i. 169. 

Inverness-shire, inroads of sea on coast 
of, i. 399. 

Ionian Isles, earthquake in, ii. 194. 

, new island near, ii. 194. 

Ippolito, Count, on earthquake of 1783 

in Calabria, ii. 212. 
Ipsambul, buried temple of, iii, 189. 
Irawadi, R., silicified wood of, noticed 

in 1692, i. 49. 

, recent discoveries of fossil animals 
and vegetables, i. 49. 

its supposed petrifying power, i. 


Ireland, raised beaches on east coast of, 
i. 216. 

., rise of sea, during Lisbon earth- 
quake, on coast of, ii. 254. 
— , reptiles of, iii. 50. 
— , its flora little known, iii. 50. 




Ireland, peat of, and fossils of peat in, 

iii. 178. 183. 185. 
, deposits in progress off coast of, 

iii. 271. 
., rocks altered by dil$es in, iv. 365. 

Iron, melting point of, ii. 314. 

in wood, peat, &c, iii. 182. 

instruments, taken up from sea, 

iii. 249. 
Irtish, R., fossil bones on banks of, i. 

Irving, Mr. W., on migrations of the 

bee, iii. 65. 
Ischia, recent fossils of, i. 140. ; iv. 11. 
- — , hot springs of, i. 329. ; ii. 188. 
■, eruptions, and earthquakes in, ii. 

62. 71. 188. 
•, volcanic conglomerates forming on 

shores of, iii. 396. 
•, configuration of, how caused, iii. 

297. ; iv. 13. 
Islands, vegetation of small, i. 195. ; 

iii. 6. 81. 
, , animals in, i. 204. ; iii. 31. 

in the Mississippi, i. 284. 
— formed by the Ganges, i. 360, 361. 
— , migrations of plants aided by, iii. 


— , new volcanic, i. 76. j ii. 127. 145, 

146. 205. 
», coral, iii. 274. 
of drift-wood, iii. 41. 
Isle of Bourbon, volcanic eruptions in, 

iv. 350. 
Isle of Cyclops, in bay of Trezza, iii. 

., contortions in strata of, iii. 403. 

., lavas of, not currents from Etna, 

iii. 405. 
Isle of France, alternation of coral and 

lava in, iii. 2y4. 
Isle of Palma, description of, ii. 155. 
Isle of Purbeck, line of vertical chalk 

in, i. 425. ; iv. 260. 
Isle of Wight, geology of the, iii. 335. 
., fall of one of the Needles of, iv. 


9 freshwater strata of, iv. 215. 

., mammiferous remains of, iv. 216. 

., vertical strata of, iv. 253. 259. 
., action of the sea on its shores, i. 

Isonzo, R., delta of the, i. 350. 

., its present mouth several miles 
from its ancient bed, i. 352. 

Isonzo, R., conglomerate formed by the, 

i.352 . 
Isothermal lines, Humboldt on, i. 166. 
Isthmus of Sleswick, action of sea on, 

ii. 8. ; iii. 129. 
Italian geologists, their priority, i. 39. 

of the 18th century, i. 59. 

Italy, tertiary strata of, i. 59. 141. ; in- 

335. 364. 
, volcanic rocks of, iv. 89. 


Jack, Dr., on island of Pulo Nias, iv. 23. 
Jackson, Col., on jointed structure of 

ice, iv. 360. 
Jahde, new estuary of, ii. 8. 
Jamaica, earthquakes in, ii. 46. 262. 278. 
, subsidence in, ii. 262. ; iii. 125. 

252. 255. 
, rain diminished in, by felling of 

forests, iii. 165. 

— , a town swept away by sea in, iii- 

•, fossil shells of, iv. 23. 

James, Mr., on bisons in Mississippi 

Valley, iii. 35. 
Jampang village engulphed, ii. 209. 
Jan Mayen's island, volcanic, ii. 58. 
Japan Isles, earthquake in, ii. 209. 
Java, number of volcanos in, ii. 49. 

, earthquakes in, ii. 209. 249. 259. 

, subsidence of volcano of Papan- 

dayang in, ii. 249. ; iii. 424. 

vegetation destroyed by hot sul- 

phuric water from a mountain in, iv 

, river-floods in, ii. 259- ; iii- 230- 

Jesso, volcanos in island of, ii. 48. 
Jobert, M., on extinct quadrupeds of 

Mont Perrier, iv. 136. 

., on hill of Gergovia, iv. 186. 

, on Auvergne alluviums, iv. 197- 

Johnston, Mr., on sinking of the waters 

of Lake Maeler, ii. 294. 
Jointed structure in rocks, iv. 358. 
Jones, Sir W., on Menu's Institutes, i. 6- 
Jorio, Andrea de, on Temple of Serapis, 

ii. 274. 280. 
Jorullo, eruption of, ii. 45. 133. 

, its height, &c, ii. 133. ; iv. 350. 

Juan Fernandez, ii. 185. ; iii. 115. 
Jura, Saussure on the, i. 80. 
, relative age of the, i. 211. 






Jura, erratic blocks of the, iv. 46. 
Jutland, its northern part converted into 
an island in 1825, ii. 9. 
, inundations in, ii. 14. 


Kamtschatka, active volcanos in, ii. 47. 

, earthquakes in, ii. 259. 

., new island near, ii. 205. 
Kander, R., delta of, in lake of Thun, 
iv. 68. 


Kangaroo giving way in Australia, iii. 

Katavothrons of plain of Tripolitza 
filled up with osseous breccias, iii. 205. 

Kazwini on changes in position of land 
and sea, i. 32. 

Keferstein, M., on Fuchsel, i. 76. 

Keill refutes Burnet's and Whiston's 
theories, i. 58. 

Keith on dispersion of plants, iii. 13. 

Kent, loss of land on coast of, i. 415. 

Kentucky, caves in limeston'e, iii. 202. 

Kerguelen's land, quadrupeds in, i. 204. 

Killas of Cornwall, iv. 368. 

Kimmeridge clay, i. 427. 

Kincardineshire, village in, washed 
away by sea, i. 399. 

King, Captain P., on currents in Straits 
of Magellan, i. 385. 
>, on coral reefs, iii. 280. 291. 

King, Mr., on cattle lost in bogs in Ire- 
land, iii. 185. 

, on submerged cannon, iii. 249. 

Kingsclere, valley of, iv. 246. 

Kinnordy, Loch of, insects in marl in, 

iii. 229. 
., canoe in peat of, iii. 248. 
Kirby, Rev. Mr., on insects, ii. 433.; iii. 

63. 66. 93. 95. 
Kir wan, his Geological Essays, i. £9. 
on connection of geology and reli- 
gion, i. 99. 

on age of deltas, i. 342. 
Knight, Mr., on varieties of fruit trees, 

ii. 401. 
Kolreuter on hybrid plants, ii. 426. 
Kdnig, Mr., on rock in which the hu- 
man skeletons from Guadaloupe are 
imbedded, iii. 246. 

., on fossils from Melville Island, i. 
Koran, cosmogony of the, i. 31* 
Kossa cited, i. 32. 

Kotzebue on drifted canoe, iii. 71. 

■ on coral islands, iii. 279. 

Krantz on migrations of seals, iii. 45. 
Kupffer, M., on increase of heat in 

mines, ii. 313. 
Kured, upraised shelly deposits of, ii, 


Kurile Isles, active volcanos in, ii. 48. 


Laach, lake-crater of, iv. 106. 
Labrador, drift-timber of, iii. 224. 
Laccadive Islands, iii. 280. 
Lacepede on Egyptian mummies, ii. 397. 
Lagoons, or salt lakes, in delta of Rhone, 
i. 348. . 
•, of coral islands, iii. 288. 
Lagullas current, i. 169. 
Lahn, valley of the, iv. 35. 
Lake Aidat, how formed, iv. 200. 
Lake Erie. See Erie, Lake. 

of Geneva. See Geneva, Lake of. 

Maeler, ii. 294. 301. 

Mareotis, i. 354. 

Superior. See Superior, Lake. 
Lakes, bursting of, i. 292. 295. 
, filling up of, i. 337. 34d. 

formed by landslips in Calabria, ii. 


•, formation of, in basin of Missis- 
sippi, i. 290. 

formed by eartcquakes, ii. 203. 225. 

233. 263. 

, arrangement of deposits in, iii. 312. 
L' Altar volcano, ii. 43. 
Lamarck, his definition of species, ii. 


on transmutation of species, ii. 363. 
398.; iii. 134. 139. 

-[on conversion of the orang-outang 
into the human species, ii. 377. 
on abundance of polyps, iii. 149. 
on fossils of Paris basin, iv. 50. 
La Motta, in Sicily, iii. 400. 406. 
Lamouroux on hydrophytes, iii. 8, 
Lancashire, submarine forests on coasts 
of, i. 431. 

• , fossil canoes in, iii. 247. 

, tertiary strata of, i. 215.; iv. 25. 

Lancerote, volcanic eruptions in, ii. 139, 
• 144. 

Land, irregular distribution of, i. 193. 
quantity of, in northern and 
southern hemispheres, i. 176. 193.' 



Land, proportion of sea and, i. 220. 

., elevation of, how caused, ii. 339. ; 

iii. 436. 
Landers on delta of Niger, iv. 309. 
Landes, tertiary strata of the, iv. 124. 
Landguard Fort, waste of the point on 

which it stands, i. 414. 

Land-shells drifted to the sea by rivers, 

iii. 360-5 iv. 33. 
Landslips, i. 427. ; ii. 229. 231. 263. 

., imbedding of organic remains by, 

iii. 200. 

., villages and their inhabitants bu- 
ried by, iii. 200. 

Langsdorf on new island, ii. 48. 205. 

Languedoc, deposits on coast of, i. 349. 

Lapidifying juice, i. 37. 

Laplace on change in the earth's axis, 

i. 57. 
on mean depth of Atlantic and Pa- 
cific Oceans, i. 185. 

proved that no contraction of the 

globe had taken place for 2000 years, 

i. 222. 

on mean density of the earth, ii. 312. 

Lapland, why milder than Greenland, 

i. 168. 
., migrations of animals in, iii.'36, 37. 
Lariviere, M., on drifting of rocks by 

ice, i. 271. 
La Roche, section of hill of, iv. 148. 

Las Planas, lava current of, iv. 96. 

Latham on range of birds, iii. 47. 

Latitude influences climate, i. 176. 

Latrielle on distribution of insects, iii. 

La Trinita, fossil shells of, iv. 66. 

Latta, Dr., on glaciers of Spitzbergen, 

i. 172. 

Lauder, Sir T. D., on floods in Scotland, 

i. 267. ; iii- 34. 197. 230. 233. 
., on parallel roads of Glen Roy, iv. 

Laureana, ravines filled near, ii. 234. 

Lava excavated by rivers, i. 272. ; iv. 

93. 96. 193. 
., effects of decomposition on, ii. 90. 
., flowing of, under water, ii. 94. 
., shells between two currents of, ii. 

158. ; iii. 396. 
., slope on which it congeals, ii. 173. 

and coral alternating, iii. 294. 

., minerals in cavities of, iii. 405. 

., veins of. See Dikes. 

., length of time which it requires 

to cool, iv 350. 

Lava, solid externally while in motion, 

iii. 413. 
and alluvium of different ages in 

Auvergne, iv. 195. 
of Iceland and Central France, ii. 

129. 131. 

comparative volume of ancient 

and modern, ii. 132. 

., pretended distinction between an- 
cient and modern, ii. 142. 
— , mineral composition of, ii. 175. 177. 

La Vissiere limestone, iv. 192. 
Lawrence on causes which enable man 

to live in all climates, ii. 438. 
Lazzaro Moro. See Moro. 
Leeward Islands, geology of the, iv. 22. 
Le Grand d'Aussi, M., on Auvergne^ 

iv. 197. 
Lehman, treatise of, 1759, i. 71. 
Leibnitz, theory of, i. 46. 
Leigh on fossil canoes, iii. 247. 
Leith Hill, height of, iv. 230. 
Lemings, migrations of, iii. 37. 
Lena, R., fossil bones on banks of, f» 

148, 149. 
Lentini, limestone near, iii. 396. 

, valleys near, their origin, iii. 442- 

Lenz, M., on level of Caspian, iv. 203. 
Leonhard, M., on loess of the Rhine, iv. 



on volcanic district of Lower 
Rhine, iv. 113. 
., on granites of di fferen t ages, i v. 343. 
Lepere, M., on level of Mediterranean 

and Red Sea, i. 387. 
Lesbos, Antissa joined to, by delta, i. 18. 
Lewes, human bones in tumulus near, 

iii. 214. 
, estuary of the Ouse recently filled 

up near, iii. 263. 

Levels, iii. 229. 262. 

fissures in chalk filled with sand 

near, iv. 218. 

— ,ravine called the Coomb near, iv.241. 

, fault near, iv. 242. 
Leybucht, bay of, ii. 8. 
Lias, strata of the, iv. 290. 

altered by trap dike and by granite, 

iv. 367. 370. 384. 
Licodia, basalts of, iii. 406. 
Liege, caves near, iii. 211. 
Light, influence of, on plants, i. 159. 
Lightning, effect of, in Shetland Islands,. 

i. 394. 

Lignite, conversion of wood into, iii. 24&- 




Lima destroyed by earthquake, ii. 258. 

• , valley of, proofs of its successive 

rise, iv. 17. 

Limagne d'Auvergne. See Auvergne. 
Limburg, loess near town of, iv. 32. 
Limestone, origin of, iii. 299. 

Lincolnshire, incursions of the sea on 
coast of, i. 404. 

Lindley, Mr. J., on fossil plants of Mel- 
ville Island, i. 159. 

., on effect of light on plants, i 159 

~, on fossil plants of the coal strata, 
1. 231. ' 

on number of plants, iii. 148. 

— , on dispersion of cryptogamic plants 
iii. 13. * 

Linnaeus on filling up of Gulf of Both- 
nia, ii. 288. 

on constancy of species, ii. 353, 
on real existence of genera, ii. 383. 

- on diffusion of plants, iii. 18. 23. 

- on introduction of species, iii. 77. 
cited, iii. 89. 

Lionnesse tradition in Cornwall i 

Lipari Islands, rocks altered by gases in 

iv. 373. ' 

Lippi on destruction of Herculaneum 

and Pompeii, ii. 97. 
Lipsius, i. 21. 
Lisbon, earthquakes at, ii. 57. 251. : iii. 


Lister the first to propose geological 
maps, i. 4& 

on fossil shells, i. 46. 
Lloyd, Mr., on relative levels of Atlantic 
and Pacific, i. 387. 

Lloyd's List, number of wrecked vessels 
as shown by, iii. 243. 

Lpchead on gain of land on coast of 
Guiana, ii. 33. 

Loch Lomond, agitation of its waters 
during Lisbon earthquake, ii. 253. 

Lockart, M., on fossils of the Orleanais, 
iv. 137. 

Locke on Whiston's theory, i. 58. 

Locusts, devastations by, iii. 95. 

, bank formed in sea by, iii. 96. 

Loess of the Rhine, iv. 29. 

Loffredo cited, ii. 279, 280. 

Loire, tertiary strata of the, iii. 338. : 
iv. 115. 

London basin, tertiary deposits of, i 
214.J iii. 335.; iv. 211. 

., on former continuity of Hampshire 
and, iv. 219. 


London clay, its fossils, composition, 
thickness, &c, i. 240. ; iv. 213. 

Long, Mr., on earthquake at New Ma- 
drid, ii. 204. 

Long Point peninsula cut through by 
Lake Erie, ii. 11. 

Lough Neagh, supposed petrifying power 
of, i. 329. 

Louis de Foix, ii. 24. 

Louisiana, Lower, marine strata of, i 


Lowe, Mr., on shells of Madeira, iii 58. 
Lower green-sand described, iv. 222. 271 . 
Lower Rhine. See Rhine. 
Lowestoff, current off the coast of, i. 4] l, 

Ness, description of, i. 411. 

■ , cliffs undermined near, i. 411. 

Lowland of Siberia, i. 153. 219. 
Lubbock, Mr., i. 185. 
Lubeck, ii. 288. 

Lucina divaricata, wide geographical 

range of, iii. 372. ; iv. 180. 
Luckipour, its inhabitants swept away 

by the Ganges, i. 363. 

-, new islands formed near, i. 362. 

Luckput, subsidence near, ii. 195. 
Ludlow rocks, fossils of, i. 234. 

, classification of, iv. 270. 298. 

Ludwig, Baron, cited, iii. 15. 
Luleo, gain of land at, i. 345. ; ii. 289. 
Luy, tertiary strata of, iv. 120. 
Luzon, active volcanos in, ii. 48. 

Lybian sands, caravans overwhelmed 
by, iii. 190. 

Lyme Regis, waste of cliffs at, i. 429. 

Lym- Fiord, a breach made by the sea 
into, ii. 9. 

Lyon, Capt.,on imbedding of camels in 
African sands, iii. 190. 


Maars, or lake-craters of the Eifel, iv. 
104, 105. 

MacCulloch, Dr., on gradation from 
peat to coal, iii. 178. 
•, on origin of limestone, iii. 299. 

•, on parallel roads of Glen Roy, iv. 

-, on Subapennine strata, iv. 52. 
-, on granite veins, iv. 338. 
., on junction of granite and lime- 
stone in Glen Tilt, iv. 340. 

-, on granitic rocks, iv. 342, 343. 348. 



MacCulloch, Dr., on trap rocks, iv. 347. 
Macedonia, earthquakes in, ii. 56. 
Macgregor, Mr., on earthquakes in Ca- 
nada, ii. 208. , 
Mackenzie, Sir G., his supposed section 

of the pipe of a geyser, ii. 346. 

9 on reindeer in Iceland, iii. 116. 

Mackenzie, R., drift-wood of, i. 162. ; iii. 


., calcareous formation near its 

mouth, i. 201. 

Maclaren on quantity of useful soil in 

America, iii. 117. 
,on position of American forests, iii. 

Maclure, Mr., on coral and lava in 

West Indies, iii. 294. ; iv. 22. 

, on volcanic district of Olot, iv. 91. 

Macmurdo, Captain, on earthquake of 

Cutch, ii. 195. 199. , 


Madagascar said to contain active vol- 
canos, ii. 58. 

, extent of coral near, iii. 280. 

Madeira, ii. 58. ; iv. 23. 
Maeler, lake, ii. 294. 301. 
Maestricht beds, fossils of, iv. 273. 

, chasm between Eocene and, iv. 


., shells common to the chalk, green- 
sand, and, iv. 272, 273. 

Magellan, Straits of, currents in, i. 385. 

Magnesia deposited by springs, i. 316. 

Magnesian limestone and travertin com- 
pared, i. 317- 

Magnetism, terrestrial, phenomena of, 

ii. 323. 
Magnan, R., section in valley of, iv. 65. 
Mahomet, his cosmogony, i. 32. 

Majoli, opinions of, i. 38. 
Malabar, coral near, iii. 280. 
Malaga, tertiary strata of, iv. 70. 
Malcolm, Sir J., on buried cities in Cen- 
tral India, iii. 194. 

Maldivas, chain of coral islands, iii. 280. 

Mallet, Captain, on petroleum of Tri- 
nidad, i. 334. 

Malpais, theories to account for con- 
vexity of the plain of, ii. 135. 

Malte-Brun cited, i. 168. 181. ; iii. 42, 53. 

71. 191. 224. 234. 

Mammalia, different regions of indi- 
genous, iii. 27. 

, fossil, importance of remains of, 

iii. 358.; iv. 40. 

., of successive tertiary periods, iii. 

Mammalia, remains of, rare in the older 

rocks, iv. 310. 
Mammoth, climate, &c., probably re- 
quired by the, i. 144. 
., bones of, in Yorkshire, i. 145. 
., in tufa near Rome, iv. 28. 
Man, unfavourable position of, for ob- 
serving changes now in progress, i. 


, recent origin of, i. 244. ; iii. I 1 ?* 

, remarks on the superiority of, *• 


— , causes which enable him to live in 

all climates, ii. 438. 
-, his agency in dispersion of plants 

and animals, iii. 21. 74. 
— , diffusion of, iii. 68. 
— , probable birthplace of, iii. 68. 
-, changes caused by, i. 252. ; iii- 106. 


— , durability of the bones of, i. 246. ; 

iii. 245. 
-, remains of, in osseous breccias of 

the Morea, iii. 205. 
., his remains and works fossil, iii- 

234. 238. 

Manetho, i. 113. 

Manfredi on sediment in river water, 

i. 366. 

Mansfeld, fossils of, iv. 293. 

Mantell, Mr., on bones from Saxon tu- 
mulus, iii. 214. 

, on Lewes Levels, iii. 229. 263. 
— , on fossil shells of the crag, iv. 71- 
— , on tertiary outliers on chalk, iv. 

., on the Weald Valley, iv. 222. 224. 

235. 282. 
_-, on " elephant bed " at Brighton, 

iv. 261. 

_., on fossils of the chalk, iv. 278. 

— , on fossil forest of I. of Portland, 

iv. 284. 
-, on a fault in the cliff-hills near 

Lewes, iv. 242. 
Manwantaras, oriental cycle of ages, i. 7- 

Maracaybo, lake, ii. 203. 
Marble deposited from springs, i. 326. 
Marculot, limestone of, iv. 152. 
Marienforst, blocks of quartz, with casts 

of shells near, iv. 112. 

Marine alluviums, iii. 198. 

Marine testacea, range of, iii. 361. 

Marine and freshwater strata, alterna- 
tions of, iii. 264. 





Marine deposits, imbedding of fresh- 
water species in, iii. 265. 

, contain in general a great variety 

of species, iii. 265. 

Marine plants and animals, imbedding 

of remains of, iii. 265. 
Marine vegetation, iii. 8. 16. 
Maritime Alps, conglomerates forming 

at base of, i. 376. 

., tertiary strata at base of, iv. 61. 
Marl lakes of Scotland, animals and 

plants fossilized in, iii. 236. 259. 
Marsilli, on arrangement of shells in 

Adriatic, i. 64. 67. 

, on deposits of coast of Languedoc, 

i. 349. 

Marstrand, island of, ii. 297. 

Marsupial animals, distribution of, iii. 


■, in breccias in Australian caves, 

iv. 43. 

Martigny destroyed by floods, i. 297. 
Martin, Mr., on Valley of the Weald, 
iv. 231. 281. 

, on transverse valleys of North and 
South Downs, iv. 238. 

•, on thickness of strata removed from 
summit of Forest ridge, iv. 258. 
Martinique, earthquake in, ii. 259. 
Martin Meer, fossil canoes in, iii. 247. 
Martius, on drifting of animals by the 
Amazon, iii. 42. 

, on Brazil, iii. 108. 

Maryland, whirlwind in, iii. 11. 
Mascalucia, subsidence near, iii. 425. 
Mathers, village of, swept away by sea, 

i. 399. 
Matilda coral island, iii. 290. 
Mattani on fossils of Volterra, i. 60. 
Mattioli on organic remains, i. 37. 
Mayence, tertiary strata of, iv. 132. 
Mayer, M., on mineral veins, iv. 375, 
Mayne, Valjey of the, iv. 35. 
Medesano, lignite at, iv. 54. 
Mediterranean said to have burst 
through the columns of Hercules, i.25. 
■, microscopic testacea of, i. 78. 
■, deposition of salt in the, ii. 15. 
, its former union with the Red 
Sea, ii. 31. 
— , new island in, ii. 146. 

., organic remains of, iii. 327. ; iv. 
— , shells drifted into, iii. 360. 

., its temperature, depth, level, &c. 
i. 79. 353. 387. ; ii. 14.16.272. 


Medway, transverse valley of the, iv. 238, 
Meerfelder Maar described, iv. 106. 
Megalosaurus Bucklandi, iv. 286. 
Melania inquinata, iii. 372. 
Melilli, circular valley near, iii. 439. 

■ , inland cliffs near, iii. 440. 

Melville Island, fossils of, i. 159. 

, migrations of animals into, iii. 41. 

Mendip hills, caves of, iii. 212. 
Menu's Institutes, i. 6. 8. 
Mercati on organic remains, i. 37. 
Merdogne, marls intersected by a dik 
near, iv. 186. 

Mersey, vessel in bed of, iii. 247. 
Meryon, Mr., on Romney Marsh, i. 423. 
Mese, formerly an island, i. 347. 
Messenia, conglomerate of, iv. 277. 
Messina, tide in Straits of, i. 381. 

, earthquake at, ii. 218. 236. 

Mesua Collis described by Pomponius 

Mela, i. 347. 
Metallic nucleus, theory of an unoxid- 

ated, ii. 326. 

Metallic substances changed by submer- 
sion, iii. 249. 

Metamorphic, the term proposed and 
defined, iv. 380. 

rocks of the Alps, iv. 369. 

, sometimes pass into sedimentary, 

iv. 382. 

, in what manner their age should 
be determined, iv. 383. 

, why those visible to us are for the 
most part ancient, iv. 384. 
Methone, eruption in, ii. 56. 
Metshuka, hill of, ii. 250. 
Mexico, tides in Gulf of, i. 364. 

, volcanic chain extending through, 
ii. 45. 

Meyen, Mr., on earthquake in Chili, 
1822, ii. 191. 

Meyer, Mr., on level of Caspian, iv. 


Mhysir, buried city, iii. 195. 

Micaceous schist, whence derived, iv. 


Mich ell on cause and phenomena of 
earthquakes, 1760, i. 73. 
■, originality of his views, i. 73. 
on the geology of Yorkshire, i. 73. 
on earthquake at Lisbon, ii. 57- 

on retreat of the sea during earth- 
quakes, ii. 255. 

on cause of the wave-like motion 

I of earthquakes, ii. 335. 




I I 


Microscopic fossil shells of Sienna, iv, 

., of the Crag, iv. 75. 
of Paris basin, see plate, iv. 176. 
Migrations of animals, iii. 36. 
of cetacea, iii. 44. 
of birds, iii. 45. 
of fish, iii. I 

- of insects, iii. 62. 
Migratory powers indispensable to ani- 
mals, iii. 120. 

Mileto, subsidence near, ii. 252. 
Milford Haven, rise of tides at, i. 382. 

Miliolite limestone, iv. 176. 

Millennium, i. 35. 55. 

Mindinao volcano, ii. 48. 

Mineral waters, their connection with 

volcanic phenomena, i. 308. 
., ingredients most common in, i. 

311. See Springs. 
Mines, heat in, augments with the 

depth, ii. 313. 
Miocene period, term whence derived, 

iii. 370. 
•9 proportion of living species in fossil 

shells of the, iii. 370. 
., mammiferous remains of, iii. 379. 

, marine formations of, iv. 114. 

•/freshwater formations of, iv. 137. 

, volcanic rocks of, iv. 140. 

. , alluviums of, iv. 134. 

Mirambeau, red clay and sand of, iv. 

Mismer, crag strata near, iv. 79. 
Mississippi, its course, depth, velocity, 

&c, i. 281. 285. 
., drift-wood of the, i. 284. 287. 365. ; 

iii. 42. 223. 
., earthquakes in valley of, i. 291. ; 

ii. 46. 203. 
., delta of, i. 364. 376. 

Missouri, R., i. 282. 
Misterbianco, valleys of, iii. 400. 
Mitchell, Dr., on waste of cliffs, i. 415. 

Mitchell, Major, on Australian caves, 

iv. 44. 
Mitscherlich, M., on minerals found in 

Somma, iv. 5. 
Mocha, elevation of land at, ii 188. 
Modern causes, remarks on the term, 

iv. 264. 
Moel Tryfane, recent marine shells on, 

,i. 216. 

Moen, chalk and tertiary strata of, iv- 

Molasse, its place in series of tertiary 
formations not yet known, iv. 128. 

Mole, R., transverse valley of, iv. 238. 

Molino delle Caldane, travertin, i. 313. 

Moluccas, eruption in the, ii. 261. 

Molluscous animals, superior longevity 

of the species of, i. 145. ; iii. 361. 372-5 

iv. 40. 
Mompiliere, articles preserved under 

lava in, ii. 119. 
Monfalcone, baths of, i. 352. 
Mons, secondary strata near, iv. 271. 
Mont Blanc, glaciers of, i, 269. 

Dor, volcano of, ii. 170. 173. ; iv. 189- 

Ferrat, tertiary strata of, iii. 338. 

Mezen, age of the, iv. 188. 

Perrier, alluviums and breccias of* 

iv. 134. 
Monte Barbaro, description of, ii. 75. 
Bolca, fossil fish of, i. 78. 

— Calvo, section from, to the sea, iv* 


Cerio, shells in gypsum of, iv. 54. 

Grifone, caves in, iv. 41. 

Mario, strata of, iv. 29. 56. 

Minardo, its height, &c, ii. 113. 

— Nucilla, ii. 113. 

— Nuovo, formation of, ii. 72. ; hi 

435.; iv. 11.14. 

coast of Bay of Baise elevated dur- 
ing eruption of, i. 51. ; ii. 72. 280. 

Peluso, ii. 114. 

Rotaro, ii. 63. 

Somma, structure of, ii. 86. 168. 

Vico, siliceous incrustations of, *■ 


Monticelli and Covelli on Vesuvian mi- 
nerals, ii. 92. 

Monti Rossi described, ii. 116. 

Montlosier on Auvergne, i. 87. ; iv. 192. 

Montmartre, gypsum of, iv. 172. 

— , fossils of, iv. 179. 

Montpellier, cannon in crystalline rock 

at, i. 349. 

, tertiary strata of, iv. 126. 

Montsacopa, volcanic cone of, iv. 93. 
Morayshire, town in, destroyed by sea, i- 


, effect of floods in, iii. 197. 233. 

Morea, cities submerged in the, ii. 55. 
Ceramique of, iii. 200. 
, osseous breccias now forming ' n 

the, iii. 203. 

— , closed basins and engulphed rivers 

| in the, iii, 204. 






Morea, human remains imbedded in the, 

iii. 205. 
, sea-cliffs at various elevations in 

the, iv. 19. 
, tertiary strata of, iv. 70. 
., cretaceous rocks of the, iv. 277. 
Morren, M., on peat, iii. 187. 
Moro, Lazzaro, on earthquakes, 1740, i. 

, on new island in Mediterranean, i. 


, on nature of organic remains, i. 61. 

, on faults and dislocations, L 61. 

, on secondary strata, i. 62. 

., on origin of stratified rocks, i. 67. 
., on primary rocks, i. 91. 
Morocco, earthquakes at, ii. 57. 253. 
Moropano, shells in tuff near, iv. 12. 
Mosasaurus of Maestricht found in the 

English chalk, iv. 278. 
Mosenberg, extinct volcano, iv. 106. 
Mountain chains, on the elevation of, i- 

, on relative antiquity of, iv. 320. 

, difficulty of determining the rela- 
tive ages of, iv. 334. 

Mountain limestone formation, i. 201. ; 
iv. 293. 

Mount Vultur, ii. 57. 

Mud eruption in Quito, 1797, ii. 206. 
Mules sometimes prolific, ii. 424. 
Mundane egg of Egyptian cosmogony, 

i. 16. 
Mundesley, chalk near, iv. 85. 
Munkholm, Island of, ii. 302. 
Munster, Count, on Maestricht fossils, 

iv. 274. 
., on fossils of Solenhofen, iv. 289. 

9 on Gosau fossils, iv. 279. 

Murat, deposits near, iv. 192. 

Murchison, Mr., on the Hartz moun- 
tains, i. 184. 
— , on tertiary deposits of the Alps, i. 


— , on the coal strata, i. 202. ; iv. 295. 

— , on transition fossils, i. £34. 

— , on schists of Caithness, i. 235. 

— , on tertiary strata of Lancashire, i. 


on raised beaches in Ireland, i. 


on tertiary strata of Nice, iv. 25. 
of maritime Alps, iv. 64. 65. 
of the Superga, iv. 127. 
ofStyria, iv. 129. 131. 142. 
of Cadibona, iv. 140. 

Murchison, Mr., on tertiary strata of 
Central France, iv. 144. 162. 185. 192. 

of Aix, iv. 211. 
— , his section of crag resting on chalk, 
iv. 77. 
•, on excavation of valleys, iv. 195. 
, on upper green-sand, iv. 248. 
: , his new arrangement of the tran- 
sition strata, iv. 298. 
Murcia, earthquake of 1829, ii. 183. 
Murphy, Lieut. H., on height of North 

Downs, iv. 224. 
Musara, buried cones near, iii. 415. 

, flowing of lava round, iii. 420. 

Muschelkalk, iv. 292. 

Mydaus meliceps, iii. 39. 


** T* 

Nadder, valley of the, iv. 250. 
Nakel, fossil ship found at, iii. 247. 
Nantucket, banks of, i. 384. 
Naples, history and map of volcanic 
district round, ii. 61. $ iv. 1. 

, recent tertiary strata in district 

round, iii. 340. 

■, recent shells in tuffs near, iv. 11. 

Narwal stranded near Boston, iii. 266. 

fossil, near Lewes, iii. 263. 

Nature, as defined by Lamarck, ii. 375. 

Necker, M. L. A., on Somma, ii. 168. 
iv. 5. 8. 

Needles of Isle of Wight, i. 425. 

, fall of one of them, iv. 87. 

Neill on whales stranded, iii. 266. 

Nelson, Lieut., on coral reefs, iii. 279. 

Neptune, temple of, under water, ii. 276. 

Neptunists and Vulcanists, rival factions 

of, i. 88. 98. 

Nerbuddah, R., iii. 194. 

Nerinaean limestone, iv. 289. 

Nesti, M., on fossils of Upper Val d'Arno, 

iv. 139. 

Netherlands, tertiary formations of the, 

iv. 210. 

Newcastle coal-field, i. 202. 

Newer Pliocene period. See Pliocene 

period, newer. 
Newfoundland, cattle mired in bogs of, 

iii. 185. 
Newhaven, its cliffs undermined, i. 423. 

. tertiary strata on chalk near, iv. 

New Holland, plants of, i. 196. ; iii. 5. 



New Holland, animals of, ill- 29. 

, coral reefs of, iii. 280. 

New Kameni, formation of, ii. 163. 

New Madrid, earthquakes at, ii. 203. 

New York, excessive climate of, i. 169. 

New Zealand, animals in, i. 204. 

Niagara, excavation caused by the cata- 
ract of, i. 134. 277. 
-, falls of, i. 275. 

., probable time which they will re- 
quire to reach Lake Erie, i. 278. 

Niapisca Island, worn limestone co- 
lumns in, iv. 21. 

Nicaragua, volcanos in, ii. 45. 

Nice, depth of Mediterranean near, i. 

353. 376. ; ii. 18. 
— , tertiary strata of, i. 353. ; iv. 63. 65. 
Nicolosi destroyed by earthquake, ii.116. 
Niebuhr cited, i. 109. 
Niger, delta of, its size, iv. 309. 
Nile, delta of the, i. 353. ; iii. 348. 
., its ancient mouths, i. 354. 
•, analysis of mud of the, i. 355. 
, cities buried under blown sand 
near the, iii. 188. 
, men swept away by flood of, iii. 


Niisson, M., on lignite of the chalk pe- 
riod, iv. 278. 

on migrations of eels, iii. 54. 

Nipon, volcanos numerous in, ii. 48. 
Nitrogen in springs, iii. 158. 
Noeggerath, M., on volcanic district of 

the Rhine, iv. 102. 113. 
Norfolk, waste of cliffs of, i. 404. ; iv. 


, gain of land on coast of, i. 407. 

, crag strata of, iv. 71. 

Norte, R., transportation of sediment 

by the, ii. 33. 
North Cape, drift-wood on, iii. 224. 
North Downs, chalk ridge called the, iv. 

. , section across valley of Weald 

from south to, iv. 224. 

, highest point of, iv. 224. 

■ , on former continuity of chalk of 

the, with that of the South Downs, 

iv. 244. 
Northmavine, rocks drifted by sea at, i. 

Northstrand destroyed by sea, ii. 9. 

Northumberland, land destroyed by sea 

in, i. 402. 
Noto, Val di, formations of the, iii. 383. 
Notre Dame des Ports, i. 347. 

Norway free from earthquakes, ii. 304. 

, rise of land in,i. 216. ; ii. 298. 301- 

Norwich once situated on an arm of the 

^ ■ 

sea, i. 407. 
Nugent, Dr., on Pitch Lake of Trinidad, 

i. 334. 
Novera, hill of, in Sicily, iii. 392. 
Nymphs, temple of, under water, n 

Nyoe, a new island formed in 1783, ii* 

127. 145. 


Obsequens on eruption in Ischia, ii. 71* 
Oby, R., fossils on shores of, i. 148. 
Ocean, permanency of its level, ii. 284. 
Oceanic deltas, i. 357. 
Odoardi on tertiary strata of Italy, i. 

74. ; iii. 336. 
Oersted, discoveries of, ii. 324. 

Ogygian deluge, ii. 52. 69. 
Ohio, junction of, with Mississippi, i. 282. 
Olafsen on drift-wood, iii. 225. 
Older Pliocene period. See Pliocene pe- 
riod, older. 
Old red sandstone formation, iv. 295. 

, fossils of, i. 235. ; iv. 296. 

Olivet, volcanic cone of, iv. 93. 
Olivi on fossil remains, i. 38. 

on sediment in Adriatic, i. 352. 

Olot, volcanic district of (see PL xi.), iv. 


, destroyed by earthquake, iv. 99. 

Omalius d'Halloy on former connection 

of Auvergne and Paris basin, iv. 165. 
Omar, an Arabian writer, i. 30. 
Oojain. See Oujein. 
Oolite, or Jura limestone formation, iv. 

, converted into hypogene rock in 

the Alps, iv. 370. 

, fossils of the, i. 237. ; iv. 288. 

Oolitic structure in Auvergne, iv. 152. 

in Hungary, iv. 130. 

, recent, in Lancerote, ii. 144. 

Opossum, fossil, at Stonesfield, i. 237- 
Oppido, changes caused by earthquake 

near, ii. 215. 224. 

Orang-outang, Lamarck on its conver- 
sion into the human species, ii. 377- 

Organic life, effect of changes in land 
and sea on, i. 182. 

Organic remains, controversy as to real 

nature of, i. 34. ; iii. 306. 





Organic remains, imbedding of. See 

., importance of the study of, i. 106. 

•, abrupt transition from those of 
the secondary to those of the tertiary 
rocks, i. 212. 

contemporaneous origin of rocks 
proved by, iii. 325. 

, comparative value of different 
classes of, iii. 357. 

See also Fossils. 
Orinoco, R., subsidence in, ii. 250. 
Orkney Islands, promontory cut off by 
sea in, i. 399. 

Orleanais, fossils of the, iv. 137. 

Orpheus cited, i. 13. 

Orthes, tertiary strata of, iv. 121. 

Orust, island of, ii. 300, 301. 

Orwell river, i. 415. 

Osnabruch, tertiary strata of, iv. 133. 

Osseous breccias, formation of, iii. 231. 

, in caves, iv. 38. 43. 

, now forming in the Morea, iii. 203. 

Otaheite, volcanos in, iii. 288. 

, coral at great height in, iii. 297. 

Otranto, tertiary strata of, i. 141.; iii. 

Oujein, buried city of, ii. 200. ; iii. 193. 
Ouse, Ii., transverse valley of, iv. 238. 

., has filled up an arm of the sea, iii. 
263. ; iv. 240. 

Outlying patches of tertiary strata on 

chalk hills, iv. 218. 
Ovid cited, i. 16. 

Owen, Mr., on bones of turtles, iii. 269. 
Owhyhee, iii. 288. 

Owthorne, encroachment of sea at, i. 403. 
Oxus, earthquake in valley of the, ii. 50. 
Oxygen, its action on rocks, i. 262. 
Oysters, &c, thrown ashore alive by 
storm, iii. 270. 

•, migrations of, iii. 60. 

Pachydermata abundant in Eocene pe- 
riod, iii. 379. 

Pacific Ocean, depth of, i. 185 

., its height above the Atlantic, i. 387. 
— , animals in islands of, iii. 32. 
— , subsidence greater than elevation 
in, iii. 294. 
— , earthquakes in, iii. 296. 

, coral and volcanic islands of, ii. 
49.; iii. 284. 287. 296. 

Pacific Ocean, lines of ancient sea cliffs 
on shores of, iv. 17. 

Pssturn, formation of limestone near i 

Pakefield, waste of cliffs at, i. 411. 
Palajotherium in freshwater strata of 

Isle of Wight, iv. 216. 263. 
Palagonia, dikes at, iii. 391. 
, section to Paterno from, iii. 399. 

Palermo, caves containing osseous brec- 
cias near, iv. 41. 

Palestine shaken by earthquakes, ii. 54. 
Palissy on organic remains, i. 39. 
Pallas on mountains of Siberia, i. 79. 
on Caspian Sea, i. 80. ; ii. 52. 

on fossil bones of Siberia, i. 80. 148 

— on calcareous springs, i. 325. 
cited, ii. 12. 53. 320. ; iii. 75. 

Palma, description of Isle of, ii. 155. 
Palmer, Mr., on shingle beaches, i. 428. 
Panama, tides in Bay of, i. 388. 
Panella, in Ischia, iv. 13. 
Papandayang, eruption of, ii. 249. 

, its cone truncated, ii. 249 - iii 

424. ' ' 

Papa Stour, waste of rocks of, i. 398. 

Papyrus rolls in Herculaneum, ii. 104. 

Paradise, Burnet on seat of, i. 56. 

Parallel roads of Coquimbo, iv. 18. 

of Glen Roy, iv. 18. 

Paris basin, formations of the, i. 214 - 
iii. 332. ; iv. 164. 

, fossils of the, i. 240. ; iii. 333. 372 : 

iv. 176, 177. 

, all tertiary formations at first re- 
ferred to age of, iii. 334. 

, analogy of deposits of Central 

France to those of the, iv. 164. 

, comparison between English Eo- 
cene deposits and those of, iv. 217. 

Parkinson, Mr., on the crag, iii. 335 • 
iv. 50. 

Parma, tertiary strata near, i. 141. 353, • 
iii. 364. ; iv. 53. 

Paroxysmal elevations, theory of, iv. 14. 

Parrot on Caspian Sea, ii. 51. ; iii. 126. 

, retraction of his opinion on level 

of Caspian, iv. 202. 

Parry, Captain, highest northern lati- 
tude reached by, i. 175. 

on migration of Polar bear, iii. 40. 
on animals of Melville Island, iii. 
Partsch, M., on tertiary strata of Vi- 
enna, iv. 129. " 






Passo Manzanelli, waterfalls in lava at, 

i. 274. 
Pasto, volcanos in, ii. 45. 
Paterno, section from, to Palagonia, iii. 


, valleys of, iii. 400. 

9 age of basalts of, iii. 406. 

Patrizio's dialogues, i. 59. 

Pauliac, limestone of, iv. 122. 

Paviland cave, iii. 212. 

Peat, on its growth and preservation of 

fossils in it, iii. 160. 177. 182. 
bogs, bursting of, iii. 186. 
., submarine, iii. 187. 265. 
Padamentina, description of the, ii. 87. 
Pembrokeshire, tradition of loss of land 

in, i. 431. 
Pennant on encroachments of sea on 

Yorkshire coast, i. 403, 404. 

on distribution and migration of 

animals, i. 147. ; iii. 31. 37. 
Pentalica, limestone of, iii. 384, 385. 
Pentland, Mr., on fossils from Australian 

caves, iv. 44. 
., on fossils of Upper Val d' Arno, iv. 

Pentland Frith, currents in the, i. 385. 

Penzance, loss of land near, i. 429. 

Peperino, dikes in, iii. 390. 

., how formed, iii. 393. 

., dikes of, how formed, iii. 392. 
P£ron on distribution of animals, iii. 52. 

Perpignan, iv. 99. 

Persian Gulf, coral in, iii. 280. 

Persian Magi on the deluge, i. 32. 

Peru, volcano in, ii. 42. 

•, earthquakes in, ii. 42. 258. 

, proofs of successive elevation of 

coast of, iv. 17. 
Peterhead, whale stranded near, iii. 266. 
Petroleumi springs, i. 334. 
Pewsey, Vale of, iv. 250. i 

Pharos joined to Egypt by delta of Nile, 

i. 18. 354. 
Phillips, Mr. J., on waste of Yorkshire 

coast, i. 403. 
9 on tertiary strata in Yorkshire, iv. 

Phillips, Mr. R., on slow deposition of 

some kinds of sediment, ii. 35. 
Phillips, Mr. W., his analysis of chalk 

flints, iv. 160. 
Philosopher's tower on Etna, iv. 15. 

Phlegraaan fields, volcanos of, ii. 74. ; 
iv. 10. 

Physical Geography. See Geography, 
Piana, conglomerate of, iv. 127. 
Piazza, tertiary strata at, iii. 326. 
Pichinca volcano, ii. 43. 
Piedmont, tertiary strata of, iii. 338. ; iv. 

Pietra Mala, inflammable gas of, i. 19. 
Pignataro on earthquake of Calabria, ii« 

Pigs, instincts of, ii. 413. ' 

swim to great distances, iii. 34. 

, fossil, iii. 183. 

Pindar cited, ii. 115. 

Pingel, Dr., on subsidence of Greenland, 

ii. 342. 
Pitch lake of Trinidad, i. 334. 
Pitchstone, formed by dikes of Somma, 

iv. 9. 
Piteo, gain of land at, i. 345. ; ii. 289. 
Pius VII., edict against Galileo and Co- 


pernican system repealed by, i. 100. 

Piz, fall ofmountain of, iii. 200. 
Plants, varieties in, produced by horti- 
culture, ii. 399. 

, extent of variation in, ii. 401. 

their geographical distribution, 

in. 3. 

in islands, iii. 6. 15. 
, dispersion of, iii. 10. 
., stations of, iii. 5. 86. 
-, equilibrium among, kept up by in- 

sects, iii. 89. 

— , number of terrestrial, iii. 148. 


•, imbedding of, in subaqueous de- 
posits, iii. 219. 258. 265. 

., on number which are now becom- 
ing fossil, iii. 226. 

►, their fossilization partial, iii. 350. 

., fossil, importance of, in geology t 

iii. 357. 359. 
., fossil, of the coal strata, i. 158. 202. 

Plas Newydd, changes caused by a dike 

near, iv. 364. 

Plastic clay and sand of the London ba- 
sin, i 

of the Paris basin, iv. 168. 

Plastic force, fossil shells ascribed to, i. 

Plato on Egyptian cosmogony, i 13. 

Play fair on Huttonian theory, i. 94. 101. 

on instability of the earth's surface, 

i. 299. 

. on gradual rise of Sweden, ii. 291. 

on formation of vegetable soil, iii* 

240. : iv. 212. 





Playfair cited, ii. 320. 

Pleurs town of, and its inhabitants bu. 

ned by a landslip, iii. 201 . 
Pliny the Eider, i. 27. 

■, on delta of Rhone, i. 346 

-, on islands at the mouth of the 
Texel, 11. 7. 

.killed by eruption of Vesuvius, 
a. d. /9, 11. 67. 

Pliny the Younger, on eruption of Ve- 
suvius, a. d. 79, ii. 67 

— , does not mention the overwhelm, 
ing of Herculaneum and Pompeii, ii. 

U/ » 

Pliocene period, newer, derivation of 
the term, iii. 368. 

, proportion of living species in fos- 
sil shells of, iii. 369. 373. 
■— , marine formations of, iii. 382. 

, volcanic rocks of, iv. 2. 

— -, subterranean rocks of fusion 
formed during, iii. 436. ' 

-, freshwater formations of, iv. 27. 

-, osseous breccias and cave deposits 
of, iv. 38. 

, alluviums of, iv. 44. 

Pliocene period, older, proportion of 
living species in fossil shells of, iii 
369. 373. * 

', mammiferous remains of, iii. 379 
■, formations referable to the, iv. 49.' 
-, volcanic rocks of, iv. 89 
Pliocene strata of Sicily, origin of, iii. 


•, changes of surface during and 
since their emergence, iii. 438. 
— •, newer, chiefly visible in countries 
of earthquakes, iv. 16.26. 

Plomb du Cantal, successively accumu- 
lated, iv. 162. 

•, volcanic rocks of, iv. 188. 191. 

•, limestone covered by volcanic 
rocks on, iv. I92. 

, not an elevation crater, ii. 170. 

Plot on organic remains, i. 45. 
Pluche, theory of, 1732, i. 58. 
Plutarch, i. 12. 
Plutonic rocks, iv. 337. 

•, distinction between volcanic and, 
iv. 345. 

>, their relative age, iv. 351. 383. 

■, changes produced by, iv. 368. 
Po, R., frequently shifts its course, i. 279. 
■, embankment of the, i. 280. 

' delta of th e, i. 350. 374. ; iii. 170. 
Podoha, tertiary formations of, iv. 132. 


Polistena, changes caused by earth- 
quakes near, ii. 219. 226. 231. 
Polyps, see Zoophytes. 
Pomerania, fossil ships in, iii. 247. 
Pompeii, how destroyed, ii. 94. 98. 

■ » section of the mass enveloping. 

ii. 95. 

, depth to which the ashes of erup 

tion of 1829 covered, ii. 25. 

, objects preserved in, ii. 100. 

Pomponius Mela, cited, i. 347. ; ii. 6. 
Pondres, cave at, iii. 214. 
Pontanus on eruption in Ischia, ii. 71- 
Pont du Chateau, tuff and limestone at, 

iv. 185. 

Ponte Leucano, travertin at, i. 321. 
Pont Gibaud, gneiss rocks decomposed 
by carbonic acid at, i. 332. 

, calcareous springs near, i. 812. 

Poole Bay cut into by sea, i. 426. 

Popayan, volcanos in, ii. 45. 

-, shaken by earthquake, ii. 189. 

Port-au-Prince destroyed by earthquake, 
ii. 255. 

Portland, fossil ammonites of, i. 49. 

, its peninsula wasting, i. 427. 

, fossil forests in, iv. 284. 
Port Royal, subsidence of, ii. 262. : iii 
125. 252. 255. 

Portugal, earthquakes in, ii. 57. 251. 

Port Vallais, ancient town in delta of 

Rhone, i. 338. 
Po Vecchio, i. 280. 
Pratt, Mr., on fossils of Isle of Wi»hf 

i. 241. ; iv. 216. * ' 

, on cave of San Ciro, iv. 40. 

Precession of the equinoxes, i 179 
Prevost, M. C, on fossil mammalia 

of Stonesfield, i. 237. 

■>on gypseous springs of Baden, i. 

-, on new island in Mediterranean 
11. 148. ' 

•, on elevation craters, ii. 152. 154. 

, on geological causes, iii. 176. 
•, on drifting of plants, iii. 223. 
, on filling up of caves with osseous 
breccias, iii. 210. 

on tertiary strata of Vienna iii 

339. ; iv. 128. ' 

— , on tertiary strata of Paris basin 

iv. 167. 171. 173. 178. 
Prevost, M. P., on radiation of heat, i. 167 
Prevost, Mr. J. L., on number of wrecked 

vessels, iii. 243. 





Pressure, effects of, on consolidation of 

strata, iv. 317. 
Prichard, Dr., on Egyptian cosmogony, 

i 12. 250. 
' , on recent origin of man, i. 246. 

.' on distinct origin of dog and wolf, 

on hybrid races, n. 42o. 
\ on facial angle, ii. 437. 
. on distribution of animals, iii. 28. 

31.' , 

Primary, on the rocks usually termed, 

iii. 313. ; iv. 336. 

., their relation to volcanic and sedi- 
mentary formations, iv. 336. 

., divisible into two groups, iv. 337. 

., on the stratified rocks called, in. 

317. ; iv. 353. 
. the term why faulty, iv. 379. 
'strata, how far entitled to the ap- 
pellation, i v. 383. 
Primitive, term now abandoned, m. <518. 
Primosole, limestone at, iii. 397. 
Prinsep, Mr., on sediment of Ganges, i. 

Priory of Crail, swept away by sea, 

i. 401. , ■ . . 

Procida, island of, remarks of ancient 

, writers on, ii. 62. 
would resemble Ischia if raised, 

Progressive development of organic life, 

theory of, i. 227. ; ii. 363. 
Promontories, their effect in protecting 

low shores, i. 399. 
Psalmodi, formerly an island, i. 347. 
Puglia, fossil elephant found at, i. 37. 
Pulo Nias, fossil shells of, iv. 23. 
Pulvermaar, described, iv. 105. 
Punto del Nasone, dikes at, iv. 6. 
Punto di Guimento, veins of lava at, 

iii. 419. 
Purace volcano, iv. 178. 
Purbeck, its peninsula wasting, i. 427. 
Pursh on Plants of United States, iii. 5. 
Pusanibio, R., sulphuric acid, &c. in 

waters of, iv. 178. . 

Puy Arzet, chalk with beds of tuff in, 

iv. 120. . 

Puv de Come, ravine in lava of, iv; 193. 

Puy de Jussat, quartzose grits of, iv. 148. 

Puy de Marmont, tuff and marl in, iv. 

Puy de Pariou, iv. 199. 

Puy Griou,iv. 191. . x 

Puy Rouge, ravine in lava of, iv. i94. 

Puy de Tartaret, iv. 193. 

Puy en Velay, fossils in alluvium under 

lava near, iv. 136. 
. freshwater formation of, iv. 15/. 

' __ it OC 

- neon v* utv* aw**-- — * — — z r\r**~ 

Puzzuoli, Temple of Serapis near, ii. 26/ . 
s inland cliffs near, ii. 268. 2/0. ; 

iii. 441. .. 
, date of re-elevation of coast of, n. 

., encroachment of sea near, u. AZ. 
' no great wave caused by rise of 

coast near, iv. 14. 
Pyrenees, their relative age, height, &c, 

i. 211. ; iv 326. 368. 
9 tertiary formations of, iv. 69. so. 

./lamination of clay-state in, iv. 361- 

.' chalk of the, iv. 276, 277. 
Pythagoras, system of, i. 16. 
., on Etna, ii. 39. 


Quadrumanous animals, not found fos- 
sil, i. 242. %A , 
Quadrupeds, domestic, multiply rapidly 

in America, iii. 113. 
} imbedding of terrestrial, iii. 231. 

Quaggas, migrations of, iii. 38. 
Ouartz, whence derived, iv. 376. 
Quebec, climate of, i. 169. 

, earthquakes in, ii. 208. 

Quero destroyed by earthquake, ii. 207. 
Quilotoa, Lake, cattle killed by vapours 

from, ii. 207. 
Quintero elevated by earthquake or 

1822, ii. 190. 
Quirini, theory of, i. 44. 
Quito, earthquakes in, ii. 206. 261. 
Quorra, or Niger, delta of the, iv. 309. 
Quoy, M., on coral zoophytes, iii. 281. 


Raben stein cave, iii. 210. 

Race of Alderney, its velocity, k o*o- 

Radicofani, marls capped by basalt at, 

iv 54*. 
; ., age of volcanic rocks of, iv. 89- 

Rad'usa, fossil fish of, iii. 389. 

Raffles, Sir S., cited, ii. 200. 419. 

Rafts, drift-timber in Mississippi, & c -» 

i. 286. 
Rain, action of, iii. 164. 





Rain diminished by felling of forests, 
iii. 165. 

Ramazzini on Burnet's theory, i. 59. 
Ramond, M.\ on Auvergne, iv. 197. 
Rancid, altered lias at, iv. 369. 
Raspe on islands shifting their position 
(note), i. 19. 

"., his theory, 1763, i. 75. 
, on earthquakes, i. 75. 
-, on new islands, i. 76. 
■, on basalt, i. 85. 

■, on elevation of coast of Chili, ii. 
Rats, migrations of, iii. 37. 

introduced by man into America, 
iii. 74. 115. 
Ravenna, formerly a sea-port, i. 351. 
Ray, his physico-theology, i. 52. 54. 

, on earthquakes, i. 53. 

•—. — , on encroachments of sea, i. 53. 413. 

, on Woodward's theory, i. 55. 

, cited, iii. 50. 

JEteaumur on insects, iii. 94. 
Recent formations, term explained, iii. 


, form a common point cf departure 

in all countries, iii. 378. 

Recent and tertiary formations, synop- 
tical table of, iii. 381. 

Reculver cliff, encroachment of sea on, 
i. 416. 

Recupero on flowing of lava, ii. 119. 

Red marl, supposed universality of, iv. 

and sandstone of Auvergne, iv. 

148. 316. 

Red River, formation of new lakes by, 
i. 290. ; iv. 37. 

, drift-wood in, i. 286. 

Red River and Mississippi, their junc- 
tion recent, i. 374. 

Red Sea, gain of land in, ii. 28. 

, level of, i. 387. 

, coral reefs of, iii. 275. 282. 288. 292. 

, on former union of Mediterranean 

and, ii. 31. 

and Mediterranean, distinct spe- 
cies in, iii. 328. ; iv. 118. 
., tertiary strata on borders of, iv. 25. 

Refrigeration, Leibnitz's theory of, i. 

. ., causes which might produce the 

extreme of, i. 186. 
Rein-deer, geographical range of, iii. 36. 
., migrations of, iii. 41. 
, imported into Iceland, iii. 116. 


Rennell, Major, on delta of Ganges, i. 
358. 362. 
•, on icebergs, i. 173. 
-, on delta of Nile, i. 353. 

-, on sediment in waters of Ganges, 
i. 367. 

•, on currents, i. 170. 382. 384. 386. 

-, on the tide- wave called the Bore, 
ii. 10. 

Rennes, tertiary strata near, iv. 209. 

Rennie, Rev. Dr., on peat, and fossils in 

peat, iii. 1/7, 178. 182. 188. 

Reptiles, their geographical distribution, 
iii. 49. 

, their powers of diffusion, iii. 50. 

, in Ireland, iii. 50. 

, imbedding of, in subaqueous depo- 
sits, iii. 230. 234. 267. 
Resina, overflowed by lava, ii. 77. 
Rhine, R., description of its course, ii. 


, its delta, ii. 2. 

, Lower, volcanos of the, iv. 101. 

, origin of trass of, iv. 108. 

Rhinoceros, fossil, in Siberia, i. 150. 

Rhone, delta of, in Mediterranean, i 

, delta of, in Lake of Geneva, i. 337. 

372.'; iii. 346. 
•, debris deposited at its confluence 

with the Arve, i. 378. 
— , shells drifted by the, iii. 360. 
, a cannon imbedded in calcareous 

rock in its delta, iii. 249. 
Riccioli, Signor, on travertin, iv. 28. 
Richardson, Dr., on formation of ice- 
bergs, i. 156. 
, on a calcareous formation near the 

Mackenzie River, i. 201. 
•, on drift- timber in the Mackenzie 

and Slave Lake, iii. 221. 223. 
Richardson, Mr. W., on Heme Bay, ii. 

Riobamba destroyed by earthquake, ii. 

Rimao, valley of, ancient sea-cliffs in 

iv. 17. 
Ripple marks, how formed, iv. 81. 
Risso, M., on fossil shells, iv. 25. 66. 
Rita, hot spring of, its temperature 

raised by earthquake, ii. 188. 
Rive, M. de la, on terrestrial magnetism 

ii. 324. 
Rivers, difference in the sediment of 

i. 135. 345. 349. 373. ; iii. 326. 
., sinuosities of, i. 263. 






Rivers, two equal, when they become 
confluent, do riot occupy bed of dou- 
ble surface, i. 265. 

Robert, M., on fossils of Cussac, iv. 137. 

Rocco di Ferro, shells in tuffs of, iii. 

402. " 
Rochester, indentations in the chalk 

filled with sand, &c. near, iv. 217. 
Rockall bank, recent deposits on, iii. 

Rocks, specific gravity of, i. 264. 

, altered by subterranean gases, i. 

iv. 373. 

-, distinction between sedimentary 

and volcanic, iii. 313. ; iv. 337. 

», origin of the primary, iii. 314. ; iv. 


., distinction between primary, se- 
condary, and tertiary, iii. 313. 
— persistency, of mineral character, 
why apparently greatest in the older, 

iv. 313. 
., older, why most consolidated and 


disturbed, iv. 316. 318. 

., secondary volcanic, of many dif- 
ferent ages, iv. 319. 

., relative age of, how determined, 

iii. 319. 
., transportation of, by ice, i. 269. ; 

ii. 289. ; iv. 48. 

cleavage planes and jointed struc- 

ture of, iv. 354. 

—, how altered by permeation of heat 

and gases, iv. 372. 
, chemical composition of different, 

iv. 377. 

Roderberg, crater of the, iv. 34. 106. 
Rogvarpen, Lake, strata near, ii. 301. 
Roman roads under water in Bay of 

Baia?, ii. 276. 
Rome, travertins of, iv. 28. 
Romney Marsh, gained from sea, i. 422. 
Ronca, tertiary limestone of, iv. 211. 
Ronchi, Roman bridge of, buried in 

silt, i. 352. 
Rose, M. G., on hornblende and augite, 

ii. 178. 
Ross, Captain, on icebergs in Baffin's 

Bay, i. 172. 
Rossberg, slide of the, iii. 200. 
Rotaro, Monte, structure of, ii. 63. 
Rotation of the earth, currents caused 

by, i. 390. 
Bother, River, vessel found in its old 

bed, i. 423. ; iii. 247. 
Roy at, near Clermont, iv, 200, 

Royle, Mr., i. 152. 

Rozet, M., on loess of the Rhine, iv. 38. 

Runn of Cutch described, ii, 198. 
Runton, crag strata in cliffs near, iv. 83. 
Rye formerly destroyed by sea, i. 423. 


Sabine, Captain, on well at Chiswick, *. 


— . on distance to which waters of 
Amazon discolour the sea, ii. 33. 

., on current crossing the mouth of 
the Amazon, ii. 33. 

Sabrina, island of, ii. 145. 205. 

Saco, flood on the River, i. 293. 

Saharunpore, buried town near, iii. 199. 

St. Andre destroyed by a landslip, iii. 


St. Andrews, loss of land at, i. 401. 

, a gun -barrel, fossil, with shells at- 
tached to it, near, iii. 250. 

St. Christopher's, alternations of coral 
and volcanic substances in, iv. 22. 

St. Domingo, subsidence of coast of, ii. 

. , hot springs caused by earthquake 

in, ii. 250. 

, fossil vases, &c. in, iii. 246. 

St. Eustatia, tertiary formations in, iv. 

St. George, banks of, i. 384. 
St. Helena, tides at, i. 381. 
St. Hospice, tertiary strata of, iv. 25. 
St. Jago, earthquake at, ii. 189. 
St. Katherine's Docks, a fossil vessel 

found in, iii. 247. 
St. Lawrence, Gulf of, elevated beaches 

in, ii. 47. ; iv. 20. 
, earthquakes in, ii. 208. 

St. Madeleine, near Nice, fossil shells of, 

iv. 66. 
St. Maura, earthquakes in, ii. 194. 214. 
St. Michael, siliceous springs of, i. 327. 
St Michael's Mount, i. 430. ; iv. 368. 
St. Mihiel, limestone cliffs of, iv. 20. 
St. Ouen, five sheets of water intersected 

in a well at, i. 306. 
St. Peter's Mount, Maestricht, fossils of, 

iv. 271. 

St. Romain, gypsum of, iv. 154. 

St. Sebastian overflowed by volcanic al- 
luvions, ii. 94. 

St. Ubes engulphed by earthquake, ii. 







St. Vincent's, volcanos of, ii. 203. ; r iv. 22. 

, counter currents in the air proved 

by eruption in, i. 188. 
, boa constrictor conveyed on drift- 

wood to, iii. 51. 

Salisbury Craig, altered strata in, iv. 365. 

Salt, on its deposition in the Mediter- 
ranean, ii. 15. 

Salt springs, i. 30. 330. 

Saltholm, island of, ii. 288. 

Samothracian deluge, ii. 52. 

San Ciro, fossils in cave of, iv. 41. 

Sand, estuaries blocked up by blown, i. 

408. ; ii. 21. 

•, cones of, thrown up during earth- 
quake, ii. 235. 

, drift, imbedding of towns, organic 
remains, &c. in, iii. 188. 190. 
Sanda, its promontory cut off by the sea, 

i. 399. 
Sandown Bay, excavated by sea, i. 425. 

Sandstone, old red, fish found fossil in, 

i. 234. 241. 
Sandwich Land, perpetual snow to level 

of sea-beach in, i. 175. 
San Feliu de Paller61s, ravine in lava 

near, iv. 96. 
San Filippo, travertin of, i. 316. 
Sanguinolaria rugosa, range of, iii. 56. 
San Lio, on Etna, fissures in plain of, ii. 

San Lorenzo, isle of, recent fossils in, iv. 

San Lucido, torrents of mud caused by 

earthquake at, ii. 234. 

Santa Croce, Cape of, limestone on lava 

at, iii. 390. 
Santa Madalena, section at, iv. 93. 

Santa Margarita, crater of, iv. 94. 

Santa Maria, island, of raised 10 feet, ii. 

Santorin, geological structure of, ii. 160. 
, chart and section of, ii. 161. 
., new islands in Gulf of, ii. 162. 
San Vignone, travertin of, i. 313. 
Saracens, learning of the, i. 29. 
Sardinian volcanos, iv. 101., 
Sasso, Dr., on tertiary strata of Genoa, 

iv. 64. 

, on fossil shells of Albenga, iv. 65. 

Saucats, freshwater limestone of, iv. 134. 
Saussure on the Alps and Jura, i. 80. 

on glaciers of Mont Blanc, i. 259. 

Savanna la Mar, swept away by sea, iii. 

Savona, tertiary strata of, iv. 140. 


Saxony, Werner on the geology of, i. 

Scandinavia represented as an island by 

the ancients, ii. 287. 
., gradual rise of, i. 217. ; ii. 286. 340. ; 

iii. 435. ; iv. 24. 
See Sweden. 
Scarpellini, Professor, i. 100. 
Scheuchzer, his theory, 1708, i. 58. 
Scheveningen, waste of cliffs of, ii. 5. 
Schist, siliceous, clay converted into, by 

a lava dike, iii. 392. 404. 
Schlegel, M. de, i. 24. 

Schmerling, Dr., on cavern of Chockier, 
iii. 211. 

on human remains in caves, iii. 212. 

Sciacca, island of. See Graham Island. 
Scilla on organic remains, 1670, i. 42. 
Scilla, rock of, ii. 236. 
Scoresby, Captain, on the gulf stream, 

i. 171. 
•, on the formation of field ice, i. 191. 

■, on weight of rocks transported by 

icebergs, i. 270. , 

., cited, iii. 41. 219. ; iv. 360. 

Scotland, floods in, i. 266. ; iii. 232. 

., fossil fish in old red sandstone of, 

i. 235. ; iv. 296. 

— , waste of coast of, i. 400. 

— , slight earthquakes felt in, ii. 60. 

— , thickness of alluvions in, ii. 241. . 

— , peat-mosses of, iii. 179. 185. 

., marl-lakes of, iii. 236. 259. 265. 

•, granite veins of, iv. 339. 
Scrope, Mr. G. P., on eruption of Vesu- 
vius in 1822, ii. 80. 

', on columnar basalts of Vesuvius, 

ii. 90. 
, on formation of pisolitic globules at 

Pompeii, ii. 97. 
•, on eruption of Etna in 1811, ii. 121. 

., on advance of lava of 1819, ii. 122. 

*, on cause of convexity of plain of 
Malpais, ii. 135. 

, on elevation craters, ii. 152. 
— , on volcanic district of Naples, iv. 

, on volcanos of the Rhine, iv. 10 . 

., on geology of Auvergne, iv. 185, 

186. 194. 197. 
Sea does not change its level, but land, 

i. 26. 
, Moro on manner in which it ac- 
quired its sal tn ess, i. 62. 

., its influence on climate, i. 174. 

, area covered by, i. 221. 




Sea, its encroachment on different 

coasts, i. 392. 402. 431. 
, cause of its rise and retreat during 

earthquakes, ii 254. 
Sea-cliffs, successive elevations proved 

by, iii. 440. 

, manner in which the sea destroys 
successive ranges of, iii. 440. ; iv. 229. 
— , ancient, in the Morea, iv. 19. 

, in Peru, iv. 17. 

Seaford, waste of cliffs at, i. 424. ; iv. 

Seals, migration of, iii. 45. 

Sea- water, density of, i. 172. 

Sea-weed, banks formed by drift, iii. 16. 

Seckendorf, M. de, on greywacke* slate, 
with organic remains in granite, i. 84. 
Secondary rocks, iii. 319. ; iv. 268. 

of Weald Valley, iv. 222. 

., their rise and degradation gradual, 
iv. 251. 
■, fossils of the, i. 157. 231. 
, no species common to tertiary and, 
iv. 272. 274. 279. 

., circumstances under which they 
originated, iii. 319. 

, why more consolidated and dis- 
turbed, iv. 316. 318. 
., volcanic, of different ages, iv. 319. 


Secondary freshwater deposits, why rare, 

iv. 313. 
Secondary periods, duration of, iv. 280. 
Sedgwick, Professor, en the Hartz moun- 
tains, i. 84. 

— , on tertiary deposits of the Alps, i. 
-, on raised beaches in Ireland, i. 216. 
, on Caithness schists, i. 235. 
— , on magnesian limestone, i. 318. 
— , on the antagonist power of vegeta- 
tion, iii. 159. 
, on preservation of organic remains 

in fissures, iii. 208. 
— , on diluvial waves, iii. 431 ; iv. 205. 
-, on tertiary formations of Styria, 

iv. 129. 131. 142. 

— , on Isle of Wight, iv. 216. 260. 
— , on transition rocks, iv. 300. 306. 
■, on granite veins, iv. 340. 

•, on cleavage and jointed structure 
of rocks, iv. 354. 

>, on garnets in altered shale, iv. 365. 
Sediment, its distribution in the Adri- 
atic, i. 352. 

in river water, i. 366. 

Sediment of Ganges compared to lavas 

of Etna, i. 369. 
— , rate of subsidence of some kinds of, 

ii. 34. 
— -, area over which it may be trans- 
ported by currents, ii. 34. 
Sedimentary deposition, causes which 

occasion a shifting of the areas of, iii. 

rocks, distinction between volcanic 

and, iii. 313. 
Selside, fissure in limestone at, iii. 208. 
Seminara, effects of earthquake near, 

ii. 225. V 

Seneca on a future deluge, i. 23. 
Septaria of London clay described, iv, 


Serapis, temple of, ii. 267. 

, ground plan of environs of, ii. 267. 

, date of its re-elevation, ii. 278. 

Serre del Solfizio, buried cones in cliffs 
of, iii. 415. 

, dikes at the base of, iii. 418. 

Serres, E. R. A., on changes in brain of 
foetus in vertebrated animals, ii. 439. 

Serres, M. Marcel de, on changes in bu- 
ried human bones, iii. 214- 

, on human remains in French 

caves, iii. 213. 215. 

, on drifting of land shells to the 

sea, iii. 360. 

— , on tertiary strata of Montpellier, 

iv. 126. 
-, on fossil insects of Aix, iv. 210. 

Seven Sleepers, legend of the, i. 119. 

Severn, tides in estuary of, i. 382. 

, gain of land in its estuary, i. 430. 

Shakspeare cited, i. 233. 

Shakspeare's cliff decays rapidly, i. 

Shales, bituminous, i. 335. 

Sheep, multiplication of, in South Ame- 
rica, iii. 115. 

Shell marl, fossils in, iii. 259. 300. 

Shells. See Testacea. 

Sheppey, fossils of, i. 243. 

, waste of the cliffs, i. 415. 

Sherringham, sections in cliffs of, iv. 84. 

, waste of cliffs at, i. 405. ; iv. 236. 

Shetland Islands, action of the sea on, 

i. 392. ; iv. 45. 

« , rock masses drifted by sea in, i. 393. 

, effect of lightning on rocks in, 

i. 394. 

•, granites of different ages in, iv. 





Shetland Islands, passage of trap into 

granite in the, iv* 349. 
, formations now in progress near, 

iii. 272. 

Shingle beaches, i. 428. 

Ships, number of British, wrecked annu- 
ally, iii. 240. 243. 
., fossil, i. 423. ; iii. 188. 246. 

Shropshire coal-field, i. 202. 
Sibbald cited, iii. 50. 266. 
Siberia, rhinoceros found entire in the 
frozen soil of, i. 80. 150. 
., the Bengal tiger found in, i. 147. 

, Lowland of, i. 153. 219. 

, drift-timber on coast of, iii. 224. 

Siberian mammoths, i. 144. 
Sicily, fossils of existing species in, i. 140. 
., earthquakes in, ii. 54. 208. 261. ; 

iii. 207. 

— , geological structure of, iii. 340. 383. 

., map of part of, iii. 382. 

., origin of newer Pliocene strata of, 

iii! 433. 
., form of valleys of, iii. 438. 
., no peculiar indigenous species 

found in, iii. 445. 
. — , caves in, iv. 38. 
., alluviums of, iv. 48. 
Sidon, ancient site of, two miles from 

sea, ii. 31. 
Siebengebirge, volcanic rocks of the, iv. 

36. 109. 
Sienna, fossil shells of, i. 68. 141. ; iv. 74. 

, Subapennine strata near, iv. 55. 60. 

Silex deposited by springs, i. 327. 

t% piles of Trajan's bridge said to be 

converted into, i. 329. 
Silla, subsidence of the mountain, ii. 

202, 203. 
Silliman, Professor, cited, in. 247. 
Silurian group of rocks, iv. 270. 298. 
Silvertop, Colonel, on tertiary strata of 

Spain, iv. 70. 
Simeto, R., lava excavated by, i. 272. 

plain of the, iii. 399. 

Sindree, changes caused by earthquake 

of 1819 near, ii. 196. ; iii. 254. 
9 view of the fort of, before the 

earthquake {see PI. 6.), ii. 196. 
Sioule, R., ravines cut through lava by, 

iv. 194. 
Sipparah, R., its course changed, iii. 194. 
Skapta, R., its channel filled by lava, ii. 

Skaptar Jokul, eruption of, ii. 128. 

Sky granite of, iv. 343. 



Slate rocks, cleavage planes of, iv. 
Slave Lake, drift-timber in, iii. 221. 
Sleswick, waste of coast of, ii. 8. 
Sligo, bursting of a peat-moss in, iii. 186. 
Sloane, Sir H., on earthquake in Ja- 
maica, ii. 264. 

, on dispersion of plants, iii. 214. 

Smeaton on effect of winds on the sur- 
face of water, i. 386. 
Smith, William, agreement of his sys- 
tem with Werner's, i. 84. 

., his < Tabular View of the British 
Strata,' 1790, i. 102. 
., his Map of England, i. 103. 
., priority of his arrangement, i. 103. 
Smith, Sir J., cited, ii. 401. ; iii. 19. 
Smyrna, volcanic country round, ii. 54. 
Smyth, Capt. W. H., on the Mediterra- 
nean, i. 78. 348. ; ii. 272. 
., on height of Etna, ii. 111. 
., on Straits of Gibraltar, ii. 15. 18. 
— , on depth of sea from which Gra- 
ham Island rose, ii. 146. 
., on floating islands of drift-wood, 

iii. 43. 
-, on drifting of birds by the wind, 

iii. 49. 

., on diffusion of insects, iii. 66. 
on average number of British 
ships lost from 1793 to 1829, iii. 243. 

., found shells at great depths be- 

tween Gibraltar and Ceuta, iii. 271. 
., on volcanos of Sardinia, iv. 101. 

Snow, height of perpetual, in the Andes, 

i. 194. 
, m Himalaya mountains, i. 194. 

Sodertelje, canal of, ii. 294. 

9 recent strata of, ii. 300. 

■ ', buried hut in, ii. 303. 

Sodom, catastrophe of, mentioned by 

Hooke, i. 51. 
Soil, its influence on plants, ii. 402. 
Soils, on formation of, iii. 155. 
influence of plants on, iii. 87. 

Soldani, theory of, 1780, i. 78. 

on microscopic testacea of Medi- 
terranean, i. 78. 

on the Paris basin, i. 78. 

Solenhofen, fossils of, iv. 289. 
Solent, its channel widening, i. 425. 
Solfatara, lake of, i. 320. 

., volcano, ii. 65. 70. 74. 78. 

effects of the exhalations on its 


structure, ii. 90. ; iv. 374. 

, temple of Serapis probably sub- 
merged during eruption of, ii. 279. 




Solon on Island of Atlantis, i. 14. 

Sol way Moss, a man and horse, in ar- 
mour, found in, iii. 186. 

, bursting of, iii. 186. 

Solway Firth, animals washed by river- 
floods into, iii. 232. 

Somersetshire, land gained in, i. 430. 

Somerville, Mrs., on depth of Atlantic 
and Pacific Oceans, i. 185. 

., on effects of compression at earth's 
centre, ii. 312. 

Somma, escarpment of, iii. 410, 411. 414. 

, dikes of, ii. 88. ; iv. 5. 

,- changes caused by dikes in, iii. 


and Vesuvius, differences in com- 
position of, iv. 4. 
, section of, ii. 87. 

Somme, peatmosses in valley of, iii. 187. 
Sorbonne, College of the, i. 69. 
Sorea, eruption in island of, ii. 261. 

Soriano, changes caused by earthquake 
near, ii. 219. 230. 

Sortino, limestone formation in valleys 
of, iii. 385. 

, caves near, iv. 39. 

Sortino Vecchio, several thousand peo- 
ple entombed at once in caverns at, 
iii. 207. 

South Carolina, earthquake in, ii. 203. 
South Downs, waste of plastic clay on, 
i. 424. 

, chalk ridge called the, iv. 223. 
, section from, to the North Downs 
across Weald Valley, i v. 224. 
, highest point of, iv. 224. 

, section from, to Barcombe, iv. 234. 

, on former continuity of chalk of 

North and, iv. 244. 
Souvignargues, cave at, iii. 214. 
Spaccaforno limestone, iii. 386. 
Spada, his theory, i. 60. 
Spain, earthquakes in, ii. 57. 

, tertiary formations of, iv. 70. 
•, extinct volcanos of, iv. 90, 
lavas excavated by rivers in, iv. 
93. 97. 

Spallanzani on effects of heat on seeds 
of plants, iii. 14. 

on flight of birds, iii. 48. 
Species, definition of the term, ii. 361. 
, Linmeus on constancy of, ii. 363. 
, Lamarck's theory of transmut- 
ation of, ii. 363. 386. ;"iii. 139. 
», reality of, in nature, ii. 391. 407. 441. 

Species, geographical distribution of, iii. 
1. 371. 

-, theories respecting their first in- 
troduction, iii. 77. 145. 

», Brocchi on extinction of, iii. 83. 

•, reciprocal influence of aquatic and 
terrestrial, iii. 98. 
— , their successive destruction part 

of the order of nature, iii. 101. 132. 
142. 150. 

■, effect of changes in geography, 

climate, &c. on their distribution, i. 
182. ; iii. 122. 134. 138. 331. 350. 
-, superior longevity of molluscous, 

i. 145. ; iii. 361. ; iv. 40. 

•, necessity of accurately determin- 
ing, iii. 361. 

, living, proportion of, in different 

tertiary periods, iii. 369. 373. 

in Sicily older than country they 

inhabit, iii. 445J 

-, none common to secondary and 

tertiary formations, iv. 272. 274. 
Spence, Mr., on insects, cited, ii. 433. 5 

iii. 63. 93. 

Spina, ancient city in delta of Po, i, 351. 

Spinto, fossil shells at, iv. 127. 

Spitzbergen, glaciers of, i. 172. 

Spix, M., on drifting of animals by the 
Amazon, iii. 42. 

, on Brazil, iii. 108. 

Spontaneous generation, theory of, i. 38. 
Sprengel, M., on numbers of plants, iii. 

Springs, origin of, i. 300. 

s the theory of, illustrated by bored 

wells, i. 302. 

most abundant in volcanic regions, 

i. 309. 

affected by earthquakes, i. 309. ; ii 

188. 228. 250. 

— , transporting power of, i. 136. 311. 

., calcareous, i. 311. 325. 

-, sulphate of magnesia deposited by, 

i. 316. 

— , sulphureous and gypseous, i. 326. 

■, siliceous, i. 327. 

-, ferruginous, i. 330. 

■, brine, i. 330. 

, carbonated, i. 331. 

, petroleum, i. 334. 

Spurn Point, its rapid decay, i. 403. 
Squirrels, migrations of, iii. 36. 
Stabize, buried city of, ii. 106. 

Stalagmite alternating with alluvium in 
caves, iii. 210. 




Start Island separated from Sanda by 

sea, i. 399. 
Statical figure of the earth, ii. 309. 329. 
Stations of plants, description of, iii. 5. 

of animals, iii. 100. 

Staunton, Sir G., on sediment in Yellow 

River, i. 366. 

Staveren, formation of Straits of, i. 421. ; 

ii. 6. ; iii. 130. 
Steele on Burnet's theory, i. 56. 
Steininger, M., on loess of the Rhine, 

iv. 34. 38. 

., on volcanic district of the Eifel,iv. 

, on grey wacke rocks , i v. 299. 

Stelluti on organic remains, i. 39. 
Steno, opinions of, i. 40. 
Stephensen on eruption in Iceland, ii. 127. 
Steppes, Russian, geology of the, ii. 51. 
Sternberg, Count, on the coal strata, i. 

202. • 

Stevenson, Mr., on drift stones thrown 

on the Bell Rock, i. 400. 
, on the German Ocean, i. 420. ; ii. 

, on waste of cliffs, i. 431. 

Stewart, Dugald, cited, i. 249. 

Steyning, chalk escarpment above, iv. 


Stirling Castle, altered strata in rock of, 
iv. 365. 

Stockholm, rise of land near, ii. 294. 
, upraised deposits of shells near, ii. 

Stonesfield, fossils of, i. 237. ; iv. 290. 
Storm of November, 1824, effect of, i. 

424. 426. 428. 
Stour and Avon, cliffs undermined, i. 


Strabo cited, i. 24. 346. 354. ; ii. 56. 62. 

Straits of Dover, formation of, i. 420. 

, their depth, i. 420, 421. 

Straits of Staveren, formation of, i. 421. 5 

ii. 6, 
Straits of Gibraltar, currents in, &c, 

ii. 14. 16. 20. 

Stralsund, ii. 288. 

Strata, cause of limited continuity of, 

iii. 312. 

, order of succession of, iii. 318. 

., origin of European tertiary, at 

successive periods, iii. 335. 

.-, recent, form a common point of 

departure in all countries, iii. 378. 

, with and without organic remains 
alternating, iv„ 181. 

Strata, fossiliferous, classification of the, 
iv. 269. 

, on consolidation of, iv. SI 6. 

Stratification in deltas, causes of, i. 376. 
of debris deposited by currents, i. 

378. ; ii. 36. 

, unconformable, remarks on, iii. 

of the Crag, iv. 78. 

of primary rocks, iv. 353. 

, difference between cleavage and . 

iv. 354. 

Strato, hypothesis of, i. 25. 
Stratton, Mr., on buried temples in 
Egypt, iii. 189. 

Strickland, Mr., on tertiary strata hear 
Cropthorn, i. 145. 

Strike of beds, explanation of term, iv. 


Stromboli, its appearance during Cala- 

brian earthquakes, ii. 237. 
, lava of, iv. 350. 

Studer, M. , on molasse of Switzerland, 
iv. 128. 


, on theory of M. E. de Beaumont, 

iv. 333. 

, on altered strata in the Alps, iv. 

Stufas, jets of steam, in volcanic re- 
gions, i. 308. 


Stutchbury, Mr., on coral islands, iii. 

279. 281, 282. 296. 
Styria, tertiary formations of, iv. 128. 


Subapennine strata, i. 141. 209. 241. ; ii. 

216. ; iv. 49. 

, early theories of Italian geologists 

concerning, i. 74. 127. 
•, opinions of Brocchi on the, iv. 49. 
, subdivisions of, described, iv. 53. 
j how formed, iv. 56. 
■, organic remains of the, iv. 59. 
Subaqueous strata, imbedding of fossils 
in, iii. 258. 

■, our continents chiefly composed 
of, iii. 313. 

•, how raised, iii. 435. 

•, distinction between alluvium and, 

iii. 196. 
Submarine forests, i. 400. 431. ; iii. 226. 
Submarine peat, iii. 187. 2£5. 
Submarine volcanos, ii. 145. 
Subsidence of land, ii. 195. 201, 202. 208. 

218. 233. 252. 256. 262. 268. 5 iii. 124. 

252. 255. 295. 424. 
, permanent, ii. 339. 



Subsidence of land, greater than eleva- 
tion, ii. 356. ; iii. 295. 
Subterranean lava causes elevation of 

land, iii. 436. 
Successive development of organic life, 

i. 227. 
Suez, Isthmus of, ii. 31. 

Suffolk, cliffs undermined, i. 410. 

., inland cliff on coast of, i. 410. 

., tertiary strata of, iii. 336. ; iv. 71. 
Sullivan's Island, waste of, ii. 10. 
Sulphur Island, ii. 48. 
Sulphureous springs, i. 326. 
Sumatra, volcanos in, ii. 49. 
Sumbawa, subsidence in island of, 1815, 

ii. 200. ; iii. 254. 
Sunderbunds, part of delta of Ganges, i. 


Sunderland, magnesian limestone of, i. 


Superga, fossil shells of the, iii. 364. ; iv. 

Superior, Lake, deltas of, i. 342. 
, recent deposits in, i. 344 ; iii. 262. 

-, its depth, extent, &c, i. 342. 344. 

■, bursting of, would cause a flood, 

iv. 201. 
Superposition of successive formations, 
causes of the, iii. 345. 

, proof of more recent origin, iii. 320. 

., exceptions in regard to volcanic 
rocks, iii. 321. 

-, no invariable order of, in Hypo- 
gene formations, iv. 380. 
Surface, state of, when secondary and 

tertiary strata were formed, iii. 341. 
Sussex, Weald formation of, i. 206. 

., waste of its coast, i. 423. 
Swanage Bay excavated by sea, i. 425. 
Swatch in Bay of Bengal, i. 359. 
Sweden, gradual rise of, ii. 286. 353. ; i. 
217. ; iv. 24. 26. 251. 

earthquakes in, ii. 304. 
., lignite of chalk period in, iv. 278. 
•> greywacke rocks of, iv. 300. 

.. See also Scandinavia. 
Swinburne, Capt, on Graham Island, 

ii. 147. 150. 

Switzerland, towns destroyed by land- 
slips in, iii. 200. 

— , « molasse ' of, iv. 128. 

Symes on petroleum springs, i. 334r. 

Syenites not distinguishable from gra- 
nites, iv. 344. 

Syracuse, section at, iii. 385. 

., inland cliffs north of, iii. 440. 
•, caves near, iv. 39. 

Syria, gain of land on its coasts, ii. 31 
, earthquakes in, ii. 54. 


Table-Mountain, intersected by veins, 

iv. 339. 
Tacitus cited, ii. 68. 
Tadeausac, earthquakes at, ii. 208. 
Tagliamento, R., delta of the, i. 350. 

, conglomerates formed by, i. 352. 

Talcahuano, recent elevation of, ii. 187. 
Tampico, sediment transported by, ii- 

Tanaro, plains of the, iii. 364. ; iv. 127^ 
Tangaran, R.,« stopped up by. landslips, 

ii. 260. 
Targioni on geology of Tuscany, i. 70. 

■, on origin of valleys, i. 70. 

•, on fossil elephants, i. 71. 

., on deposits of springs, i. 313. 

Taro, R., iv. 56. 

Tay, encroachment of sea in its estuary, 

i. 400. 

Taylor, Mr., on art of mining in Eng- 
land, i. 81. 

Taylor, Mr. R. C, on waste of cliffs, i. 


• 9 on gain of land on coast of Nor- 
folk, i. 408. 

— , on the formation of Lowestoff 

Ness, i. 410. 
Tech, R., valley of, iv. 69. 
Teissier, M., on human bones in caves, 

&c, iii. 215. 

Temminck cited, iii. 30. 149. 

Temperature, great changes in, i. 163. 

, difference of, in places in same la- 
titudes, i. 167. 

, causes of change in, i. 180. 

. See Climate 

Temples, buried, in Egypt, iii. 188. 

Temruk, earthquakes near, ii. 53. 

Teneriffe, its peak an active solfatara, 

ii. 138. 

- — , volcanic eruptions of, ii. 139. 

Ter, R., valley of the, iv. 91. 

Terni, limestone forming near, i. 319. 

Teronel, R., lava excavated by, iv. 97- 

Terraces, manner in which the sea de- 
stroys successive lines of, iii. 440. ; i y 

Terranuova, subsidence near, ii. 208. 

, fault in the tower of, ii. 219. 

, landslips near, ii. 229. 

-, tertiary strata at, iii . 396. 





T 1 


ertiary formations, general remarks on 

the, i. 239. ; iii. 319. 

, origin of the European, at succes- 
sive periods, iii. 335. 

, circumstances under which these 
and the secondary formations may 
have originated, iii. 342. ; iv. 308. 

-, state of the surface when they 

were formed, iii. 342. 
., classification of, in chronological 

order, iii. 356. 
•, new subdivisions of the, iii. 362. 
numerical proportion of recent 

shells in different, iii. 369. 373. 

— , mammiferous remains of succes- 

sive, iii. 379. 
-, Synoptical Table] of Recent and, 

iii. 381. 

identity of their mineral com- 

position no proof of contemporaneous 

origin, iv. 51. 
., no species common to secondary 

and, iv. 272. 274. 279. 
., of Auvergne, iv. 134. 144. 

England, iii. 335, 336. ; iv. 25 

71. 211. 
., of the Paris basin, iii. 332. ; iv. 164 

., of Sicily, iii. 382. 

., marine, iii. 332. 335. 383. 397. 433. 

Thanet, Isle of, loss of land in, i. 418. 
Theorizing in geology, different methods 

of, iii. 3C3. 
Thermo-electricity, ii. 324. 

Thirria, M., cited, iv. 289. 
Thompson, Dr., on siliceous incrust- 
ations near Monte Vico, i. 329. 
Thrace subject to earthquakes, ii. 56. 
Thucydides on Etna, ii. 115. 
Thun, Lake of, delta of the Kander in, 

ivi 68. 
Thury, M. Hericart de, on Artesian 

wells, i. 303. 
Tiber, growth of its delta, i. 321. 

, valley of the, iv. 29. 

Tide wave of the Atlantic, i. 409. 
Tides, height to which they rise, i. 360. 

, effect of winds on the, i. 385. 

, effects of, on wells near London, 

i. 301. 
-, their destroying and transporting 

power, i. 380. 
— , their reproductive effects, ii. 22. 
and currents, drifting of remains 

iv. 1. 49. 114. 164. 208. 

-, freshwater, iv. 27. 137. 143. 

., volcanic, iii. 389. 400. ; iv. 4. 89 

140. 184. 
Testa and Fortis on fossil fish of Monte 

Bolca, i. 78. 
Testacea, their geographical distribu- 
tion, iii. 55. 
., fossil, importance of, iii. 359. 

., marine, imbedding of, iii. 269. 327. 

-, freshwater, iii. 265. 

., burrowing, iii. 270. 
., parasitic, iii. 283. 
9 longevity of species of, i. 145. -, iii. 

361. 372. ; iv. 40. 
. recent, number of, in different ter- 

tiary periods, iii. 369. 373. 
Tet, valley of, tertiary strata in, iv. 69. 
Texel, waste of islands at its mouth, 

ii. 7. 
Thames, gain and loss of land in its es- 
tuary, i. 415. 

., tide in its estuary, ii. 24. 

., buried vessel in alluvial plain of 

the, iii. 247. 
., basin of the, iii. 335. 

of animals by, iii. 237. 

Tiedemann on changes in the brain in 

the foetus of vertebrated animals, ii. 

Tierra del Fuego supposed to contain 

active volcanos, ii. 41. 
Tin" is, earthquakes at, ii. 53. 
Tiger of Bengal found in Siberia, i. 

Tigris and Euphrates, their union a 

modern event, i. 375. 
Tiganux, tower of, i. 347. 
Tilesius on Siberian mammoth, i. 153. 
Time, prepossessions in regard to the 
duration of past, i. 112. ; iii. 426. 

•, error as to quantity of, fatal to 
sound views in geology, i. 115. 

, great periods required to explain 
formation of sedimentary strata, i. 

Tivoli, flood at, i. 298. 

■ , travertin of, i. 322. 

Toledo, Signor, on elevation of coast of 

Bay of Baiffi, ii. 282. 
Tomboro, volcano, eruption of, ii. 200. 

■ , town of, submerged, ii. 201. 

Torneo, gain of land at, i. 345. ; ii. 289. 
Torre del Annunziata, columnar lava 

at, ii. 89. 

Torre del Greco overflowed by lava, ii. 







Torre del Greco, columnar lavas of Vesu- 
vius seen at, ii. 89. 

Torrents, action of, in widening valleys, 
i. 263. 

Torum, overwhelmed by sea, ii. 8. 

Tory Island, living testacea at great 
depths off, iii. 271. 

Totten,*Col., on expansion of rocks by 
heat, ii. 339. 

Touraine, tertiary strata of, iii. 337.: iv. 

Tournal, M., on French caves, iii. 213. 

Tours, shells, &c. brought up in a bored 
well at, i. 307. 

Towns destroyed by landslips, iii. 200. 
Trade winds, i. 188. 389. 
Traditions of losses of land, i. 430, 431. 
Transition formations, fossils of, i. 201. 
234,. : iv. 297. 

, their extent, i. 200. See Grey- 


Transverse valleys in North and South 
Downs, iv. 238. 

Transylvania, tertiary formations of,iv. 

129. 131. 142. 
Trap rocks, origin of the term, iv. 346. 

, passage of, into granite, iv. 348. 

Trass of Rhine volcanos, iv. 108. 

Travertin of the Elsa, i. 312. ; iv. 27. 
of San Vignone, i. 313. 
of San Filippo, i. 316. 
•, spheroidal structure of, i. 317. 
., compared to the English magne- 
sian limestone, i. 318. 
— of Tivoli, i. 322. 

oolitic, recent formation of, in Lan- 
cerote, ii. 144. 

in Forfarshire, iii. 259. 

of Rome, fossils in x iv. 28. 
Trees, longevity of, iii. 428. ; iv. 205. 
Trezza, travertin formed by spray of the 
sea on rocks of, ii. 144. 

., Bay of, sub-Etnean formations in 
the, iii. 401. 

■, submarine eruptions in, iii. 401. 

Trimmer, Mr., on recent marine shells 

in Wales, i. 215. 
Trimmingham, sections near, iv. 77. 86. 
Trinidad, subsidence in, i. 334. 

, pitch lake of, i. 334. 

earthquakes in, ii. 250. 

Tripolitza, plain of, breccias forming in, 

iii. 205. 

Trollhattan, ii. 343. I 

Truncated volcanic cones, ii. 167. 249. 
Tubal, elevation of land at, ii. 188. 
Tufa. See Travertin. ' 

Tuff, dikes of, how formed, iii. 392. 

, shells in, iv. 11. 

Tunguragua volcano, ii. 43, 44. 206. 
Tunza, R., ii. 189. 

Turin, tertiary formations of, iv. 126. 
Turtles, migrations of, iii. 50. 

, eggs of, fossil, iii. 267. 

Turton cited, iii. 41. 51. 
Tuscany, geology of, i. 40. 70. 

, calcareous springs of, i. 312. 

, freshwater formations of, iv. 27- 

, volcanic rocks of, iii. 365. ; iv. 89 

Tyre now far inland, ii. 31. 
Tyrol, Dolomieu on the, i. 87. 


Uddevalla, upraised deposits of shells at, 
ii. 299. 

Ullah Bund, formation of the, ii. 197- 
Ulloa cited, ii. 257. : iii. 115. 
Unalaschka, new island near, ii. 205. 
Unconformability of strata, remarks on 
the, iii. 349.353. 

Uniformity of Nature, i. 128. 255. ; ii. 

Universal formations of Werner, i. 84. 

remarks on theory of, iii. 323. : iv. 

Universal ocean, theory of an, i. 46. 60. 

disproved by organic remains, i.137. 

Upsala, strata near, ii. 301. 
Urmia, Lake, springs near, i. 326. 
, its size, &c„ ii. 54. 


Val d'Arno, Upper, lacustrine strata of, 

iv. 57. 137. 

, fossils of the, i. 242. ; iv. 138. 

, effect of destruction of ft in, 

iii. 163. 

Val del Bove on Etna described, iii. 
407. 413. 

, section of buried cones in, iii. 415. 

•, form, composition, and origin of 
the dikes in, iii. 414. 417. 

lavas and breccias of the, ii. 121. ; 

iii. 422. 
— , origin of the, iii. 423. 
., floods in, ii. 123. ; iii. 425. 






Valdemone, formations of, iii. 397. 
Val di Calanna, its shape, &c, iii. 411.° 

/began to be filled up by lava in 1811 

and 1819, ii. 122. ; iii. 413. 
Val di Noto, Dolomieu on the, i. 87. 
■, formations of the, iii. 383. 
., volcanic rocks of the, iii. 384. 389.; 
iv. 347. 
., volcanic conglomerates of, iii. 396. 
■, form of valleys of, iii. 438. 
, inland cliffs on east side of, iii. 
"Vale of Pewsey, iv. 250. 
Valle das Furnas, hot springs of, i. 327. 
Valley of the Nadder, iv. 250. 
Valleys, Targioni on origin of, i. 70. 
', excavation of, in Central France, 
i. 272. 

of elevation, ii. 176. ; iv. 246. 
on Etna, account of, iii. 407. 
of Sicily, their form, iii. 438. 
, the excavation of, assisted by 
earthquakes, ii. 237. ; iii. 442. 

■, transverse, of North and South 
Downs, iv. 238, 239. 

of S. E. of England, how formed, 

iv. 263. 
Vallisneri on origin of springs, i. 59. 
on marine deposits of Italy, i. 59. 
on the danger of connecting theo- 
ries in physicaljscience with the sacred 
writings, i. 59. 
., universal ocean of, i 60. 
on primary rocks, i. 91. 
Valmondois, tertiary strata of, iv. 173. 
Valognes, tertiary strata of, iv. 208. 
Valparaiso, changes caused by earth- 
quakes at, ii. 189. 192. 278. ; iii. '253. 
Van der Wyck, M., on the Eifel. iv. 

Van Diemen's Land, climate of, i. 175. 

Var, R., gravel swept into sea by, iv. 

Vatican, hill of the, tufa on > iv. 28. 
Veaugirard, alternation of calcaire gros- 

sier and plastic clay at, iv. 168. 
Vegetable soil, why it does not increase, 

iii. 155. 

, how formed, iii. 157. 

Vegetation, centres of, iii. 144. 

, its conservative influence, iii. 158. 


, its influence on climate, iii. 165. 

Veins, mineral, on their formation, ii. 

227. 5 iv. 373. 

of lava. See Dikes. 

Velay, extinct quadrupeds in volcanic 
scoria? in, iv. 136. 190. 
•, freshwater formations of, iv. 157. 
•, volcanic rocks of, iv. 142. 188. 190. 
Vera Cruz destroyed by earthquake, ii. 

Verdun, markings on cliffs near, iv. 20. 
Verona, fossils of, i. 34. 38. 60. 

, Arduino on mountains of, i. 72. 

Vertebrated animals in oldest strata, i. 

Vessels, fossil. See Ships. 
Vesta, temple of, i. 299. 
Vesuvius, excavation of tuff on, i. 272. 
, history of, ii. 66. 79. 

., eruptions of, ii. 66. 77. 79. ; iii. 424. 

-, dikes of, ii. 85. ; iv. 5. 7. 

., lava of, ii. 89. 94. 

., volcanic alluvions on, iii. 192. 

and Somma, difference in their 
composition, iv. 4. 

., probable section of, ii. 86. 
Vicentin, Dolomieu on the, i. 87. 
., submarine lavas of the, i. 128. 

, tertiary strata of the, iv. 211. 

Vicenza, mountains of, i. 72. 

Vichy, tertiary oolitic limestone of, iv. 

Vidal, Captain, on Rockall bank, iii. 

Vienna, gypseous springs of, i. 23. 

., tertiary formations of, iii. 339. ; iv 

Vigolano, gypsum and marls at, iv. 54. 
Villages and their inhabitants buried by 

landslips, iii. 200. 
Villarica volcano, ii. 42. 
Villasmonde, limestone of, iii. 385. 
Villefranche, Bay of, strata near, iv. 25. 
Vinegar R., sulphuric acid, &c. in waters 

of, iv. 178. 
Virgil cited, i. 249. 

Virlet, M., on deluge of Samothrace, ii. 

«, on volcanos of Greece, ii. 56. 

-, on greywacke" fossils, i. 201. 

, on island of Santorin, ii. 161. 165, 

■, on corrosion of hard rocks by sub- 
terranean gases, iii. 202. ; iv. 374. 

-, on imbedding of human bones in 
the Morea, iii. 205. 

., on geology of the Morea, iv. 70. 

Viterbo, travertin of, i. 319. 

, tuffs and marls at, iv. 54. § 






Viterbo, volcanic rocks of, iv. 89. 
Vito Amici on Moro's system, i. 67. 
Vivarais, basalts of the, i. 86. 
Vivenzio on earthquake of Calabria in 

1783, ii. 212. 233. 
Viviani, Professor, on Sicilian flora, 

iii. 444. 
, 9 on tertiary strata of Genoa, iv. 


Vizzini, tuff and limestone near, iii. 


., changes caused by a dike of lava 
at, iii. 392. 

•, oyster-bed between two lava cur- 
rents at, iii. 395. 
Volcanic action, defined, ii. 39. 

, uniformity of, iii« 161. 

Volcanic breccias, how formed,, iv. 117. 
Volcanic cones, truncation of, ii. 167. 

., their perfect state no proof of their 

relative age, iii. 164. 

Volcanic conglomerates, iii. 396. 

Volcanic dikes. See Dikes. 

Volcanic eruptions, causes of, ii. 320. 

, average number of, per annum, ii. 

Volcanic formations, fossils in, iii, 

Volcanic lines, modern, not parallel, 

iv. 333. 
Volcanic products, mineral composition 

of, ii. 177. 
Volcanic regions, their geographical 

boundaries, ii. 41. 
, map showing extent of (see 

Plate 3.), ii. 47. 
Volcanic rocks, subterranean, ii. 179. 
, distinction between sedimentary 

and, iii. 313. 

— , distinction between plutonic and, 

iv. 345. 

— , age of, how determined, iii. 321. 

of the Val di Noto, iii. 389. 
of Campania, iv. 1. 
- of Italy, iv. 89. 
of Hungary, Transylvania, and 

Styria, iv. 140. 

of Central France, ii. 170. 175. ; iv. 


— secondary, of many different ages, 


Volcanic vents, remarks on their posi- 
tion, ii. 40. 347. 

Volcanos, safety valves according to 

Strabo, i. 27. 

Volcanos, duration of past time proved 
by extinct, i. 132. 

-, agency of water in, ii. 347. 
— , mode of computing the age of, 

iii. 426. 

sometimes inactive for centuries, 

iii. 427. 

— the result of successive accumu- 

lation, iv. 162. 

Volhynia, tertiary formations of, iv. 132, 

Voltaire, his dislike of geology, i. 96. 

on systems of Burnet and Wood- 
ward, i. 96. 

Volterra, Mattani onTfossils of, i. 60. 

Voltz, M.,on loess of the Rhine, iv. 38. 
Von Buch on rise of land in Sweden, 

i. 216. ; ii. 292. 299. 

on volcanos of Greece, ii. 56. 

on eruption in Lancerote, ii. 139. 

», his theory of elevation craters con- 
sidered, ii. 152. 

on volcanic rocks, ii. 175. 

on new island near Kamtschatka, 

ii. 205. 

— on the Eifel, iv. 126. 

on tertiary formations of Volhynia 

and Podolia, iv. 132. 

on volcanic lines, iv. 333. 

Von Dechen, M., on volcanic district of 

Lower Rhine, iv. 113. 
., on the Hartz mountains, iv. 332. 

, on granite veins, iv. 339. 

Von Hoff. See Hoff. 

Von Oeynhausen on the Eifel district, 

iv. 102. 113. 

on granite veins, iv. 339. 
Vosges, loess near their base, iv. 30. 
Vulcanists, persecution of, in England, 

i. 98. 
Vulcanists and Neptunists, factions of, 

i. 88. 
Vultur, Mount ,Ti i. 57. 
Vultures, range of, iii. 46. 


Waal, R., ii. 3, 4. ". 

Wahlenberg, Professor, on greywack£ 

of Sweden, iv. 300. 
Wales, slate rocks of, iv. 354. 382. 
Wallerius, theory of, i. 79. 
Wallich, Dr., on Ava fossils, i. 50. 
Walton, sections near, iv. 78. 80. 
Walton Naze cliffs, undermined, i. 415. 
Warburton, Mr., on Bagshot sand, iv 







Ward, Mr., on Kentucky caves, iii. 202. 
Warp of the H umber, i. 377. ; ii. 27. 
Warton, his eulogy on Burnet, i. 56. 
Washita, R., raft on, i. 286. 
Water, action of running, i. 261. 
., its power on freezing, i. 262. 
., solvent power of, i. 262. 
, excavating power of, i. 263. 
, transporting power of, i. 264. 
, agency of, in volcanos, ii- 347. 
., absorption of carbonic acid by, iv. 
Watt, Gregory, his experiments on 

rocks, iv. 9. 370. 
Weald, denudation of valley of the, iv. 
221. 259. 
■, secondary rocks of the, iv. 222. 
•, section of valley of the, iv/ 223, 

-, alluvium of valley of the, iv. 234. 

Wealden, secondary group, called the, 

iv. 280. 
., organic remains of the, iv. 281. 286. 

, its extent, thickness, &c, iv. 308. 

Weaver, Mr., on coal of Munster, i. 201. 
Webb, Mr., on the Great Canary, ii. 158. 
Webster, Dr., on hot springs of Furnas, 

i. 328. 
Webster, Mr., on waste of Sussex cliffs, 

i. 423. 
— ~, on geology of I. of Wight, iii. 335. ; 
iv. 253. 260. 

•, on formations of London and 
Hampshire basins, iv. 213. 215. 
., on fossil forest of I. of Portland, 

iv. 284. 
Weddell, Captain, latitude reached by, 

1. I/O. 

Wellington Valley, Australia, fossils in 

breccias in, iv. 43. 
Wells, influence of the tides on, near 
London, i. 301. 

, Artesian, i. 302. 

Wener, Lake, strata near, ii. 300. 
Wenlock rocks, iv. 270, 271. 298. 
Werner, Professor of Mineralogy at 
Freyberg, 1775, i- 81. 
., his lectures, i. 83. 
, universal formations of, i. 84. 
on granite of the Hartz, i. 84. 
■, principal merit of his system, i. 84. 
, his theory of basalt, i. 85. 
, taught that there were no volcanos 
in the primeval ages, i. 85. 
-, technical terms of, i. 103. 
, on transition rocks, iii. 318. 

West Indies, Hooke on earthquake in, 
i. 51. 

, active volcanos in, ii. 46. 

■ , tertiary formations of, iv. 21. 

Wey, transverse valley of the, iv. 238. 

Whales stranded, iii. 266. 

Whewell, Rev. Mr., on modern progress 

of geology, i. 105. 

, on the tides, ii. 10. 

, cited, i. 185. ; iii. 369. 

Whirlwinds, violent, during eruption in 

Sumbawa, ii. 200. 

, dispersion of seeds by, iii. 11. 

Whist on, his Theory of the Earth, i. 56. 
■ , refuted by Keill, i. 58. 

White Mountains, landslips in the, i. 

Whitehurst, theory of, 1778, i. 79. 

, on rocks of Derbyshire, i. 79. 

, on subsidence at Lisbon, ii. 252. 

Whitsunday Island, description of, iii. 

Wiegmann on hybrids, ii. 425, 426. 
Wildon, coralline limestone of, iv. 130. 
Willdenow on diffusion of plants by 

man, iii. 23. 
on centres of vegetable creation, 

iii. 144. 
Williams on Hutton's theory, i. 98. 
Wiltshire, valleys of elevation in, iv, 

Wily, valley of the, iv. 250. 
Winchelsea destroyed by sea, i. 423. 

Winds, trade, i. 188. 389. 

, currents caused by the, i. 385. 

, sand drifted by the, ii. 21. 
Wismar, ii. 288. 
Wodehouse, Captain, on Graham Island, 

ii. 147. 
Wokey Hole, human remains in, iii. 212. 

Wolf, and dog, distinct species, ii. 395. 

, hybrids between the, ii. 424. 

drifted to sea on ice, iii. 41. 
extirpated in Great Britain, iii. 

Wollaston, Dr., on water of Mediter- 
ranean, ii. 15. 

, cited, ii. 112. 

Wood, Mr., on fossils of the Crag, iv. 

72. 74. 
Wood impregnated with saltwater when 

sunk to great depths, iii. 219. 
, drift, i. 161. 284. 287. 365. ; iii. 41. 


converted into lignite, iii. 248. 

Woodward, theory of, i. 54. 59. 96. 118. 







Wrecks, average number of, per year, 

iii 240. 242. 
Wrotham Hill, height of, iv. 224. 


Xanthus, the Lydian, his theory, i. 25. 

Young, Dr., on effects of compression at 

earth's centre, ii. 312. 
Ytrac, freshwater flints at, iv. 159. 


Yaou, flood of, i. 10. 

Yarmouth, estuary silted up at, i. 407. 

, rise of the tide at, i. 381. 407. 

, strata near, iv. 77. 

Yates, Rev. J., on delta of the Kander, 

iv. 69. 
Yellow R., sediment in, i. 366. 

Yenesei R., fossil bones on banks of, i 

Yorkshire, bones of mammoth in, i. 145. 

, waste of its coasts, i. 402. 

, chalk of, iv. 256. 


Zaffarana, valleys near, iii. 410. 
Zante, earthquakes in island of, ii. 214. 
Zechstein formation, iv. 293. 
Zingst peninsula converted into an is- 
land, ii. 12. 

Zocolaro, hill of, lava of Etna deflected 

from its course by, iii. 413. 
Zoological provinces how formed, iii. 79. 
, why not more blended together, 

iii. 82. 

?great extent of, iii. 325. 

Zoophytes, their geographical distribu- 
tion, iii. 61. 

, their powers of diffusion, iii. 61.^ 

, abundance of, iii. 149. 

, which form coral reefs, iii/276. 

Zuyder Zee, formation of, ii. 5. 




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